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New Academic Word List (NAWL)

This page describes the New Academic Word List (NAWL), giving information on what the NAWL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the NAWL.


To explore the list more fully, try the NAWL highlighter (on this site).


What is the NAWL?

The New Academic Word List (NAWL), developed by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joseph Phillips in 2013, is a list of 963 words which frequently appear in academic texts, but which are not contained in the New General Service List (NGSL). The NAWL was developed based on a study of a 288 million word academic corpus, consisting of academic journals, non-fiction, student essays, academic discourse, and best selling academic textbooks. The NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage of words from that corpus (86% for the NGSL and 6% for the NAWL).


While the New Academic Word List (NAWL) is similar to the Academic Word List (AWL), there are several differences. One is that it is more up-to-date. It was designed as an extension of the New General Service List (NGSL), in the same way that the AWL was designed as an extension of the General Service List (GSL). However, while the AWL itself is relatively new (devised in 2000), the GSL it was based on dates from 1953, and is significantly outdated when compared to the NGSL, which, like the NAWL, was developed in 2013 (by the same three researchers).


A second difference is coverage. As noted above, the NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage for the corpus used. This contrasts with only 87% for the GSL and AWL for the same corpus.


A final difference is the presentation of the words. The NAWL includes only inflected forms or variant spellings of words, rather than whole word families, meaning that although it has more headwords than the AWL (963 compared to 570), it has fewer word forms overall (2604 compared to 3112). Many of these word forms are added for completeness (for the benefit of researchers) and are not intended for study (e.g. plurals such as approximatings and compensatings). Additionally, the words are presented as a single list, in contrast to the AWL which is presented in 10 sublists based on frequency.


References

Browne, C., Culligan, B. and Phillips, J. (2013) The New Academic Word List. Available at: http://www.newgeneralservicelist.org/nawl-new-academic-word-list/ (Access date 13/8/19).


New Academic Word List: Alphabetical

The list below contains all 963 headwords in the NAWL, along with related word forms, ordered alphabetically. Standard frequency index (SFI), estimated frequency per million words (U) and dispersion (D) are all shown. The first two are related measures of frequency (higher SFI means higher U, and means the word is more frequent), while dispersion (D) shows how evenly the words are distributed among academic texts (scores closer to 1 mean the word is more equally distributed, and therefore likely to be encountered more regularly, while scores closer to 0 mean the word occurs in fewer different texts, and is therefore likely to be encountered less regularly).


Words contain hyperlinks to the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site (definitions open in an alert box on the same page).


NOTE: As this list is intended for study rather than research purposes, additional (generally rule-based, non-existent plurals) are removed. This reduces the number of words from 2604 to 2198. For a complete list, including those words (alphabetical only), please click here.


There is also a copy of the list according to frequency, and another copy according to dispersion.


