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The Academic Collocation List (ACL)Common academic collocations

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This page describes the Academic Collocation List (ACL), explaining what it is and giving a full list of collocations in the ACL, sorted by headword. There is also, in another section, an ACL highlighter which can be used to highlight ACL words in a text, as well as an ACL mind map creator.

What is the ACL?


For another look at the same content, check out YouTube or Youku, or the infographic. There is a worksheet (with answers and teacher's notes) for this video.

The Academic Collocation List (ACL) is a list containing 2,469 of the most frequent and useful collocations which occur in written academic English. It can be seen as a collocational companion to the Academic Word List (AWL), consisting of collocations (or word combinations) rather than single words.

The ACL was developed by Kirsten Ackermann and Yu-Hua Chen using the Pearson International Corpus of Academic English (PICAE), with advice from English teaching experts to ensure the collocations chosen would be useful to students of English. The ACL gives around 1.4% coverage of words in academic English (based on the source corpus used in the study). In contrast, the same collocations give only 0.1% coverage for a general corpus, showing they are indeed much more common in academic than general English.

Many of the words in the ACL are also contained in the AWL, e.g. alternative approach appears in the ACL, and both of these words appear in the AWL. However, there are many word combinations which are very common in academic writing which contain one word or no words from the AWL, such as generally agree (both of these words actually appear in the GSL). Studying collocations is an important way to build up your academic vocabulary, and the Academic Collocation List is one possible tool to help you do this.


Check out the Quizzes section for exercises to practise using words in the ACL.

The Academic Collocation List

The 2,469 collocations in the ACL are listed below. The list has been adapted for this website by collecting collocations under headwords, in the same way that words in the AWL are categorised. In addition, the collocations have been listed under both of the headwords they contain in order to make them easier to find. This means, for example, that the collocation great accuracy appears both under the headword great and the headword accurate. The collocation accurate description likewise appears under accurate, as well as under the headword describe. This means each collocation appears twice in the list, once for each headword. Where words occur in the AWL, the AWL headword has been used, e.g. the AWL headword for academic is academy.

There are three versions of this list on the website:

Headword    Collocations   
abilitycognitive ability
abstractabstract concept
abusesexual abuse
academy(in) academic circles, academic achievement, academic career, academic community, academic debate, academic discipline, academic discourse, academic institution, academic journal, academic life, academic performance, academic research, academic skills, academic study, academic success, academic work, academic world, academic writing, academic year
acceptaccept responsibility, acceptable behaviour, socially acceptable, widespread acceptance, (be) commonly accepted, (be) generally accepted, (be) universally accepted, (be) widely accepted
accessallow access (to), deny access (to), direct access, easy access, electronic access, equal access, free access, gain access (to), give access (to), have access (to), internet access, limited access, online access, open access, provide access (to), public access, ready access, unlimited access, easily accessible, readily accessible
accountbrief account, comprehensive account, historical account
accurategreat accuracy, accurate assessment, accurate description, accurate information, accurate measurement, accurate picture, accurate record
achieveachieve (a) goal, achieve (an) objective, achieve (an) outcome, academic achievement
acquireacquire knowledge, newly acquired
actsexual act, appropriate action, collective action, legal action, military action, positive action, active involvement, active participant, active participation, active role, (be) actively involved, political activism, commercial activity, cultural activity, economic activity, engage in (an) activity, human activity, learning activity, physical activity, political activity, professional activity, related activity, social activity, undertake (an) activity
acuteparticularly acute, acutely aware
addadd information
additionaladditional cost, additional information, additional problem, additional resources, additional support
addressaddress (an) issue
adjuststructural adjustment, make adjustments
administratepublic administration, administrative practices
adoptadopt (a) procedure, adopt (an) approach, (be) widely adopted
advanceadvanced economy, advanced technology, technological advances
advantagemajor advantage
adverseadverse effect, adverse reaction, adversely affect
affaireconomic affairs, financial affairs, internal affairs
affectaffect (the) development (of), affect (the) outcome, adversely affect, directly affect, severely affect, significantly affect, (be) directly affected
agencyfederal agency, regulatory agency
agendapolitical agenda, set (the) agenda
agreegenerally agree, strongly agree, broad agreement, general agreement, international agreement, reach (an) agreement, strongly disagree
aimoverall aim, primary aim
allocateallocate resources
allowallow access (to)
ally(be) closely allied (to, with)
almostalmost identical
alternativealternative approach, alternative explanation, alternative form, alternative interpretion, alternative means, alternative method, alternative model, alternative solution, alternative source, alternative strategy, alternative view, alternative way, provide (an) alternative
amount(a) considerable amount (of), (a) huge amount (of), (a) significant amount (of), (a) substantial amount (of), (a) vast amount (of), (an) enormous amount (of)
ampleample evidence
analysecareful analysis, comparative analysis, conduct (an) analysis, critical analysis, detailed analysis, economic analysis, final analysis, full analysis, further analysis, historical analysis, qualitative analysis, quantitative analysis, statistical analysis, subsequent analysis, systematic analysis, textual analysis, thematic analysis, theoretical analysis, use (the) analysis, analytical approach, analytical tool
ancestorcommon ancestor
anecdotalanecdotal evidence
annualannual conference, annual meeting, annual rate, annual report, annual review
answerfinal answer
apparentbecome apparent, immediately apparent, particularly apparent
appearancephysical appearance
applyapply (a) method, apply (the) theory, apply equally
approachadopt (an) approach, alternative approach, analytical approach, common approach, comprehensive approach, critical approach, develop (an) approach, flexible approach, general approach, holistic approach, integrated approach, logical approach, methodological approach, qualitative approach, quantitative approach, similar approach, standard approach, systematic approach, take (an) approach, theoretical approach, traditional approach, use (an) approach
appropriateappropriate action, appropriate behaviour, appropriate conditions, appropriate data, appropriate form, appropriate language, appropriate level, appropriate point, appropriate response, appropriate skills, appropriate treatment, appropriate way, consider appropriate, deem appropriate, particularly appropriate, seem appropriate, respond appropriately
areacomplex area, core area, cover (an) area, geographic(al) area, identify (an) area, key area, local area, main area, major area, metropolitan area, particular area, problem area, related area, rural area, specific area, subject area, urban area, vast area, whole area, wide area
arenapolitical arena
argumentcompelling argument, counter argument, develop (an) argument, general argument, logical argument, main argument, make (an) argument, present (an) argument, similar argument, support (an) argument, valid argument
armedarmed conflict
arrangementinstitutional arrangement, make arrangements
array(a) vast array (of), (a) wide array (of)
articlepublish (an) article
artificialartificial intelligence
aspectcertain aspect, consider (an) aspect, cultural aspect, focus on (an) aspect, fundamental aspect, general aspect, key aspect, negative aspect, particular aspect, positive aspect, related aspect, social aspect, specific aspect, technical aspect, various aspects
