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Economics Academic Word List (EAWL)

This page describes the Economics Academic Word List (EAWL), giving information on what the EAWL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the EAWL.


To explore the list more fully, try the EAWL highlighter (on this site) or the EAWL quizzes (external).


What is the EAWL?

The Economics Academic Word List (EAWL), developed by James O’Flynn at the University of Warwick (UK), is a list of 887 words which frequently appear in economics texts, but which are not contained in the New General Service List (NGSL). The 887 words of the EAWL are divided into 9 lists (called sublists) based on how frequent they are in economics texts. Sublist 1 contains the most frequent, while sublist 9 contains the least frequent. The EAWL makes up around 5.5% of the words in university economics texts in English, based on a corpus study of texts ranging from economics journal articles to economics dissertations.


While the Economics Academic Word List (EAWL) is similar to the Academic Word List (AWL), there are three significant differences which might make it more suitable for students of economics than the AWL. The first is that the EAWL is more up-to-date. It was developed as a specialised extension of the New General Service List (NGSL), which dates from 2013. This contrasts with the AWL, which, although fairly new (devised in 2000), was developed as an extension of the General Service List (GSL), which dates from 1953.


A second difference is coverage. Based on a validation study using the economics papers in the corpus of British Academic Written English (BAWE), the EAWL gives 5.5% coverage of words in texts, and approximately 90% coverage for the NGSL and EAWL combined. While the total for the EAWL is lower than the AWL (which has 10% coverage), it is higher when combined with the NGSL, since the GSL and AWL together have only 87% coverage.


A final difference is that the EAWL comprises fewer word forms than the AWL. The EAWL includes only inflected forms or variant spellings of words, rather than whole word families, meaning that although it has more headwords than the AWL (887 compared to 570), it has fewer word forms overall (1763 compared to 3112). An example is the word justification, which occurs in both lists. In the EAWL, only two forms are included, namely justification and the plural justifications. In the AWL, by contrast, there are a total of nine words in the word family, as follows: justify, justifiable, justifiably, justification, justifications, justified, justifies, justifying, and unjustified. This increase in the number of headwords and reduction in the total number of word forms makes the EAWL more practical and easier to master than the AWL.


References

O'Flynn, J. (2019). 'An Economics Academic Word List (EAWL): Using online resources to develop a subject-specific word list and associated teaching-learning materials', Journal of Academic Language & Learning, Vol. 13(1).


Economics Academic Word List

The list below contains all 887 headwords in the EAWL, along with sublist number, and related word forms. Words contain hyperlinks to the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site (definitions open in an alert box on the same page).