Headword    Related word forms    SFI    U    D   
abdominalabdominals50.888120.5733
absorbabsorbed, absorbing, absorbs55.197330.845
absorption55.479350.8391
accelerateaccelerated, accelerates, accelerating54.671290.808
acceleration55.071320.4301
accentaccented, accenting, accents54.904310.7943
accumulateaccumulated, accumulates, accumulating55.566360.9127
accumulationaccumulations55.973400.9129
accuracy58.315680.8824
accurately54.63290.9544
acidacids61.7191490.6212
acidic48.03560.6632
activateactivated, activates, activating58.462700.6435
actively53.924250.895
acute57.723590.556
adaptationadaptations58.308680.7642
adaptive56.439440.8593
adjacent56.556450.8801
admissionadmissions54.844310.8687
adolescentadolescents58.461700.7521
adverse55.387350.6694
aerosolaerosols43.70820.7136
aestheticaesthetics, esthetic, esthetics56.408440.8161
affirmaffirmed, affirming, affirms51.347140.7872
afterwardafterwards51.275130.8644
aggregateaggregated, aggregates, aggregating57.643580.8103
agricultureagricultures56.397440.9032
airplaneaeroplane, aeroplanes, airplanes46.59650.7743
algebraalgebras56.842480.6641
algorithmalgorithms61.2521330.6218
alienaliens52.156160.8875
alliancealliances54.553290.6838
allocateallocated, allocates, allocating54.143260.8308
allocationallocations55.697370.8014
altitudealtitudes50.681120.7922
aluminumaluminium49.867100.7693
amino56.785480.5223
amongst55.515360.8133
amplitudeamplitudes58.308680.7109
analogyanalogies55.392350.9522
ancestorancestors53.712240.8173
anthropologyanthropologies53.282210.3948
anti51.771150.8873
antibioticantibiotics53.276210.5182
antibodyantibodies59.649920.4467
antiquityantiquities51.252130.6143
appendixappendices, appendixes56.838480.8392
applause42.34320.679
appleapples50.807120.923
approximateapproximated, approximates, approximating56.929490.7195
approximationapproximations58.602720.6476
arbitrary57.817600.8984
archaeology57.178520.409
architectarchitects54.109260.6427
arrayarrays57.299540.7561
arrowarrowed, arrowing, arrows56.304430.9056
articulatearticulated, articulates, articulating55.439350.8741
artifactartefact, artefacts, artifacts54.477280.7619
artificial56.221420.9313
artistic53.283210.7334
artworkartworks45.2230.5665
aspectaspects64.192620.9385
assemblyassemblies56.669460.9245
assertasserted, asserting, asserts56.805480.8349
assignmentassignments56.09410.9262
athleticathletics43.6220.7993
atomatoms57.173520.6215
atomic53.775240.6684
auctionauctioned, auctioning, auctions47.75260.4671
audio50.308110.9181
auditaudited, auditing, audits51.017130.6452
authorityauthorities62.5021780.7929
autonomy57.139520.9029
availability56.633460.8715
axiomaxioms53.221210.5937
axis58.672740.6041
backwardbackwards54.031250.9729
bacteria52.311170.5557
bacterial54.733300.4646
bangbanged, banging, bangs44.7730.8544
bargainbargained, bargaining, bargains52.994200.7559
barrelbarreled, barreling, barrelled, barrelling, barrels47.73560.8861
basinbasins54.858310.7141
batbats, batted, batting52.83190.9644
beambeamed, beaming, beams59.017800.585
behavioralbehavioural59.549900.7084
bilingual59.488890.5905
binarybinaries55.168330.665
biodiversity50.153100.7142
biologistbiologists49.56590.8437
biologybiologies57.114510.8118
bizarre47.21650.8821
blankblanked, blanking, blanks50.569110.9188
bleedbled, bleeding, bleeds51.17130.6012
bodily51.446140.8043
bonusbonuses46.04740.5973
boundbounded, bounding, bounds61.1421300.9024
bracketbracketed, brackets, bracketted52.56180.7494
breakdownbreakdowns54.084260.82
broadly54.209260.9034
bubblebubbled, bubbles, bubbling52.573180.8832
bucketbuckets46.68950.5456
bulkbulked, bulking, bulks54.327270.9305
bulletbullets45.32630.8308
bundlebundled, bundles, bundling53.882240.8848
calcium56.669460.6556
calculationcalculations59.182830.8207
calculatorcalculators41.84120.6326
calculus57.014500.6738
campuscampuses47.05350.883
candidatecandidates59.726940.8945
capillarycapillaries52.236170.5262
capitalism53.954250.6964
capitalistcapitalists53.876240.7731
carriercarriers54.47280.8056
cattle56.069400.8624
censorcensored, censoring, censors48.28170.6834
characterizationcharacterisation, characterisations, characterizations56.957500.6323
cheatcheated, cheating, cheats46.02340.9163
cheercheered, cheering, cheers43.8120.777
chemistry53.225210.8533
chemotherapy52.248170.5637
chess43.56420.5698
chloridechlorides50.526110.7616
chromosomechromosomes58.774750.5353
chronic58.07640.5295
chunkchunked, chunking, chunks50.02100.9086
cinemacinemas48.81180.5888
circa43.48820.2579
circulatecirculated, circulates, circulating53.573230.8887
circulation55.629370.8416
civilizationcivilisation, civilisations, civilizations54.785300.7609
clarifyclarified, clarifies, clarifying54.827300.9596
classificationclassifications58.542710.8165
classifyclassified, classifies, classifying57.937620.8752
classroomclassrooms57.072510.6934
clay52.029160.7998