assessassess (the) impact (of), assessment process, accurate assessment, make (an) assessment, risk assessment
assign(be) randomly assigned (to)
assistfinancial assistance, medical assistance, provide assistance, technical assistance
associateassociated factors, (be) closely associated (with), (be) commonly associated (with), (be) positively associated (with), (be) strongly associated (with)
assumeassume (the) role (of), assume responsibility, (be) generally assumed, basic assumption, common assumption, fundamental assumption, make (an) assumption, underlying assumption, certain assumptions
atomatomic energy
attemptdeliberate attempt
attendattend (a) conference
attentioncareful attention, considerable attention, critical attention, draw attention (to), focus attention (on)
attitudechange (an) attitude, negative attitude, positive attitude, changing attitudes, cultural attitudes, public attitudes, social attitudes
audiencetarget audience, wider audience
authorfirst author, original author
authoritycentral authority, exercise authority, local authority, political authority, public authority
autonomygreater autonomy, relative autonomy
availableavailable data, available evidence, available information, available resources, become available, currently available, freely available, make available, publicly available, readily available, widely available
averageaverage score, national average
awareacutely aware, become aware, fully aware, increasingly aware, keenly aware, make aware, well aware, greater awareness, growing awareness, increase awareness, increased awareness, increasing awareness, public awareness, raise awareness
backgroundbackground knowledge, cultural background, diverse background, historical background, social background
base(be) largely based (on), basic assumption, basic component, basic concept, basic element, basic function, basic information, basic premise, basic principle, basic research, basic structure, basic technique, legal basis, theoretical basis
bearbear resemblance (to)
becomebecome (a) source (of), become (the) focus (of), become apparent, become available, become aware, become blurred, become established, become evident, become independent, become involved (with/in), become obvious, become visible, become widespread
beginbegin (a) process
behavebehave differently, acceptable behaviour, appropriate behaviour, human behaviour, individual behaviour, sexual behaviour, social behaviour
beliefreligious belief, widespread belief, (be) widely believed
benefitbeneficial effect, provide (a) benefit, economic benefits, potential benefits
best(be) best described (as, in terms of)
binarybinary opposition, binary system
biologicalbiological evolution, biological science, biological sex
blurbecome blurred
bodyinternational body, professional body
bondstrong bond
boundaryclear boundary, cultural boundary, national boundary
briefbrief account, brief description, brief discussion, brief history, brief introduction, brief overview, brief period, brief review, brief summary, brief time, briefly describe, briefly discuss
broad(a) broad range (of), broad agreement, broad category, broad definition, broad spectrum, broader context, (be) broadly defined, broadly similar
businessbusiness sector, business transaction
call(be) commonly called
capacitylimited capacity
capitalismglobal capitalism, industrial capitalism, capitalist country, capitalist economy, capitalist society, capitalist system, capitalist world
careprimary care, provide care, careful analysis, careful attention, careful consideration, careful thought, (be) carefully controlled, (be) carefully selected
careercareer development, career opportunity, academic career
carrycarry information
carry outcarry out (the) task, carry out research (of)
casecivil case, exceptional case, individual case, specific case
castcast doubt (on)
categorybroad category, fall into (the) category (of), general category, main category
causalcausal link, causal relation, causal relationship
causecause consequences, cause stress, major cause, underlying cause
centrecentral authority, central concept, central concern, central control, central core, central feature, central focus, central government, central importance, central issue, central part, central point, central position, central problem, central question, central role, central tenet, central theme, urban centre
certaincertain aspect, certain assumptions, certain characteristics, certain circumstances
challengeface (a) challenge, major challenge, pose (a) challenge, present (a) challenge, serious challenge
changechange (an) attitude, change constantly, change dramatically, change rapidly, climate change, cultural change, demographic change, dramatic change, economic change, fundamental change, historical change, major change, minor change, radical change, significant change, structural change, technological change, environmental changes, changing attitudes, changing circumstances, changing nature, changing needs, changing pattern, changing world, ever changing, rapidly changing, remain unchanged
chapterfinal chapter, following chapter, introductory chapter, opening chapter, preceding chapter, previous chapter, subsequent chapter
characteristiccharacteristic feature, common characteristic, defining characteristic, key characteristic, salient characteristic, specific characteristic, certain characteristics, demographic characteristics, individual characteristics, main characteristics, physical characteristics, similar characteristics
charge(be) highly charged
chemicalchemical reaction
chooseindividual choice, personal choice, (be) randomly chosen
circle(in) academic circles
circumstancecertain circumstances, changing circumstances, exceptional circumstances, historical circumstances, local circumstances, personal circumstances, political circumstances, social circumstances, special circumstances
cite(be) frequently cited
civilcivil case, civil society
classclass consciousness, lower class, ruling class
classicclassic example, classic study, classic text, classic work, classical theory
clearclear boundary, clear distinction, clear evidence, clear focus, clear indication, clear relationship, clear statement, clear structure, entirely clear, fairly clear, (be) clearly defined, (be) clearly demonstrated, (be) clearly established, (be) clearly identified, (be) clearly related (to), clearly evident, clearly important, clearly understand, clearly visible, remain unclear
climateclimate change, current climate, political climate, climatic conditions
closeclose contact, close proximity, close relationship, close scrutiny, (be) closely allied (to, with), (be) closely associated (with), (be) closely connected (to, with), (be) closely linked (to, with), (be) closely related (to), (be) closely tied, closely resemble, (on/upon) closer inspection, (upon, on) closer examination, closer look
clueprovide (a) clue
cognitivecognitive ability, cognitive development, cognitive skills
collaborativecollaborative learning
colleagueprofessional colleague
collectcollect data, collect information, collective action, collective identity, collective memory
combinecombined effect
come intocome into conflict (with)
come into come into contact (with)
commentmake (a) comment, written comment
commercialcommercial activity, commercial transaction
commitcommit (a) crime, commit (an) offence
commoncommon ancestor, common approach, common assumption, common characteristic, common culture, common error, common feature, common goal, common method, common source, common theme, common usage, fairly common, increasingly common, relatively common, (be) commonly accepted, (be) commonly associated (with), (be) commonly called, (be) commonly encountered, (be) commonly found (in), (be) commonly known (as), (be) commonly referred (to) (as), (be) commonly used
communicatecommunicate effectively, direct communication, effective communication, electronic communication, personal communication, verbal communication, written communication
communityacademic community, ethnic community, international community, local community, rural community, scientific community, virtual community, wider community
comparecomparative analysis, comparative research, comparative study
compelcompelling argument, compelling evidence, compelling reason
competeincreased competition, competitive market, competitive pressure, highly competitive
competencedemonstrate competence
completecomplete (a) task