Headword    Sublist    Related word forms   
administrative1
aggregate1aggregated, aggregates, aggregating
agriculture1
allocation1allocations
aspect1aspects
audit1audited, auditing, audits
authority1authorities
best1bested, besting, bests
better1bettered, bettering, betters
calculation1calculations
classification1classifications
client1clients
coefficient1coefficients
cognitive1
cohesion1
comparative1comparatives
competence1competences, competencies, competency
competitiveness1
consumption1consumptions
convergence1convergences
correlate1correlated, correlates, correlating
correlation1correlations
criterion1criteria
cue1cued, cueing, cues
destination1destinations
determinant1determinants
deviation1deviations
diminish1diminished, diminishes, diminishing
distribution1distributions
domain1domains
dynamic1dynamics
economist1economists
empirical1
entity1entities
equilibrium1equilibria
equity1equities
estimation1estimations
facilitate1facilitated, facilitates, facilitating
faculty1faculties
fertility1
fiscal1fiscals
globalization1globalisation
goods1
governance1
gross1grossed, grosses, grossing
heuristic1heuristics
identification1identifications
impact1impacted, impacting, impacts
indicator1indicators
inequality1inequalities
infrastructure1infrastructures
institute1instituted, institutes, instituting
integration1integrations
intensity1intensities
internet1
interval1intervals
keyword1keywords
lag1lagged, lagging, lags
linear1
liquidity1
long-term1
macroeconomic1macroeconomics
managerial1
marginal1marginals
methodology1methodologies
migration1migrations
monetary1
namely1
obtain1obtained, obtaining, obtains
operational1
optimal1
organizational1organisational
orientation1orientations
parameter1parameters
payoff1pay-off, pay-offs, payoffs
portfolio1portfolios
prediction1predictions
privatization1privatisation, privatisations, privatizations
productivity1
profitability1
publish1published, publishes, publishing
qualitative1
questionnaire1questionnaires
regime1regimes
regression1regressions
republic1republics
respondent1respondents
rise1risen, rises, rising, risings, rose
scenario1scenarios
statistical1
statistically1
strategic1
sustainable1
taxation1
technological1
transaction1transactions
utility1utilities
variance1variances
volatility1
zero1zeroed, zeroes, zeroing, zeros
accordance2
accumulation2accumulations
accuracy2accuracies
adoption2adoptions
allocate2allocated, allocates, allocating
annal2annals
appendix2appendices, appendixes
auction2auctioned, auctioning, auctions
auditor2auditors
availability2availabilities
aversion2aversions
bankruptcy2bankruptcies
behavioral2behavioural
benchmark2benchmarked, benchmarking, benchmarks
budgetary2
candidate2candidates
causality2causalities
classify2classified, classifies, classifying
cointegration2
collective2collectives
commodity2commodities
contrary2contraries
coordinate2coordinated, coordinates, coordinating
coordination2
decision-making2
default2defaulted, defaulting, defaults
demographic2demographics
denote2denoted, denotes, denoting
depreciation2depreciations
disclosure2disclosures
dominant2
dummy2dummied, dummies, dummying
duration2durations
econometric2econometrics
economical2
effectiveness2
elaborate2elaborated, elaborates, elaborating
elasticity2elasticities
entrepreneur2entrepreneurs
entrepreneurial2
ethical2
evasion2evasions
explanatory2
favourable2favorable
feedback2
flexibility2
fluctuation2fluctuations
gamble2gambled, gambles, gambling
indirect2
induce2induced, induces, inducing
inflow2inflows
informal2
informatics2
innovative2
intermediate2intermediated, intermediates, intermediating
liberalization2liberalisation
likelihood2
materiality2materialities
matrix2matrixes
maximize2maximise, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximized, maximizes, maximizing
media2
ministry2ministries
mobility2mobilities
necessity2necessities
nominal2
norm2norms
null2nulled, nulling, nulls
orient2orientate, orientated, orientates, orientating, oriented, orienting, orients
paradigm2paradigms
positively2
premium2premiums
productive2
provider2providers
quantitative2
rational2
recession2recessions
regulatory2
remittance2remittances
residual2residuals
respective2
restructure2restructured, restructures, restructuring
risky2riskier, riskiest
short-term2
simulation2simulations
specialization2specialisation, specialisations, specializations
specification2specifications
stakeholder2stakeholders
stimulus2stimuli
subjective2
subsidy2subsidies
superior2superiors
surplus2surpluses
sustainability2
threshold2thresholds
touristic2
transformation2transformations
transparency2
turnover2turnovers
validity2validities
vector2vectored, vectoring, vectors
accession3accessioned, accessioning, accessions
accordingly3
adaptation3adaptations
avoidance3avoidances
beneficiary3beneficiaries
bidder3bidders
bound3bounded, bounding, bounds
capitalism3
cohort3cohorts
collaboration3collaborations
comparable3
compliance3compliances
conceptual3