clevercleverer, cleverest47.0350.8907
clickclicked, clicking, clicks49.00480.8023
clientclients56.96500.8043
clinicclinics54.145260.7871
clipclipped, clipping, clippings, clips48.39870.9518
clonecloned, clones, cloning55.741380.5713
closureclosures56.642460.7376
clueclues52.362170.9662
coefficientcoefficients60.8341210.6528
cognitive62.0681610.7067
coherent54.801300.942
collectivecollectives57.824610.8232
colonialcolonials59.37860.7868
colonycolonies56.871490.8483
commacommas47.23650.5475
commentarycommentaries56.292430.7984
commoditycommodities53.805240.8349
commonly58.322680.8139
communicative54.003250.6916
communistcommunists53.467220.7881
compactcompacted, compacting, compacts57.786600.8097
comparable57.333540.8811
comparativecomparatives58.502710.8377
compensatecompensated, compensates, compensating53.779240.9123
competencecompetences56.8480.8107
competent51.528140.8858
complementcomplemented, complementing, complements57.666580.8728
complicationcomplications55.513360.6856
complycomplied, complies, complying51.017130.7746
composercomposers56.92490.5106
composite53.91250.8342
comprehension56.904490.7918
computationcomputations57.915620.7482
conceiveconceived, conceives, conceiving55.644370.8336
conceptionconceptions58.038640.8575
conceptual58.113650.8692
conditionalconditionals57.096510.7908
conduction50.328110.7722
conecones58.244670.7777
conferenceconferences58.044640.9034
configurationconfigurations58.755750.7611
confineconfined, confines, confining55.83380.8796
confoundconfounded, confounding, confounds51.531140.7793
congruent47.98260.4938
connectorconnectors43.19620.5605
connotationconnotations49.55890.687
conscious55.656370.8406
consciousnessconsciousnesses57.241530.773
consensus56.259420.8908
consentconsented, consenting, consents55.934390.7227
conservationconservations56.79480.8688
conserveconserved, conserves, conserving54.358270.8149
consonantconsonants57.118510.7047
constitutionconstitutions55.072320.818
constrainconstrained, constraining, constrains56.789480.8726
consultationconsultations53.832240.5672
consumptionconsumptions59.545900.9168
containercontainers51.495140.8823
continentcontinents53.458220.874
continuitycontinuities57.449560.9258
contourcontoured, contouring, contours55.132330.8732
contradictcontradicted, contradicting, contradicts53.531230.9061
contradictioncontradictions56.053400.8476
contradictory52.518180.8217
contrary57.084510.8472
controversycontroversies55.305340.8725
convergeconverged, converges, converging56.913490.8025
convergenceconvergences57.738590.7781
coordinatecoordinated, coordinates, coordinating59.192830.7647
coordination54.455280.8351
cordcords53.838240.7452
coronary54.101260.5953
corpus57.611580.8295
correctioncorrections56.022400.8795
correctly55.621360.9737
correlatecorrelated, correlates, correlating59.679930.8085
correlationcorrelations61.7611500.861
correspondencecorrespondences58.943780.7311
corruptioncorruptions53.582230.7999
cortexcortexes, cortices58.305680.5937
credibility49.993100.8591
criteria49.64290.8689
critically51.896150.8988
critiquecritiqued, critiques, critiquing56.647460.8113
crudecruder, crudest52.289170.9454
crystalcrystals54.546280.8097
cuecued, cueing, cues56.6460.7658
curecured, cures, curing52.528180.9043
curriculumcurricula, curriculums54.807300.6332
cyclic52.389170.7585
cylindercylinders54.606290.6817
dampdamped, dampest, damping, damps51.978160.7052
deadlinedeadlines44.80830.6281
decaydecayed, decaying, decays55.661370.8148
deceivedeceived, deceives, deceiving46.55950.6828
defectdefected, defecting, defects57.744590.8383
deficiencydeficiencies54.723300.5722
definite55.167330.9637
deflectiondeflections46.57350.563
degradedegraded, degrades, degrading51.515140.861
deliberately52.25170.9049
deltadeltas49.53490.5298
demonstratordemonstrators42.2620.4078
denominatordenominators49.2380.7634
denotedenoted, denotes, denoting62.5711810.7035
densedenser, densest56.491450.8381
dependence58.237670.8486
depictdepicted, depicting, depicts56.61460.788
derivativederivatives56.84480.7859
descendentdescendents38.9210.2082
descriptordescriptors46.49540.2602
destinationdestinations50.462110.877
detection58.103650.8549
developmental61.1711310.7063
deviationdeviations57.786600.7201
diagnosediagnosed, diagnoses, diagnosing54.925310.6806
diagnosis59.844960.6205
diagnosticdiagnostics57.486560.7474
diagramdiagrammed, diagramming, diagrams57.785600.8157
dialectdialects56.884490.7714
diameterdiameters58.256670.6894
diarydiaries52.865190.7785
dictatedictated, dictates, dictating52.435180.9758
dictionarydictionaries55.096320.7628
differentialdifferentials59.041800.9071
differentiatedifferentiated, differentiates, differentiating56.788480.9259
differentiationdifferentiations56.646460.7765
diffusiondiffusions56.827480.8001
dilemmadilemmas54.174260.8712
dilutediluted, dilutes, diluting52.011160.8967
dimensional54.502280.8454