complexcomplex area, complex interaction, complex issue, complex pattern, complex problem, complex process, complex question, complex relationship, complex set, complex situation, complex structure, complex system, extremely complex, highly complex, increasingly complex, increasing complexity
componentbasic component, essential component, fundamental component, individual component, key component, main component, major component
comprehensivecomprehensive account, comprehensive approach, comprehensive overview, comprehensive review, comprehensive system
concentratehigh concentration
conceptabstract concept, basic concept, central concept, defining concept, key concept, theoretical concept, use (the) concept concept, conceptual framework
concerncentral concern, environmental concern, major concern, primary concern, (be) mainly concerned (with), (be) particularly concerned (with), (be) primarily concerned (with)
concertedconcerted effort
concludeconcluding remarks, concluding section, draw (a) conclusion, general conclusion, lead to (the) conclusion, logical conclusion
conditionsufficient condition, conditional probability, appropriate conditions, climatic conditions, create conditions, economic conditions, experimental conditions, living conditions, natural conditions, normal conditions
conductconduct (a) study, conduct (a) survey, conduct (an) analysis, conduct (an) interview, conduct research
conferannual conference, attend (a) conference, hold (a) conference, international conference, national conference
confine(be) largely confined (to)
conflictconflict resolution, armed conflict, come into conflict (with), internal conflict, political conflict, potential conflict, resolve (a) conflict, social conflict, conflicting interests
connect(be) closely connected (to, with), (be) directly connected (to, with), (be) intimately connected (to, with)
connotationnegative connotation, positive connotation
consciousnessclass consciousness, political consciousness
consentgeneral consensus, political consensus, reach (a) consensus, give consent, informed consent
consequentcause consequences, direct consequences, economic consequences, environmental consequences, have consequences, negative consequences, political consequences, possible consequences, serious consequences, social consequences, unintended consequences
considerconsider (a) possibility, consider (an) aspect, consider (an) issue, consider (the) impact (of), consider (the) implications, consider (the) role (of), consider appropriate, consider relevant, careful consideration, ethical consideration, further consideration, give consideration, political consideration, practical consideration, require consideration, take into consideration, (be) generally considered
considerable(a) considerable amount (of), (a) considerable degree (of), (be of) considerable importance, (in) considerable detail, (to a) considerable extent, considerable attention, considerable debate, considerable effort, considerable evidence, considerable influence, considerable interest, considerable research, considerable support, considerable variation, differ considerably, vary considerably
consistconsistent pattern, consistent results
constantconstant rate, relatively constant, remain constant, change constantly
constituteconstituent elements, constituent parts
constrainimpose constraints
constructsocial construct, (be) socially constructed
contactclose contact, come into contact (with), direct contact, first contact, maintain contact, make contact, personal contact, physical contact, sexual contact, social contact
containcontain (an) element, contain information
contemporarycontemporary debate, contemporary issue, contemporary life, contemporary society, contemporary world
contextbroader context, cultural context, economic context, global context, historical context, institutional context, international context, original context, political context, present context, provide context, social context, specific context, wider context, contextual factors
continuecontinued existence, continued growth, continued use, continuous process
contrastmarked contrast, sharp contrast, stark contrast, striking contrast
contributecontribute significantly, contribute to (the) development (of), major contribution, make (a) contribution, significant contribution
controlcentral control, government control, internal control, personal control, (be) carefully controlled, (be) tightly controlled
controversycontroversial issue, highly controversial
conveneconventional view, conventional wisdom
conveyconvey (a) message, convey information, convey meaning
convinceconvincing evidence
copecoping strategy
corecore area, core element, core issue, core skills, core value, central core
correctcorrect (an) error, correct interpretation, politically correct
correlate(be) highly correlated (with), (be) negatively correlated (with), (be) positively correlated (with), (be) significantly correlated (with), (be) strongly correlated (with), high correlation, negative correlation, positive correlation, significant correlation, significant correlation, strong correlation
costadditional cost, rising cost
countercounter argument
countrycapitalist country, industrial country, industrialized country
covercover (a) range (of), cover (a) topic, cover (an) area, media coverage, provide coverage
createcreate (an) environment, create (an) impression, create (an) opportunity, create conditions, create opportunities, create problems, newly created, creative process, creative thinking, creative work
crimecommit (a) crime, criminal offence
crisiseconomic crisis
criteriameet criteria, objective criteria, use criteria
criticalcritical analysis, critical approach, critical attention, critical essay, critical evaluation, critical examination, critical factor, critical importance, critical inquiry, critical introduction, critical issue, critical perspective, critical point, critical reflection, critical review, critical role, critical scrutiny, critical theory, critical thinking, critical writing, highly critical, critically evaluate, radical critique
crucialcrucial difference, crucial factor, crucial importance, crucial part, crucial point, crucial question, crucial role
culturecultural activity, cultural aspect, cultural attitudes, cultural background, cultural boundary, cultural change, cultural context, cultural differences, cultural dimension, cultural diversity, cultural factors, cultural heritage, cultural history, cultural identity, cultural influence, cultural institution, cultural issue, cultural life, cultural norm, cultural perspective, cultural phenomenon, cultural practice, cultural significance, cultural theory, cultural tradition, cultural values, culturally specific, common culture, dominant culture, global culture, local culture, modern culture, national culture, political culture, popular culture, traditional culture
currencyforeign currency, single currency
currentcurrent climate, current issue, current policy, current research, current status, current technology, current trend, currently available
customerpotential customer
dailydaily living
damageenvironmental damage
dangerouspotentially dangerous
datadata gathering, data set, appropriate data, available data, collect data, empirical data, existing data, experimental data, extract data, gather data, historical data, interpret data, missing data, numerical data, obtain data, original data, preliminary data, present data, primary data, process data, provide data, qualitative data, quantitative data, raw data, record data, relevant data, reliable data, report data, secondary data, statistical data, store data, survey data, transmit data, use (the) data data, online database
dealdeal (with an) issue
deathpremature death
debateacademic debate, considerable debate, contemporary debate, heated debate, ongoing debate, political debate, public debate, theoretical debate
decadenext decade, previous decade, early decades, recent decades
decidefinal decision, major decision, strategic decision
deemdeem appropriate, deem necessary
deep(a) deep understanding (of), (at/on a) deeper level, (be) deeply embedded, (be) deeply rooted
define(be) broadly defined, (be) clearly defined, defining characteristic, defining concept, defining feature, broad definition, general definition, narrow definition, precise definition, use (the) definition
degradationenvironmental degradation
degree(a) considerable degree (of), (a) higher degree (of), (a) significant degree (of), varying degree
deliberatedeliberate attempt
demandincreased demand, increasing demand
democracyliberal democracy, social democracy, western democracy, democratic institution, democratic process, democratic society, democratic state