conditional3conditionals
conference3conferences
considerably3
consolidate3consolidated, consolidates, consolidating
consolidation3consolidations
correction3corrections
corruption3corruptions
creditor3creditors
dependence3
derivative3derivatives
descriptive3
differential3differentials
differentiate3differentiated, differentiates, differentiating
directive3directives
disadvantage3disadvantaged, disadvantages, disadvantaging
discrimination3discriminations
diversification3diversifications
dividend3dividends
emission3emissions
endogenous3
entrepreneurship3
ethic3ethics
excessive3
exploit3exploited, exploiting, exploits
exploitation3exploitations
fascicle3fascicles
formulate3formulated, formulates, formulating
fraud3frauds
geographical3
graph3graphs
horizon3horizons
identical3
imbalance3imbalances
inference3inferences
informational3
inhabitant3inhabitants
initiate3initiated, initiates, initiating
instability3instabilities
insufficient3
intangible3intangibles
intermediary3intermediaries
inventory3inventoried, inventories, inventorying
legislative3
leverage3leveraged, leverages, leveraging
logistic3logistics
long-run3
magnitude3magnitudes
manifest3manifested, manifesting, manifests
manipulation3manipulations
maturity3maturities
merger3mergers
methodological3
minimize3minimise, minimised, minimises, minimising, minimized, minimizes, minimizing
modification3modifications
multinational3multinationals
negatively3
non3
outsource3outsourced, outsources, outsourcing
partial3partials
proposition3propositions
quota3quotas
rationality3
relevance3relevances, relevancies, relevancy
reliability3reliabilities
seller3sellers
separately3
similarity3similarities
simplify3simplified, simplifies, simplifying
simultaneously3
so-called3socalled
socioeconomic3socio-economic
spatial3
supervision3supervisions
systematic3
tariff3tariffed, tariffing, tariffs
territorial3territorials
thereby3
treasury3treasuries
treaty3treaties
underline3underlined, underlines, underlining
unemployed3
usage3usages
utilize3utilise, utilised, utilises, utilising, utilized, utilizes, utilizing
valid3
valuation3valuations
website3web-site, web-sites, websites
worldwide3world-wide
academy4academies
accelerate4accelerated, accelerates, accelerating
accountant4accountants
accumulate4accumulated, accumulates, accumulating
additionally4
agglomeration4agglomerations
algorithm4algorithms
analytical4
anchor4anchored, anchoring, anchors
applicable4
appreciation4appreciations
asymmetric4
asymmetry4asymmetries
attractiveness4
autonomy4autonomies
bargain4bargained, bargaining, bargains
capitalization4capitalisation, capitalisations, capitalizations
causal4
circulate4circulated, circulates, circulating
circulation4circulations
commerce4
commonly4
complementary4
conception4conceptions
confront4confronted, confronting, confronts
consistency4consistence, consistences, consistencies
cooperative4cooperatives
cumulative4
diagnosis4diagnoses
dilemma4dilemmas
disparity4disparities
distortion4distortions
donation4donations
ecological4
elaboration4elaborations
emergence4
endowment4endowments
equality4equalities
exogenous4
explicit4explicits
explicitly4
formulation4formulations
fuzzy4fuzzier, fuzziest
generalize4generalise, generalised, generalises, generalising, generalized, generalizes, generalizing
governmental4
harmonization4harmonisation
hazard4hazards
healthcare4
hedge4hedged, hedges, hedging
heritage4heritages
hierarchy4hierarchies
inclusion4inclusions
intensive4intensives
interdependence4interdependencies, interdependency
lease4leased, leases, leasing
logical4
loyalty4loyalties
mathematical4
median4medians
modernization4modernisation, modernisations, modernizations
neoclassical4
obstacle4obstacles
occupation4occupations
occurrence4occurrences
openness4
optimization4optimisation, optimisations, optimizations
overview4overviews
partially4
pillar4pillars
predictor4predictors
prevail4prevailed, prevailing, prevails
prevention4
profitable4
proxy4proxies
psychology4psychologies
randomly4
realization4realisation, realisations, realizations
renewable4renewables
reorganization4reorganisation, reorganisations, reorganizations
robust4robuster, robustest
seaside4
sensitivity4sensitivities
sphere4spheres
stabilization4stabilisation
standardize4standardise, standardised, standardises, standardising, standardized, standardizes, standardizing
static4statics
stationary4
stipulate4stipulated, stipulates, stipulating
stochastic4
strictly4
substitution4substitutions
systemic4
transmission4transmissions
utilization4utilisation
variability4variabilities
verify4verified, verifies, verifying
violation4violations
virtual4
well-being4wellbeing
workforce4work-force, work-forces, workforces
absorption5
acceptance5acceptances
accessibility5
adverse5
affective5
applicant5applicants
assurance5assurances
authorize5authorise, authorised, authorises, authorising, authorized, authorizes, authorizing
automatic5automatics
beneficial5
bilateral5