dioxidedioxides51.598140.7879
directivedirectives52.227170.7768
disabilitydisabilities56.073400.8255
disadvantagedisadvantaged, disadvantages, disadvantaging55.045320.9232
dischargedischarged, discharges, discharging56.443440.8758
discoursediscoursed, discourses, discoursing61.5131420.725
discrete57.08510.7083
discriminationdiscriminations55.907390.7152
displacementdisplacements54.804300.528
dissectiondissections48.31870.5207
dissertationdissertations54.116260.8053
dissolvedissolved, dissolves, dissolving53.089200.8942
distributiondistributions65.6653690.6863
disturbancedisturbances57.225530.7012
diverse57.487560.9161
domaindomains63.4672220.8276
dominance55.714370.8831
dominant59.25840.9491
domination51.657150.8
donordonors55.438350.7892
dosedosed, doses, dosing58.711740.4055
draindrained, draining, drains50.892120.8159
driftdrifted, drifting, drifts54.515280.8718
durationdurations59.577910.7303
dyedyed, dyeing, dyes52.027160.9061
dynamicdynamics63.5062240.8548
ecological56.43440.8968
ecologyecologies56.49450.8148
economically51.967160.9061
economisteconomists54.069260.6486
effectiveness57.05510.7654
elaborateelaborated, elaborates, elaborating55.732370.8719
elasticelastics52.487180.6915
elasticityelasticities52.537180.8189
electronelectrons61.4131380.7375
elementary53.881240.8476
elevateelevated, elevates, elevating55.405350.7747
elevationelevations53.792240.7844
eliminationeliminations53.61230.8172
eliteelites58.631730.8796
embedembedded, embedding, embeds57.724590.9091
emergence58.201660.8073
emissionemissions57.265530.8481
emitemits, emitted, emitting51.536140.6208
emperoremperors50.699120.6607
empirical60.1491030.8782
encodeencoded, encodes, encoding58.441700.7687
enforcement52.394170.7283
enormously47.12350.9399
entityentities57.57570.8949
entrantentrants42.9820.3343
enzymeenzymes58.051640.4758
epidemicepidemics53.131210.813
epidemiology53.092200.7838
equalityequalities57.621580.8609
equilibrium59.952990.8522
equivalenceequivalences56.343430.6414
eraseerased, erases, erasing48.67770.8308
essenceessences54.607290.9203
essentially58.934780.9491
estimationestimations57.802600.6642
ethical56.936490.7985
ethicsethic55.981400.8739
evident58.121650.8839
evolutionary57.866610.8318
exexes58.029640.959
executeexecuted, executes, executing54.26270.8167
executionexecutions55.13330.8875
exitexited, exiting, exits53.608230.949
expertiseexpertises53.944250.8926
explicit59.389870.8943
explicitly58.124650.8953
exploitexploited, exploiting, exploits56.397440.9369
exponentialexponentials54.668290.7166
fabricfabrics51.498140.7739
facetfaceted, faceting, facets50.286110.8122
facilitatefacilitated, facilitates, facilitating58.438700.7929
factorialfactorials46.51140.4714
facultyfaculties53.282210.8232
fatiguefatigued, fatigues, fatiguing53.04200.8387
feedbackfeedbacks57.858610.7859
fertility56.559450.8649
fetalfoetal56.908490.6596
feverfevered, fevers52.821190.6019
fiberfibers, fibre, fibres57.559570.682
finfins49.87100.7784
finite61.4781410.6568
fleshfleshed, fleshes, fleshing49.4290.7707
flexibilityflexibilities53.873240.9468
flipflipped, flipping, flips48.00260.8409
fluidfluids61.2111320.7253
fluxfluxed, fluxes, fluxing55.415350.7009
footnotefootnoted, footnotes51.484140.6435
formally54.634290.9221
formulationformulations56.885490.8244
forumfora, forums51.173130.8336
fossilfossils54.503280.7621
foundsfounded, founding50.854120.7791
fractionfractions57.805600.8399
fracturefractured, fractures, fracturing53.209210.6649
freely53.817240.9075
frictionfrictions52.36170.6119
fringefringed, fringes, fringing49.59890.5806
fundamentally52.651180.9356
fungusfungi51.493140.5668
fusionfusions56.797480.7116
gaugegage, gaged, gages, gaging, gauged, gauges, gauging50.665120.725
generalizationgeneralisation, generalisations, generalizations56.546450.8901
generalizegeneralise, generalised, generalises, generalising, generalized, generalizes, generalizing59.029800.8817
genetically52.314170.7537
genetics53.705230.7146
ghostghosted, ghosting, ghosts49.34290.8548
globalizationglobalisation52.189170.544
goatgoats51.538140.8044
goodness51.122130.8276
goods53.194210.5826
gradientgradients57.599580.8521
gramgrams49.85100.7159
grammatical58.317680.7841
graphgraphed, graphing, graphs61.8141520.784
graspgrasped, grasping, grasps54.345270.8878
gravitygravities53.636230.6488
gridgrids54.826300.8788
grossgrossed, grosser, grosses, grossest, grossing53.493220.8746
gutguts, gutted, gutting50.773120.8346
habitathabitats56.092410.8092
halfway44.84830.8811
handouthandouts42.8520.6464
harvestharvested, harvesting, harvests56.205420.8819
hawkhawked, hawking, hawks42.93720.8154
headquarterheadquartered, headquartering, headquarters47.35750.734
hedgehedged, hedges, hedging48.82380.7263
helixhelices, helixes51.735150.5782
hepatitis52.6180.5255
herbicideherbicides46.05740.5087
hierarchyhierarchies57.217530.8814
hiphipped, hips51.859150.5908