demographicdemographic change, demographic characteristics, demographic factor
demonstratedemonstrate competence, (be) clearly demonstrated
densely(be) densely populated
denydeny access (to)
departmentgovernment department
dependentdependent variable, highly dependent
describedescribe (a) procedure, describe (a) method, describe (a) process, briefly describe, (be) best described (as, in terms of), previously described, accurate description, brief description, descriptive statistics
designexperimental design, urban design, (be) specifically designed (to, for), well designed
desirehighly desirable, socially desirable, desired outcome
detail(in) considerable detail, sufficient detail, technical detail, detailed analysis, detailed examination, detailed information, detailed study
determined(be) largely determined (by)
developdevelop (a) method, develop (a) strategy, develop (a) technique, develop (a) theory, develop (an) argument, develop (an) approach, (be) fully developed, (be) highly developed, (be) originally developed, career development, cognitive development, contribute to (the) development (of), encourage (the) development (of), facilitate (the) development (of), further development, future development, historical development, industrial development, normal development, physical development, professional development, promote (the) development (of), regional development, significant development, subsequent development, technological development, urban development, affect (the) development (of), developmental process, developmental stage
diagnosticdiagnostic test
differdiffer considerably, differ significantly, differ widely, crucial difference, fundamental difference, major difference, obvious difference, sexual difference, significant difference, substantial difference, cultural differences, ethnic differences, individual differences, racial differences, radical differences, regional differences, (be) markedly different, entirely different, fundamentally different, qualitatively different, radically different, slightly different, substantially different, totally different, widely different, behave differently, think differently, treat differently
difficultincreasingly difficult, encounter difficulties, experience difficulties, face difficulties, learning difficulties, practical difficulties, present difficulties
digitaldigital information, digital media, digital technology
dilemmaethical dilemma, face (a) dilemma, moral dilemma
dimensioncultural dimension, political dimension, social dimension
directdirect access, direct communication, direct consequences, direct contact, direct evidence, direct impact, direct involvement, direct link, direct observation, direct relationship, direct role, (be) directly affected, (be) directly connected (to, with), (be) directly involved (in), (be) directly linked (to), (be) directly linked (to, with), (be) directly proportional (to), (be) directly related (to), (be) directly responsible (for), directly affect
disasternatural disaster
disciplineacademic discipline
disclosedisclose information
discourseacademic discourse, dominant discourse, public discourse, scientific discourse
discovernewly discovered
discriminateface discrimination, positive discrimination, racial discrimination
discussdiscuss (a) topic, discuss (an) issue, briefly discuss, (be) widely discussed, previously discussed, brief discussion, earlier discussion, fuller discussion, preceding discussion, previous discussion
disperse(be) widely dispersed
displaypublic display
disposedisposable income
disputeresolve (a) dispute
distinctdistinct group, distinct type, clear distinction, draw (a) distinction, make (a) distinction, sharp distinction, distinctive feature
distinguishdistinguishing feature
distribute(be) widely distributed, geographic(al) distribution, normal distribution
diverse(a) diverse range (of), diverse background, diverse group, cultural diversity, ethnic diversity, great diversity
divide(be) further divided (into), dividing line
document(be) well documented
documentarydocumentary evidence
domainpublic domain
domesticdomestic market, domestic sphere, domestic violence
dominatemale dominance, dominant culture, dominant discourse, dominant form, dominant group, dominant ideology, dominant paradigm, dominant position, dominant role
doubtcast doubt (on)
draftfirst draft
dramadramatic change, dramatic effect, dramatic increase, change dramatically, increase dramatically
drawdraw (a) conclusion, draw (a) distinction, draw (a) line, draw attention (to)
drivedriving force
duedue process
durationlong duration, maximum duration, short duration
dynamicdynamic equilibrium, dynamic nature, dynamic process, dynamic system
earlyearlier discussion, earlier period, earlier research, earlier stage, earlier study, earlier times, earlier version, earlier work, early decades, early study
easy(be) easily identified, (be) easily understood, easily accessible, easy access
economyeconomic activity, economic affairs, economic analysis, economic benefits, economic change, economic conditions, economic consequences, economic context, economic crisis, economic exploitation, economic factors, economic forces, economic goal, economic growth, economic inequality, economic integration, economic interests, economic policy, economic power, economic prosperity, economic reform, economic relations, economic relationships, economic resources, economic sector, economic stability, economic status, economic structure, economic success, economic system, economic theory, economic value, economic welfare, advanced economy, capitalist economy, global economy, local economy, national economy, political economy, rural economy
editrevised edition
educate(be) highly educated, well educated, higher education, primary education, secondary education, educational institution, educational opportunity, educational policy, educational programme, educational provision, educational qualification, educational research, educational setting, educational system
effectadverse effect, beneficial effect, combined effect, dramatic effect, negative effect, overall effect, positive effect, profound effect, significant effect, similar effect, effective communication, effective implementation, effective intervention, effective management, effective method, effective participation, effective policy, effective treatment, highly effective, particularly effective, communicate effectively, use effectively, work effectively, environmental effects
efficienthighly efficient
effortconcerted effort, considerable effort, research effort
electionpresidential election
electronicelectronic access, electronic communication, electronic media, electronic resources, electronic version
elementbasic element, contain (an) element, core element, essential element, individual element, key element, main element, single element, structural element, constituent elements
embed(be) deeply embedded
emergenewly emerging
emissionreduce emissions
emotionemotional impact, emotional intelligence, emotional reaction, emotional response, emotional support
emphasisgive emphasis, greater emphasis, increasing emphasis, particular emphasis, place emphasis, shift emphasis, special emphasis, strong emphasis
empiricalempirical data, empirical evidence, empirical investigation, empirical research, empirical study, empirical support, empirical work
employemploy (a) method, employ (a) technique, employment opportunities, full employment, paid employment, high unemployment, low unemployment
encounterencounter difficulties, encounter problems, first encounter, (be) commonly encountered
encourageencourage (the) development (of)
energyatomic energy, nuclear energy, renewable energy, solar energy
engage inengage in (an) activity
enhanceenhance learning, enhance performance, greatly enhance
enormous(an) enormous amount (of), enormous impact
entire(the) entire range (of), entire period, entirely clear, entirely different, entirely new
entityseparate entity, single entity
environmentcreate (an) environment, external environment, immediate environment, learning environment, natural environment, physical environment, political environment, social environment, urban environment, environmental changes, environmental concern, environmental consequences, environmental damage, environmental degradation, environmental effects, environmental factors, environmental impact, environmental issues, environmental policy, environmental pollution, environmental protection