borrower5borrowers
capitalist5capitalists
coherence5coherences
coherent5
compensate5compensated, compensates, compensating
comply5complied, complies, complying
conscious5
consensus5consensuses
constrain5constrained, constraining, constrains
continuously5
correctly5
correspondence5correspondences
creativity5
credibility5
cure5cured, cures, curing
debtor5debtors
dependency5dependencies
differentiation5differentiations
diverse5
diversify5diversified, diversifies, diversifying
durable5durables
efficiently5
essence5essences
essentially5
estimator5estimators
evident5
ex5
excellence5excellences
exclusively5
execution5executions
existent5
expertise5expertised, expertises, expertising, expertize, expertized, expertizes, expertizing
externality5externalities
fairness5
finite5
foster5fostered, fostering, fosters
horizontal5horizontals
implicitly5
incomplete5
inefficient5
infer5inferred, inferring, infers
insignificant5
interact5interacted, interacting, interacts
leisure5
lottery5lotteries
manipulate5manipulated, manipulates, manipulating
maximization5maximisation
minimal5
monopoly5monopolies
mortality5mortalities
municipality5municipalities
normative5
numerical5
optimum5optimums
organism5organisms
parliament5parliaments
passive5passives
persistence5
practically5
precede5preceded, precedes, preceding
projection5projections
quantify5quantified, quantifies, quantifying
quarterly5quarterlies
realistic5
regulator5regulators
retailer5retailers
rhythm5rhythms
sectoral5
solvency5
sophisticate5sophisticated, sophisticates, sophisticating
sovereign5sovereigns
speculative5
spite5spited, spites, spiting
subordinate5subordinated, subordinates, subordinating
subsidiary5subsidiaries
substantially5
sufficiently5
tab5tabbed, tabbing, tabs
taxpayer5tax-payer, tax-payers, taxpayers
theorem5theorems
trade-off5trade-offs, tradeoff, tradeoffs
trader5traders
transmit5transmits, transmitted, transmitting
uncertain5
variant5variants
vertical5verticals
vocational5
vulnerability5vulnerabilities
willingness5
accessible6
accomplishment6accomplishments
accountability6
accountancy6
assembly6assemblies
autocorrelation6autocorrelations
autonomous6
axis6axes
bubble6bubbles
certificate6certificated, certificates, certificating
communist6communists
compatible6compatibles
completion6completions
compulsory6
configuration6configurations
conservation6
consistently6
contagion6contagions
continuity6continuities
conversion6conversions
cooperate6cooperated, cooperates, cooperating
costly6
cross-border6
cyclical6
decentralization6decentralisation
decisional6
decisive6
decomposition6decompositions
deficiency6deficiencies
desirable6desirables
dominance6
economically6
elimination6eliminations
empirically6
enforcement6enforcements
engagement6engagements
evolutionary6
exclusion6exclusions
exporter6exporters
federation6federations
fraction6fractions
frontier6frontiers
geographic6
heterogeneity6
hierarchical6
hypothetical6hypotheticals
immaterial6
implicit6
inadequate6
incur6incurred, incurring, incurs
indebtedness6
independently6
indirectly6
integrative6
intuition6intuitions
intuitive6
linkage6linkages
macro6macros
mandatory6mandatories
mediate6mediated, mediates, mediating
micro6micros
microeconomic6microeconomics
migrant6migrants
modest6
motive6motives
multiplier6multipliers
neutral6neutrals
numeracy6
permanently6
philosophical6
preliminary6preliminaries
profitableness6
pronounce6pronounced, pronounces, pronouncing
propensity6propensities
prosperity6
protocol6protocols
punishment6punishments
reception6receptions
recipient6recipients
recruitment6
relational6
remuneration6remunerations
residence6residences
restrictive6
rotation6rotations
separation6separations
supervisory6
symmetric6
tangible6tangibles
target-cost6target-costs
telecommunication6telecommunications
temporal6
textile6textiles
transparent6
unity6unities
upward6upwards
viable6
vulnerable6
widespread6wide-spread
workplace6workplaces
adaptive7
adequacy7adequacies
alpha7alphas
ambiguous7
artificial7
augment7augmented, augmenting, augments
beta7betas
binary7binaries
born7
centralize7centralise, centralised, centralises, centralising, centralized, centralizes, centralizing
certainty7certainties
certification7certifications
certify7certified, certifies, certifying
coalition7coalitions
collateral7collaterals
computation7computations
conceive7conceived, conceives, conceiving
conformity7
deterioration7deteriorations
devaluation7devaluations
diagnostic7diagnostics
diagram7diagramed, diagraming, diagrammed, diagramming, diagrams
dictator7dictators
disposal7disposals
distress7distressed, distresses, distressing
downward7downwards
e-learning7elearning
eligible7
enlargement7enlargements
exit7exited, exiting, exits
expectancy7expectancies
exponential7
forum7forums
globally7
gradual7graduals
guidance7
heterogeneous7
homogeneous7homogenous
hydro7hydros
importantly7
impulse7impulses
incidence7incidences
individually7