historically53.895250.9363
homework44.38530.6791
horizonhorizons53.834240.8727
horizontalhorizontals58.267670.7553
hormonehormones56.006400.4216
hydrogen54.123260.6883
identical59.107810.8939
identificationidentifications59.821960.8097
ideologyideologies58.025630.7745
illusionillusions52.847190.7033
immune56.868490.5585
impactimpacted, impacting, impacts63.4912230.9426
implicit56.895490.8496
importantly54.544280.9183
impulseimpulses54.585290.7986
incidenceincidences58.423700.7332
inclineinclined, inclines, inclining52.424170.7578
inclusion57.292540.791
incredible44.86130.8433
incredibly43.12820.7714
incumbentincumbents50.169100.4165
independently56.717470.9279
indicatorindicators57.895620.9071
indifference48.7270.6389
indigenous56.734470.7638
indirect56.678470.8538
individually52.951200.9608
induceinduced, induces, inducing61.6521460.6917
induction58.419690.7343
industrializationindustrialisation50.403110.8423
industrializeindustrialise, industrialised, industrialises, industrialising, industrialized, industrializes, industrializing49.28480.7247
inequalityinequalities59.111810.7801
inevitably53.959250.8965
infectinfected, infecting, infects58.764750.5584
infectious52.98200.6024
inferenceinferences57.261530.894
inferiorinferiors53.928250.772
infinite57.52560.7727
infinityinfinities52.696190.4949
influential54.616290.8161
informal56.448440.8955
inhibitinhibited, inhibiting, inhibits57.126520.5614
inhibitioninhibitions56.553450.6631
initiateinitiated, initiates, initiating57.151520.7849
initiationinitiations53.836240.7325
injectinjected, injecting, injects54.077260.7819
injectioninjections57.053510.7087
innate51.607140.8893
insectinsects57.042510.8573
insertinserted, inserting, inserts55.717370.8738
instabilityinstabilities57.974630.7541
instinctinstincts49.31990.7739
integralintegrals58.063640.6659
integrationintegrations59.263840.8926
intensityintensities59.938990.7825
intensive54.231260.8824
interactinteracted, interacting, interacts58.098650.9386
interestingly54.84300.9526
interfaceinterfaced, interfaces, interfacing57.726590.7525
interfereinterfered, interferes, interfering53.514220.8829
intermediateintermediated, intermediates58.719740.9136
interruptinterrupted, interrupting, interrupts51.719150.9885
intervalintervals61.621450.6598
interveneintervened, intervenes53.781240.9194
interviewerinterviewers50.812120.6827
invadeinvaded, invades, invading50.843120.8984
invasioninvasions53.966250.912
inversioninversions53.107200.6426
invertinverted, inverting, inverts52.083160.9469
ionions62.1791650.353
irrelevant53.103200.9268
irrigation52.903200.7543
jazzjazzed, jazzes, jazzing51.263130.6465
juniorjuniors49.17980.8123
justificationjustifications55.19330.8533
kidneykidneys52.784190.4214
kilometerkilometers, kilometre, kilometres49.13780.546
lablabs50.397110.776
laterallaterals57.063510.7084
layoutlayouts51.506140.8571
leafleafed, leafing, leafs57.651580.8036
lecturerlecturers47.91760.7238
legendlegends51.016130.7746
legitimatelegitimated, legitimates, legitimating54.705300.8643
leisure52.396170.8209
leverlevered, levering, levers46.50840.7971
lexical60.6171150.638
liable49.828100.5039
lifestylelifestyles52.098160.8994
lifetimelifetimes55.186330.9501
likelihood57.367550.8373
likewise55.462350.911
limblimbed, limbs53.429220.8297
linear62.1191630.7191
linguistic61.7411490.8055
linguistics56.015400.8646
literliters, litre, litres47.43360.7597
liverlivers55.577360.476
locally56.502450.9086
locusloci, locuses58.635730.6736
logical57.032500.9042
longitudinal56.996500.877
looplooped, looping, loops56.846480.7402
lumplumped, lumping, lumps47.7260.9195
lunglungs55.688370.5664
machinerymachineries52.466180.9255
magneticmagnetics58.756750.3962
magnitudemagnitudes57.307540.4386
mallmalls41.24410.3659
manipulatemanipulated, manipulates, manipulating54.561290.983
manipulationmanipulations55.407350.9523
manualmanuals55.259340.9584
manuscriptmanuscripts58.407690.4776
marblemarbled, marbles49.802100.7575
marginal56.96500.7715
markermarkers60.2341060.818
marrow49.33990.4538
maternal58.691740.7085
mathematical57.388550.876
matrixmatrices, matrixes62.1661650.8347
maximizemaximise, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximized, maximizes, maximizing55.557360.8946
meaningful54.942310.8906
mechanicmechanics53.094200.7082
mechanical56.076410.843
media50.882120.8215
mediatemediated, mediates, mediating57.953620.665
membranemembranes60.6751170.4695
memorizememorise, memorised, memorises, memorising, memorized, memorizes, memorizing45.82840.8905
mentormentored, mentoring, mentors47.73160.7554
mercury47.36650.6236
mergemerged, merges, merging54.192260.9255
messengermessengers49.57690.7606
metabolism54.205260.5108
metaphormetaphors55.593360.6544
methodologymethodologies57.595570.8641
micro48.50570.8998
mid57.909620.7867
migratemigrated, migrates, migrating52.697190.8767