equalequal access, equal opportunity, equal status, equal treatment, roughly equal, gender equality, greater equality, promote equality, racial equality, social equality, equally important, equally likely, equally true, equally valid, apply equally, treat equally, economic inequality, social inequality, unequal power
equilibriumdynamic equilibrium
equivalentroughly equivalent
errorcommon error, correct (an) error, random error, standard error
essaycritical essay
essentialessential component, essential element, essential feature, essential function, essential information, essential role
establishestablish (a) relationship, established order, established practice, established principle, (be) clearly established, (be) firmly established, (be) well established, become established, long established, newly established, once established
ethicethical consideration, ethical dilemma, ethical issue, ethical principle, ethical problem, ethical question
ethnicethnic community, ethnic differences, ethnic diversity, ethnic group, ethnic identity, ethnic minority, ethnic origin
evaluatecritically evaluate, critical evaluation
eventhistorical event
everever changing, ever increasing
evidentample evidence, anecdotal evidence, available evidence, clear evidence, compelling evidence, considerable evidence, convincing evidence, direct evidence, documentary evidence, empirical evidence, experimental evidence, find evidence, further evidence, give evidence, historical evidence, little evidence, present evidence, provide evidence, recent evidence, research evidence, scientific evidence, show evidence, strong evidence, substantial evidence, sufficient evidence, supporting evidence, (be) particularly evident, become evident, clearly evident
evolvebiological evolution, evolutionary process, evolutionary theory
examine(upon, on) closer examination, critical examination, detailed examination, examine (the) role (of)
exampleclassic example, obvious example, prime example, provide (an) example, specific example, striking example, typical example
exceptionnotable exception, exceptional case, exceptional circumstances
excludesocial exclusion, mutually exclusive
exerciseexercise authority
existcontinued existence, existing data, existing research, existing structure
expandexpand rapidly, rapid expansion
expecthigh expectations, meet expectations, social expectations
expendgovernment expenditure, public expenditure
experienceexperience difficulties, experience problems, individual experience, personal experience, previous experience, prior experience, professional experience, shared experience, experiential learning
experimentexperimental conditions, experimental data, experimental design, experimental evidence, experimental method, experimental research, experimental results, experimental study, experimental work
expertexpert opinion, technical expertise
explainalternative explanation, further explanation, give (an) explanation, plausible explanation, possible explanation, provide (an) explanation, explanatory power
explicitmake explicit, state explicitly
exploiteconomic exploitation, sexual exploitation
exploreexplore (an) issue, explore further
expressionfacial expression
extendextended period, extensive research, (be) extensively used, (to a) considerable extent
externalexternal environment, external factors, external forces, external influences, external source, external threat, external world
extractextract data, extract information
extremeextremely complex, extremely powerful, extremely sensitive, extremely useful, extremely valuable
faceface (a) challenge, face (a) dilemma, face (a) problem, face difficulties, face discrimination, facial expression
facilitatefacilitate (the) development (of)
factfactual information
factorcritical factor, crucial factor, demographic factor, key factor, main factor, major factor, related factor, significant factor, specific factor, associated factors, contextual factors, cultural factors, economic factors, environmental factors, external factors, historical factors, identify factors, political factors, relevant factors, social factors
fairfair treatment, fairly clear, fairly common, fairly obvious, fairly straightforward, unfair treatment
faithreligious faith
fall intofall into (the) category (of)
familynuclear family
far(be) far removed (from)
featurecentral feature, characteristic feature, common feature, defining feature, distinctive feature, distinguishing feature, essential feature, general feature, key feature, main feature, major feature, particular feature, positive feature, prominent feature, salient feature, significant feature, specific feature, striking feature, structural feature, identify features, physical features
federalfederal agency, federal government, federal state
feedbackgive feedback, negative feedback, positive feedback, provide feedback, provide feedback, receive feedback
feministfeminist movement
fewrelatively few
fieldfield research
figuresignificant figures
finalfinal analysis, final answer, final chapter, final decision, final outcome, final phase, final point, final position, final product, final result, final section, final stage, final step, final version
financefinancial affairs, financial assistance, financial institution, financial management, financial market, financial problem, financial resources, financial support
findfind evidence, find information, key findings, main findings, preliminary findings, report findings, research findings
finitefinite number, infinite number
firmly(be) firmly established
firstfirst author, first contact, first draft, first encounter, first generation, first impression, first phase, first priority
flexiblegreater flexibility, flexible approach
flowinformation flow
focalfocal point
focusfocus attention (on), become (the) focus (of), central focus, clear focus, main focus, major focus, particular focus, primary focus, provide (a) focus, specific focus, focus on (an) aspect
followfollow (a) format, follow (a) procedure, follow instructions, following chapter, immediately following
forcedriving force, military force, powerful force, economic forces, external forces
foreignforeign currency, foreign investment, foreign investor, foreign policy
formalternative form, appropriate form, dominant form, modified form, specific form, traditional form, newly formed
formalformal structure
formatfollow (a) format, standard format, use (a) format
formulageneral formula
found(be) commonly found (in), (be) frequently found, (be) generally found
foundationprovide (a) foundation (for)
fractionsmall fraction
frameworkconceptual framework, institutional framework, legal framework, regulatory framework, theoretical framework
freefree access, free movement, religious freedom, freely available
frequencyhigh/er frequency, low/er frequency, (be) frequently cited, (be) frequently found, (be) frequently referred (to), (be) frequently used, occur frequently
fulfilfulfil (an) obligation
full(a, the) full range (of), full analysis, full employment, full information, full participation, full potential, fuller discussion, (be) fully developed, (be) fully informed, (be) fully integrated, (be) fully realized, fully aware, fully understand
functionbasic function, essential function, main function, perform (a) function, primary function, serve (a) function, social function, specific function, functional requirement
fundpublic funds
fundamentalfundamental aspect, fundamental assumption, fundamental change, fundamental component, fundamental difference, fundamental importance, fundamental principle, fundamental problem, fundamental question, fundamentally different
further(be) further divided (into), further analysis, further consideration, further development, further evidence, further explanation, further information, further investigation, further research, further study, explore further
futurefuture development, future prospects, future research, future study
gaingain access (to), gain information, gain insight (into)
gathergather data, gather information, data gathering, information gathering
gendergender equality, gender stereotype
generalgeneral agreement, general approach, general argument, general aspect, general category, general conclusion, general consensus, general definition, general feature, general formula, general overview, general principle, general statement, general tendency, general theory, general trend, (be) generally accepted, (be) generally assumed, (be) generally considered, (be) generally found, (be) generally known (as, by), generally agree
generationfirst generation, next generation, previous generation, younger generation
geneticgenetic variation
geographygeographic(al) area, geographic(al) distribution, geographic(al) location