industrialize7industrialise, industrialised, industrialises, industrialising, industrialized, industrializes, industrializing
inherent7
interface7interfaced, interfaces, interfacing
internationalization7internationalisation
internationally7
intrinsic7
inverse7inverses
irrespective7
juridical7
justification7justifications
knowledge-based7
latent7
liberty7liberties
mainstream7mainstreamed, mainstreaming, mainstreams
manifestation7manifestations
merchandise7merchandised, merchandises, merchandising, merchandize, merchandized, merchandizes, merchandizing
oblige7obliged, obliges, obliging
odds7
offset7offsets, offsetting
omit7omits, omitted, omitting
ongoing7
oracle7oracles
paradox7paradoxes
parity7parities
placement7placements
practitioner7practitioners
problematic7
profound7
progressive7progressives
proportional7
p-value7p-values
receipt7receipted, receipting, receipts
rejection7rejections
replacement7replacements
residential7
sequential7
short-run7
simultaneous7
socially7
solely7
solidarity7
specificity7specificities
standardization7standardisation, standardisations, standardizations
stimulation7stimulations
stipulation7stipulations
synthesis7syntheses
systematically7
taxable7
tertiary7tertiaries
theoretically7
thesis7theses
ton7tonne, tonnes, tons
transnational7trans-national, trans-nationals, transnationals
underground7undergrounded, undergrounding, undergrounds
verbal7verballed, verballing, verbals
well-known7wellknown
yearly7
abnormal8
accurately8
actively8
afterward8afterwards
aggregation8aggregations
alliance8alliances
ambiguity8ambiguities
amenity8amenities
annually8
anonymous8
appraisal8appraisals
assignment8assignments
backward8backwards
bibliography8bibliographies
bold8bolder, boldest
bureaucracy8bureaucracies
census8censuses
cognition8cognitions
collaborative8
compensatory8
competent8
composite8composited, composites, compositing
constitution8constitutions
contingent8contingents
contractual8
conversely8
covariance8covariances
dataset8datasets
diffusion8
discourse8discoursed, discourses, discoursing
dispersion8dispersions
disposable8disposables
dual8dualed, dualing, dualled, dualling, duals
e-government8e-governments
embed8embedded, embedding, embeds
exclusive8exclusives
feasible8
financially8
formally8
functionality8functionalities
generic8generics
handicap8handicapped, handicapping, handicaps
harmful8
immigration8
imperfect8
inability8inabilities
inconsistent8
incorrect8
inefficiency8inefficiencies
inflationary8
insolvency8insolvencies
integrity8
intelligent8
interactive8
interbank8
intercept8intercepted, intercepting, intercepts
intertemporal8
lecturer8lecturers
machinery8machineries
medium-sized8medium-size
mentality8mentalities
mineral8minerals
minus8minuses
mismatch8mismatched, mismatches, mismatching
mutually8
nonetheless8
occupational8
outflow8outflows
outstanding8
penetration8penetrations
persistent8
pi8pis
plausible8
predictive8
probabilistic8
promotional8
proximity8
prudential8
purely8
pursuit8pursuits
redistribution8redistributions
repayment8repayments
robustness8
satisfactory8
seasonal8
semester8semesters
socialist8socialists
sovereignty8sovereignties
specialty8specialities, speciality, specialties
subset8subsets
supervisor8supervisors
tempo8tempos
traditionally8
unchanged8
unconscious8
unexpected8
unstable8
usefulness8
viewpoint8viewpoints
whereby8
absent9absented, absenting, absents
adequately9
adherence9adherences
afferent9afferents
alternatively9
approximation9approximations
arbitrary9
autoregressive9
baseline9baselines
broadly9
bureaucratic9
calendar9calendars
compatibility9
contextual9
continental9continentals
contraction9contractions
contradictory9
cotton9cottoned, cottoning, cottons
credible9
cross-sectional9
deregulation9deregulations
detection9detections
deterministic9
discretion9discretions
discretionary9
distinctive9
documentation9
electoral9
endogeneity9
exploratory9
graphical9
hospitality9
hybrid9hybrids
inappropriate9
inevitable9
inferior9inferiors
influential9influentials
integral9integrals
intermediation9
interpersonal9
irrational9
judicial9
know-how9
lemma9lemmas, lemmata
lesser9
likewise9
literacy9literacies
max9maxed, maxes, maxing
meaningful9
measurable9measurables
metropolitan9
multitude9multitudes
multivariate9
municipal9
non-linear9
notable9notables
optimistic9
poorly9
predominantly9
preservation9
prominent9
prospective9
prudent9
publicly9
reciprocity9
rehabilitation9rehabilitations
rigorous9
scarce9scarcer, scarcest
segmentation9segmentations
selective9
serial9serials
simplicity9simplicities
societal9
solar9solars
sole9soled, soles, soling
stationarity9
successive9
supplementary9
surveillance9
synergistic9
synthetic9synthetics
thorough9
transitional9
translation9translations
ultimate9ultimates
unitary9
volatile9


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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 27 August 2019.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.



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