migrationmigrations57.39550.8938
millimetermillimeters, millimetre, millimetres44.91630.6104
mineralminerals55.789380.6518
minimalminimals58.279670.8687
minimizeminimise, minimised, minimises, minimising, minimized, minimizes, minimizing56.638460.8573
minusminuses50.361110.3364
missilemissiles45.96740.6937
mobility55.412350.8175
modificationmodifications57.163520.8229
molemoles46.89350.7805
molecularmoleculars61.0191260.7418
moleculemolecules60.3051070.6894
momentummomenta, momentums54.043250.4174
monetary55.471350.6737
monkeymonkeyed, monkeying, monkeys56.124410.802
monopolymonopolies52.128160.7579
morality54.008250.758
morphological57.069510.6219
morphologymorphologies57.76600.8268
mortality59.671930.8164
motifmotifs54.158260.8002
motivemotives54.153260.7111
multi44.38530.9263
multinationalmultinationals47.30650.5437
multiplymultiplied, multiplies, multiplying54.019250.7067
mutationmutations59.374870.6244
mythmyths55.034320.8013
naked48.73170.9359
namely58.728750.8714
nastynastier, nastiest43.17220.7889
nationalism55.394350.7238
neatneater, neatest46.53550.9081
necessitynecessities55.614360.8406
neo43.10620.6806
nestnested, nesting, nests54.507280.8741
neuralneurals58.082640.7287
neuronneurone, neurones, neurons60.6461160.5967
neutralneutrals56.985500.9043
nicely47.72560.8826
nicheniches51.415140.9615
nitrogennitrogens55.37340.8022
noblenobler, nobles, noblest52.34170.796
nodenodes59.781950.7042
noisynoisier, noisiest47.35850.4145
nominal55.727370.8176
non57.257530.9415
nonetheless53.026200.8985
nonlinear57.795600.5734
normnorms59.005800.7154
notationnotations57.412550.7211
novicenovices47.12350.7186
nucleusnuclei59.324860.7257
nullnulled, nulling, nulls56.472440.8094
numericalnumericals58.742750.7445
nutrientnutrients56.497450.5156
objectionobjections54.944310.7648
obscureobscured, obscures, obscuring53.555230.8336
observerobservers56.553450.78
obtainobtained, obtaining, obtains66.5194490.7531
occupationoccupations56.383430.8261
occurrenceoccurrences58.698740.8593
offspring55.636370.7907
onset59.314850.6151
onwards51.795150.8331
opticalopticals53.472220.66
optimaloptimals59.411870.7806
optimum52.828190.8778
oralorals57.91620.5883
organorgans57.603580.584
organismorganisms58.219660.7014
orientoriented, orienting, orients55.736370.9035
orientationorientations59.133820.8098
oscillationoscillations54.585290.6903
outer57.423550.8056
outletoutlets50.88120.9034
overheadoverheads51.165130.4496
overlapoverlapped, overlapping, overlaps58.186660.9286
overviewoverviews56.836480.8886
oxidizeoxidise, oxidised, oxidises, oxidising, oxidized, oxidizes, oxidizing47.40250.6202
oxygen56.89490.7492
painful50.411110.8248
parparred, parring, pars62.3391710.5925
paradigmparadigms57.547570.8911
paradoxparadoxes52.818190.8478
parameterparameters64.3692730.6943
parcelparceled, parceling, parcelled, parcelling, parcels47.92160.7278
pardonpardoned, pardoning, pardons45.04730.8123
parental56.59460.7139
parenthesisparentheses52.347170.7307
partial59.709940.8777
partially56.781480.9002
particleparticles59.587910.6445
partitionpartitioned, partitioning, partitions57.154520.7249
pathwaypathways59.216830.5128
peasantpeasants55.231330.7515
periodicperiodics57.181520.7965
peripheralperipherals55.789380.6894
pestpests53.215210.5434
pesticidepesticides49.73290.5833
phenomenal47.32250.6039
philosopherphilosophers54.954310.7254
philosophical56.777480.7458
phonological59.327860.7183
phosphatephosphates53.639230.4663
photographicphotographics47.80860.7986
physically53.993250.9767
physicianphysicians57.936620.8864
physics53.44220.7527
physiological56.681470.7126
pi56.158410.7709
plannerplanners50.802120.6819
plantationplantations51.848150.5598
plausible55.37340.9036
plugplugged, plugging, plugs48.75580.7262
pluralplurals55.504360.6676
polar54.032250.706
polepoled, poles, poling53.63230.7263
politically53.986250.8357
portfolioportfolios52.133160.6059
portrayportrayed, portraying, portrays53.275210.8334
portrayalportrayals48.26570.6195
positively54.762300.9302
posterposters47.88560.7683
postgraduatepostgraduates45.28730.7296
potassium52.332170.8101
powderpowdered, powdering, powders48.59270.8903
practitionerpractitioners56.391440.8998
pragmaticpragmatics56.341430.7758
pre56.759470.6127
precedepreceded, precedes, preceding59.163820.8294
precipitateprecipitated, precipitates, precipitating50.42110.5078
precipitation50.865120.8163
predatorpredators52.749190.7087
predictionpredictions58.96790.8132
predominantly54.591290.8983
prejudiceprejudiced, prejudices, prejudicing51.8150.7257
preliminarypreliminaries56.779480.8812
presumepresumed, presumes, presuming53.406220.9196
prevalence59.103810.6882
preypreyed, preying, preys52.389170.8427
primerprimers54.348270.6952
primitiveprimitives55.994400.9364
probeprobed, probes, probing57.391550.848
problematic56.034400.8827
processorprocessors51.123130.7037
productive55.682370.8951