getget involved (with/in)
givegive (a) presentation, give (an) explanation, give (an) indication (of), give (an) overview (of), give (sb an) impression, give (sb) treatment, give access (to), give consent, give consideration, give emphasis, give evidence, give feedback, give priority (to), give guidance, give information, give insight (into), given information, given period
globeglobal capitalism, global context, global culture, global economy, global issue, global market, global marketplace, global media, global network, global perspective, global shift, global structure, global trade, global village
goalachieve (a) goal, common goal, economic goal, set (a) goal, ultimate goal
goodsimported goods
governmentgovernment control, government department, government expenditure, government intervention, government policy, central government, federal government, local government, municipal government, national government, representative government
graphicalgraphical representation
great(a) great proportion (of), (a) great range (of), great accuracy, great diversity, great impact, great majority, great potential, great significance, greater autonomy, greater awareness, greater emphasis, greater equality, greater flexibility, greater likelihood, (be) greatly influenced (by), (be) greatly reduced, greatly enhance, greatly increase, vary greatly
groupdistinct group, diverse group, dominant group, ethnic group, homogeneous group, minority group, powerful group, racial group, religious group, vulnerable group
growgrow rapidly, growing awareness, growing trend, rapidly growing, continued growth, economic growth, significant growth
guidegive guidance, provide guidance, guiding principle
hardlyhardly surprising
harmpotential harm
havehave (a) strategy, have (a) tendency (to), have (an) obligation, have access (to), have consequences, have limitations, have potential
healthmental health, physical health
heatheated debate
heavy(be) heavily influenced (by), rely heavily (on)
helpseek help
heritagecultural heritage
hierarchyhierarchical structure
high(a) high proportion (of), high concentration, high correlation, high expectations, high incidence, high intensity, high level, high order, high percentage, high priority, high probability, high profile, high quality, high rate, high score, high standard, high status, high turnover, high unemployment, high value, relatively high, high/er frequency, (a) higher degree (of), higher education, significantly higher, slightly higher, (be) highly charged, (be) highly correlated (with), (be) highly developed, (be) highly educated, (be) highly structured, (be) highly valued, highly competitive, highly complex, highly controversial, highly critical, highly dependent, highly desirable, highly effective, highly efficient, highly influential, highly likely, highly problematic, highly relevant, highly selective, highly sensitive, highly significant, highly skilled, highly sophisticated, highly successful, highly unlikely, highly variable
historyhistorical account, historical analysis, historical background, historical change, historical circumstances, historical context, historical data, historical development, historical event, historical evidence, historical factors, historical interpretation, historical knowledge, historical period, historical perspective, historical reality, historical record, historical roots, historical study, historical writing, historically specific, brief history, cultural history, natural history, oral history
holdhold (a) conference
holisticholistic approach
homogeneoushomogeneous group
huge(a) huge amount (of)
humanhuman activity, human behaviour, human interaction, human society, human species
ideally(be) ideally suited
identicalalmost identical
identify(be) clearly identified, (be) easily identified, identify (a) problem, identify (a) way, identify (an) area, identify (an) issue, identify factors, identify features, multiple identities, collective identity, cultural identity, ethnic identity, national identity, political identity, religious identity, sexual identity, social identity
ideologydominant ideology, political ideology
ignorant(be) largely ignored
illnessmental illness
illustrateprovide (an) illustration
imagepositive image, public image, visual image
immediateimmediate environment, immediately apparent, immediately following, immediately obvious, immediately preceding
impactassess (the) impact (of), consider (the) impact (of), direct impact, emotional impact, enormous impact, environmental impact, great impact, likely impact, little impact, major impact, make (an) impact, negative impact, positive impact, potential impact, profound impact, significant impact
implementeffective implementation, successful implementation
implyconsider (the) implications, major implications, political implications, social implications, wider implications
importimported goods, imported products
important(be of) considerable importance, (be of) paramount importance, (be of) vital importance, central importance, critical importance, crucial importance, fundamental importance, increased importance, increasing importance, perceived importance, strategic importance, clearly important, equally important, increasingly important
imposeimpose constraints, impose limitations, impose restrictions
impossiblevirtually impossible
impressioncreate (an) impression, first impression, give (sb an) impression, make (an) impression
improveimproved performance, significant improvement
incidencehigh incidence
incomedisposable income, low income, middle income, national income, total income
increaseincrease (the) likelihood, increase awareness, increase dramatically, dramatic increase, greatly increase, significant increase, significantly increase, increased awareness, increased competition, increased demand, increased importance, increased interest, increased level, increased number, increased pressure, increased production, increased productivity, increased risk, (a) increasing proportion (of), increasing awareness, increasing complexity, increasing demand, increasing emphasis, increasing importance, increasing interest, increasing pressure, increasing tendency, increasing trend, ever increasing, increasingly aware, increasingly common, increasingly complex, increasingly difficult, increasingly important, increasingly popular, increasingly sophisticated
independentindependent state, independent variable, become independent
indicateclear indication, give (an) indication (of), provide (an) indication (of)
indigenousindigenous people, indigenous population
individualindividual behaviour, individual case, individual characteristics, individual choice, individual component, individual differences, individual element, individual experience, individual interests, individual item, individual needs, individual response, individual responsibility, individual rights, individual variable, individual variation, particular individual, private individual, single individual, unique individual
industrialindustrial capitalism, industrial country, industrial development, industrial production, industrial society, industrialized country, industrialized nation
inextricably(be) inextricably linked (to, with)
influenceconsiderable influence, cultural influence, major influence, positive influence, powerful influence, significant influence, (be) greatly influenced (by), (be) heavily influenced (by), (be) strongly influenced (by), external influences, highly influential, particularly influential
informinformed consent, (be) fully informed
informationinformation flow, information gathering, information processing, information retrieval, information sharing, accurate information, add information, additional information, available information, basic information, carry information, collect information, contain information, convey information, detailed information, digital information, disclose information, essential information, extract information, factual information, find information, full information, further information, gain information, gather information, give information, given information, limited information, little information, necessary information, obtain information, personal information, process information, provide information, receive information, related information, relevant information, reliable information, seek information, share information, specific information, statistical information, store information, sufficient information, transmit information, useful information, valuable information
initialinitial period, initial phase, initial position, initial research, initial stage