productivity56.319430.784
profound53.723240.9517
progressionprogressions54.61290.8002
progressive56.413440.8819
projectionprojections58.258670.8299
prominent56.743470.9076
pronouncepronounced, pronounces, pronouncing54.951310.9357
propositionpropositioned, propositioning, propositions59.126820.7118
protocolprotocols56.421440.8911
protonprotons53.672230.6647
psychiatricpsychiatrics56.65460.6415
psychologistpsychologists52.95200.524
psychologypsychologies57.534570.4573
publishpublished, publishes, publishing62.8971950.9039
pulsepulsed, pulses, pulsing59.014800.7764
punchpunched, punches, punching45.32530.8684
punishpunished, punishes, punishing51.174130.8473
punishmentpunishments54.498280.7758
purely56.067400.9426
puzzlepuzzled, puzzles, puzzling53.621230.9775
qualitative56.538450.8642
quantitative58.011630.8616
quantum54.436280.7487
questionnairequestionnaires56.55450.7999
quizquizzed, quizzes, quizzing47.68160.8021
quotationquotations53.914250.453
rackracked, racking, racks42.42320.2702
radarradars45.87240.554
radiation57.725590.7802
radiusradii56.236420.4862
rainfall53.988250.7648
randomizerandomise, randomised, randomises, randomising, randomized, randomizes, randomizing55.884390.7047
randomly54.956310.7764
rational58.661730.8361
rationality53.385220.8121
rayrays54.371270.7117
reactive52.33170.8825
reactorreactors46.16140.6918
readily56.553450.9114
realism52.282170.7199
realistic53.836240.8851
realmrealms54.899310.8641
receptorreceptors61.361370.5813
reciperecipes46.64650.7547
reconstructreconstructed, reconstructing, reconstructs54.215260.9161
regimeregimes60.5281130.8192
regression59.918980.4909
rehabilitation52.856190.7923
reinforcereinforced, reinforces, reinforcing56.494450.8678
rejectionrejections55.563360.8841
reliability55.75380.8932
renderrendered, rendering, renders56.724470.7904
repertoirerepertoires72.45217590.5923
replacementreplacements55.554360.8435
replicatereplicated, replicates, replicating56.085410.7752
replicationreplications54.871310.6611
reproducereproduced, reproduces, reproducing56.302430.9223
reproductionreproductions55.716370.7821
republicrepublics51.139130.7138
resembleresembled, resembles, resembling55.63370.885
reservoirreservoirs51.49140.7865
residualresiduals56.798480.7373
residueresidues56.279420.5943
resistant54.502280.7806
respiratory53.617230.4175
retrieveretrieved, retrieves, retrieving53.413220.924
revolutionaryrevolutionaries54.203260.7307
rewriterewrites, rewriting, rewritten, rewrote55.265340.9191
rhetoric54.488280.7555
rhythmrhythms55.118320.8657
ridiculous44.41530.7216
ritualrituals56.577450.7428
robotrobots60.0551010.6448
roperoped, ropes, roping47.08250.5624
rotaterotated, rotates, rotating53.812240.6495
rotationrotations57.191520.6532
rubrubbed, rubbing, rubbings, rubs45.94540.8953
rulerrulers53.831240.679
scatterscattered, scattering, scatterings, scatters56.047400.7371
scenarioscenarios57.103510.9494
scholarshipscholarships54.601290.8106
scripturescriptures45.81940.479
scrollscrolled, scrolling, scrolls43.46520.6697
secretesecreted, secretes, secreting51.868150.4664
sedimentsedimented, sedimenting, sediments54.403280.6311
selective56.637460.7322
semanticsemantics62.381730.699
semestersemesters46.32440.8668
semi44.49730.9148
seminarseminars50.37110.6727
sensationsensations52.51180.7831
sensible50.508110.8846
sensitivitysensitivities59.471890.7936
sensory55.852380.6045
separately55.903390.9533
separationseparations57.743590.8895
sexualitysexualities53.225210.9059
shallowshallower, shallowest, shallows52.691190.8842
shortly53.155210.9536
shuttleshuttled, shuttles, shuttling43.76720.6116
similaritysimilarities59.459880.908
simplifysimplified, simplifies, simplifying56.255420.928
simulatesimulated, simulates, simulating56.493450.8666
simulationsimulations60.6421160.723
simultaneously57.234530.8856
sinsinned, sinning, sins58.585720.4986
singular56.917490.743
sketchsketched, sketches, sketching55.193330.8131
skipskipped, skipping, skips47.90760.8904
slabslabs49.10180.7437
slashslashed, slashes, slashing44.46530.7901
slavery53.344220.5699
slotslots, slotted, slotting50.941120.9548
snakesnaked, snakes, snaking49.47190.7712
sneezesneezed, sneezes, sneezing40.81510.8074
sniffsniffed, sniffing, sniffs40.69410.5553
socializesocialise, socialised, socialises, socialising, socialized, socializes, socializing47.16350.5325
socially54.632290.8045
sodium54.597290.785
solar52.604180.338
solublesolubles51.627150.6279
solutesolutes48.37770.6049
solventsolvents49.17780.6174
sometime46.79150.9026
sophisticatesophisticated, sophisticates54.672290.9514
spanspanned, spanning, spans56.893490.9247
spatial60.8861230.9265
specialtyspecialities, speciality, specialties47.20250.7667
specificationspecifications57.947620.7823
specimenspecimens56.813480.918
spectrumspectra, spectrums59.327860.7745
spermsperms58.012630.5381
spherespheres57.993630.7324
splicespliced, splices, splicing50.174100.6478
sponsorshipsponsorships43.28620.2042
spontaneous55.759380.9309
spraysprayed, spraying, sprays48.81980.7682
stabilizestabilise, stabilised, stabilises, stabilising, stabilized, stabilizes, stabilizing53.738240.8843
stackstacked, stacking, stacks54.519280.8698
stadiumstadiums40.6710.5831
stancestanced, stances, stancing53.756240.7683
standardizestandardise, standardised, standardises, standardising, standardized, standardizes, standardizing54.795300.9332
staticstatics55.96390.8396
statistical601000.8734
statistically56.493450.8655
statistics48.05860.8586
stereotypestereotyped, stereotypes, stereotyping53.371220.7121
stimulusstimuli61.4421390.6749
straightforward55.931390.9156
strandstranded, stranding, strands55.015320.6294
strategic55.243330.8145
strictly56.653460.9498
stripestriped, stripes, striping49.18880.9011
subsubbed, subbing, subs50.634120.8787
subjective55.573360.8974
subsetsubsets59.149820.7137
substitutionsubstitutions58.144650.8594
substratesubstrates55.933390.6316
subtlesubtler, subtlest54.148260.9566
subtractsubtracted, subtracting, subtracts50.296110.8419
sufficiently57.734590.9132
suicidesuicides56.197420.7663
super49.916100.9474
superiorsuperiors56.934490.8178
supposedly50.778120.849
surgeonsurgeons49.32890.6627
surgical54.461280.5849
surplussurpluses52.24170.6613
susceptible54.112260.8023
sustainablesustainables52.488180.7717
swapswapped, swapping, swaps46.67450.6789
swellswelled, swelling, swells, swollen50.746120.6989
swordswords47.83260.6093
syllablesyllabled, syllables58.821760.6978
syllabussyllabi, syllabuses46.54350.5816
symbolic56.714470.8553
syndromesyndromes58.505710.5942
syntacticsyntactics59.143820.7046
syntax57.747600.8531
synthesissyntheses58.258670.6046
synthetic52.608180.9031
systematic58.275670.9032
tech42.59120.8544
technically49.64690.9307
temporal59.611910.8431
tempttempted, tempting, tempts50.881120.8315
tensetensed, tenses, tensing56.531450.6318
terminalterminals56.457440.8095
terminologyterminologies54.32270.9573
terribly43.52520.7742
textbooktextbooks53.886240.9504
theoremtheorems61.3191350.564
theoristtheorists54.58290.8438
thereby57.75600.8491
thermalthermals55.466350.8211
thesistheses58.6720.814
thicknessthicknesses55.655370.7007
threadthreaded, threading, threads52.077160.8579
thresholdthresholds58.516710.8934
thumbthumbed, thumbing, thumbs48.03660.8984
tolerancetolerances55.447350.7936
tontons52.591180.9478
toxic51.236130.8106
tracttracts55.59360.5586
traditionally54.283270.8817
traittraits58.974790.6899
trajectorytrajectories58.416690.7451
trans52.946200.9121
transactiontransactions56.757470.6227
transcribetranscribed, transcribes, transcribing52.012160.7182
transcriptiontranscriptions56.502450.5803
transformationtransformations60.9811250.8695
translationtranslations60.6951170.8673
transmissiontransmissions58.718740.8186
transmittransmits, transmitted, transmitting55.651370.8736
transparencytransparencies50.636120.8791
transplanttransplanted, transplanting, transplants53.206210.6095
traumatraumas53.505220.6544
treatytreaties52.86190.7117
tremendous49.48690.9356
triangletriangles54.284270.8107
tribetribes51.989160.826
trickytrickier, trickiest43.89620.807
trivial53.767240.8554
tropical57.782600.8469
tumortumors, tumour, tumours57.567570.5756
turbulent54.437280.654
tutortutored, tutoring, tutors49.932100.7927
ultimate55.098320.954
undergraduateundergraduates51.633150.813
undermineundermined, undermines, undermining55.052320.8327
underneath46.21340.7854
unemployed51.242130.7764
unifyunified, unifies, unifying54.965310.8489
unintelligible43.51220.7767
unityunities56.65460.8057
unstable56.275420.8732
upliftuplifted, uplifting, uplifts48.00660.7132
upwardupwards53.504220.7658
urine51.297130.426
usage56.996500.8052
utilityutilities57.696590.7546
utilizeutilise, utilised, utilises, utilising, utilized, utilizes, utilizing56.699470.9226
utteranceutterances58.441700.7525
vague51.407140.9263
valid57.729590.9334
validity57.181520.9088
valvevalved, valves55.504360.8606
variabilityvariabilities57.431550.8445
variancevariances60.3431080.6696
variantvariants57.888610.8436
vectorvectors61.4311390.5255
vegetation54.315270.7881
veinveined, veining, veins55.365340.5648
velocityvelocities61.6361460.5401
verbal57.644580.8435
verticalverticals57.724590.8186
viable53.435220.7582
virtuevirtues56.788480.7631
vitaminvitamins52.428170.4207
vocabularyvocabularies58.444700.7244
volition44.33330.4814
vowelvowels59.968990.685
watershed47.66260.5699
wavelengthwavelengths54.94310.556
weaveweaved, weaves, weaving, wove, woven50.467110.7078
wheat55.29340.8799
whereby53.717240.9542
whichever45.48940.8961
whoever45.73340.8434
widespread56.802480.907
wisdom52.306170.8144
workshopworkshops54.948310.9045
yeast51.228130.5551


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Author: Sheldon Smith. Last modified: 26 August 2019.