initiatenew initiative, take initiative
innovatetechnological innovation
inquirecritical inquiry
insightgain insight (into), give insight (into), new insight, offer insight (into), provide insight (into)
inspect(on/upon) closer inspection
instituteacademic institution, cultural institution, democratic institution, educational institution, financial institution, national institution, political institution, public institution, social institution, institutional arrangement, institutional context, institutional framework, institutional structure, institutional support
instructfollow instructions
integralintegral part
integrateintegrated approach, integrated system, (be) fully integrated, economic integration, social integration
intellectualintellectual property, intellectual work
intelligentartificial intelligence, emotional intelligence
intend(be) originally intended, original intent, unintended consequences
intensehigh intensity, low intensity, intensive study
interactcomplex interaction, human interaction, significant interaction, social interaction
intercoursesexual intercourse
interestconsiderable interest, increased interest, increasing interest, national interest, personal interest, renewed interest, vested interest, interested party, conflicting interests, economic interests, individual interests
internalinternal affairs, internal conflict, internal control, internal market, internal organ, internal structure
internationalinternational agreement, international body, international community, international conference, international context, international journal, international organization, international treaty
internetinternet access
interpersonalinterpersonal relationships, interpersonal skills
interpretinterpret data, correct interpretation, historical interpretation, literal interpretation, alternative interpretion
interveneeffective intervention, government intervention
interviewconduct (an) interview
intimateintimate relationship, (be) intimately connected (to, with)
intrinsicintrinsic value
introduceintroduce legislation, brief introduction, critical introduction, introductory chapter, introductory section, introductory text
investforeign investment, private investment, foreign investor
investigateempirical investigation, further investigation, scientific investigation
involve(be) actively involved, (be) directly involved (in), become involved (with/in), get involved (with/in), active involvement, direct involvement
isolatesocial isolation
issueaddress (an) issue, central issue, complex issue, consider (an) issue, contemporary issue, controversial issue, core issue, critical issue, cultural issue, current issue, deal (with an) issue, discuss (an) issue, ethical issue, explore (an) issue, global issue, identify (an) issue, key issue, legal issue, main issue, major issue, methodological issue, practical issue, raise (an) issue, real issue, related issue, relevant issue, similar issue, single issue, special issue, specific issue, technical issue, theoretical issue, wider issue, environmental issues
itemindividual item
journalacademic journal, international journal, online journal, publish (a) journal, scholarly journal
judgementmake(a) judgement
keenlykeenly aware
keykey area, key aspect, key characteristic, key component, key concept, key element, key factor, key feature, key findings, key issue, key objective, key player, key policy, key principle, key role, key source, key text, key theme, key topic
know(be) commonly known (as), (be) generally known (as, by), (be) widely known, previously known
knowledgeacquire knowledge, background knowledge, historical knowledge, personal knowledge, previous knowledge, prior knowledge, professional knowledge, require knowledge, specific knowledge, tacit knowledge, technical knowledge
languageappropriate language, national language, natural language, verbal language
large(a) large proportion (of), (a) large range (of), large majority, large percentage, large portion, large quantities (of), (be) largely based (on), (be) largely confined (to), (be) largely determined (by), (be) largely ignored, (be) largely responsible (for)
laterlater work, later writings
lawnatural law
leadlead to (the) conclusion, opinion leader, party leader, political leader, leading role
learnlearning activity, learning difficulties, learning environment, learning objective, learning outcome, learning process, learning resources, learning strategy, collaborative learning, enhance learning, experiential learning, lifelong learning
legallegal action, legal basis, legal framework, legal issue, legal obligation, legal position, legal proceedings, legal protection, legal requirement, legal right, legal rule, legal status, legal system
legislateintroduce legislation, national legislation, proposed legislation, legislative measures, legislative power
level(at/on a) deeper level, appropriate level, high level, increased level, low level, minimum level, overall level, stress level
liberalliberal democracy
lifeacademic life, contemporary life, cultural life, lifelong learning
likelygreater likelihood, increase (the) likelihood, reduce (the) likelihood, likely impact, likely outcome, equally likely, highly likely, highly unlikely, seem unlikely
limithave limitations, impose limitations, (a) limited range (of), limited access, limited capacity, limited information, limited opportunity, limited resources, unlimited access
linedividing line, draw (a) line, linear relationship
linkcausal link, direct link, strong link, (be) closely linked (to, with), (be) directly linked (to), (be) directly linked (to, with), (be) inextricably linked (to, with), (be) strongly linked
literal(in a) literal sense, literal interpretation, literal meaning
literaryliterary text, literary tradition
literaturepublished literature, relevant literature, scholarly literature
littlelittle evidence, little impact, little information, little research, little significance, relatively little
livingliving conditions, living organism, living standard, daily living, make (a) living
locallocal area, local authority, local circumstances, local community, local culture, local economy, local government
locategeographic(al) location
logiclogical approach, logical argument, logical conclusion
longlong duration, long established
longitudinallongitudinal study
lookcloser look
lowlow/er frequency, low income, low intensity, low level, low percentage, low priority, low probability, low profile, low quality, low status, low turnover, low unemployment, relatively low, lower class
mainmain area, main argument, main category, main characteristics, main component, main element, main factor, main feature, main findings, main focus, main function, main issue, main principle, main source, main task, main theme, (be) mainly concerned (with)
maintainmaintain contact
majormajor advantage, major area, major cause, major challenge, major change, major component, major concern, major contribution, major decision, major difference, major factor, major feature, major focus, major impact, major implications, major influence, major issue, major part, major problem, major reason, major role, major shift, major source, major theme, great majority, large majority, overwhelming majority, simple majority, vast majority
makemake (a) comment, make (a) contribution, make (a) distinction, make (a) living, make (a) prediction, make (a) recommendation, make (a) statement, make (a) transition, make (an) argument, make (an) assessment, make (an) assumption, make (an) impact, make (an) impression, make (an) observation, make adjustments, make arrangements, make available, make aware, make contact, make explicit, make policy, make provision, make visible, make(a) judgement
malemale dominance
manageeffective management, financial management, middle management, senior management, strategic management, top management
manualmanual worker
manufacturemanufacturing sector
markedmarked contrast, (be) markedly different
marketcompetitive market, domestic market, financial market, global market, internal market, national market, global marketplace
materialprovide material, published material, relevant material, source material, useful material
maximisemaximum duration
meanmean score
meaningconvey meaning, literal meaning, original meaning, particular meaning, shared meaning, specific meaning, (in a) meaningful way
meansalternative means, useful means
measureaccurate measurement, legislative measures
mediamedia coverage, digital media, electronic media, global media, national media, popular media, visual media
medicalmedical assistance, medical treatment
meetmeet (a) target, meet (a) requirement, meet (an) objective, meet criteria, meet expectations, annual meeting
memberprominent member
memorycollective memory
mentalmental health, mental illness, mental state
mentionpreviously mentioned
meritrelative merits
messageconvey (a) message
methodalternative method, apply (a) method, common method, describe (a) method, develop (a) method, effective method, employ (a) method, experimental method, modern method, qualitative method, quantitative method, scientific method, standard method, statistical method, traditional method, use (a) method, methodological approach, methodological issue, methodological problem, research methodology, use (a) methodology
metropolitanmetropolitan area
middlemiddle income, middle management
migratemigrant worker
militarymilitary action, military force, military power, military service
minimumminimum level, minimum requirement, minimum standard, minimum value, minimum wage
minorminor change, minor role, relatively minor, minority group, ethnic minority, small minority
missingmissing data
mobilitysocial mobility, political mobilization
modelalternative model, original model, theoretical model
modernmodern culture, modern method, modern society, modern technology
modifymodified form, modified version
moralmoral dilemma, moral philosophy, moral principle
motive(be) politically motivated
movementfeminist movement, free movement, national movement, political movement, religious movement, social movement
multiplemultiple identities, multiple sources
municipalmunicipal government
mutualmutual recognition, mutual support, mutual trust, mutual understanding, mutually exclusive
narrow(a) narrow range (of), narrow definition
nationindustrialized nation, national average, national boundary, national conference, national culture, national economy, national government, national identity, national income, national institution, national interest, national language, national legislation, national market, national media, national movement, national policy, national press, national security, national survey
nativenative speaker
naturenatural conditions, natural disaster, natural environment, natural history, natural language, natural law, natural order, natural philosophy, natural process, natural resources, natural right, natural science, natural tendency, natural world, naturally occurring, occur naturally, changing nature, dynamic nature, precise nature
necessarynecessary information, deem necessary
needperceived need, changing needs, individual needs, physical needs, specific needs
negatenegative aspect, negative attitude, negative connotation, negative consequences, negative correlation, negative effect, negative feedback, negative impact, negative outcome, negative side, negative stereotype, negative value, negative view, (be) negatively correlated (with)
networkglobal network
newnew initiative, new insight, new perspective, entirely new, newly acquired, newly created, newly discovered, newly emerging, newly established, newly formed
nextnext decade, next generation, next phase
normcultural norm, social norm
normalnormal conditions, normal development, normal distribution, normal practice
notablenotable exception
nuclearnuclear energy, nuclear family, nuclear power, nuclear war, nuclear weapon
numberfinite number, increased number, infinite number, significant number, substantial number, vast number, numerical data, numerical value, numerous studies
objectiveobjective criteria, objective reality, achieve (an) objective, key objective, learning objective, meet (an) objective, primary objective, set (an) objective, strategic objective, scientific objectivity
obligationfulfil (an) obligation, have (an) obligation, legal obligation
observationdirect observation, make (an) observation
obtainobtain (a) result, obtain data, obtain information
obviousobvious difference, obvious example, obvious point, obvious reason, become obvious, fairly obvious, immediately obvious, seem obvious
occuroccur frequently, occur naturally, naturally occurring
offencecommit (an) offence, criminal offence, serious offence
offeroffer (an) opportunity, offer insight (into)
officialofficial statistics
onceonce established
ongoingongoing debate, ongoing process
onlineonline access, online database, online journal, online version
openopen access, opening chapter, opening section
opinionopinion leader, expert opinion
opportunitycreate opportunities, employment opportunities, career opportunity, create (an) opportunity, educational opportunity, equal opportunity, limited opportunity, offer (an) opportunity, provide (an) opportunity, unique opportunity
oppose(be) strongly opposed, binary opposition
optimaloptimal solution
oraloral history, oral presentation
orderestablished order, high order, natural order
organinternal organ
organiseorganising principle, international organization, political organization, social organization, organizational structure
organismliving organism
orientsexual orientation
originethnic origin, original author, original context, original data, original intent, original meaning, original model, original position, original research, original source, original text, original version, original work, (be) originally developed, (be) originally intended
outcomeachieve (an) outcome, affect (the) outcome, desired outcome, final outcome, learning outcome, likely outcome, negative outcome, positive outcome, possible outcome
overalloverall aim, overall effect, overall level, overall performance, overall picture, overall rate, overall structure
overviewbrief overview, comprehensive overview, general overview, give (an) overview (of), provide (an) overview (of)
overwhelmingoverwhelming majority
paidpaid employment
panelsolar panel
paradigmdominant paradigm
paragraphprevious paragraph
parameterset (the) parameters
paramount(be of) paramount importance
partcentral part, crucial part, integral part, major part, previous part, significant part, substantial part, vital part, (be) partly responsible (for), constituent parts
participateactive participant, active participation, effective participation, full participation, political participation
particularparticular area, particular aspect, particular emphasis, particular feature, particular focus, particular individual, particular meaning, (be) particularly concerned (with), (be) particularly evident, (be) particularly suited (to), particularly acute, particularly apparent, particularly appropriate, particularly effective, particularly influential, particularly relevant, particularly sensitive, particularly significant, particularly striking, particularly successful, particularly useful, particularly valuable
partyparty leader, interested party, political party, ruling party, third party
pastpast research
patternchanging pattern, complex pattern, consistent pattern, similar pattern
peacepeace treaty
peakreach (a) peak
peopleindigenous people
perceiveperceived importance, perceived need, perceived threat, public perception, visual perception
percenthigh percentage, large percentage, low percentage, small percentage
performperform (a) function, perform (a) study, perform (a) task, academic performance, enhance performance, improved performance, overall performance, superior performance
periodbrief period, earlier period, entire period, extended period, given period, historical period, initial period, short period, whole period
personalpersonal choice, personal circumstances, personal communication, personal contact, personal control, personal experience, personal information, personal interest, personal knowledge, personal quality, personal relationship, personal responsibility, personal safety, personal space
perspectivecritical perspective, cultural perspective, global perspective, historical perspective, new perspective, theoretical perspective
phasefinal phase, first phase, initial phase, next phase
phenomenoncultural phenomenon, social phenomenon
philosophymoral philosophy, natural philosophy, political philosophy
physicalphysical activity, physical appearance, physical characteristics, physical contact, physical development, physical environment, physical features, physical health, physical needs, physical presence, physical properties, physical proximity, physical science, physical space, physical symptom, physical world
pictureaccurate picture, overall picture
pilotpilot study
pioneeringpioneering work
pivotalpivotal role
placeplace emphasis
planningplanning stage, strategic planning
plausibleplausible explanation, seem plausible
playplay (a) role (in), key player
pointappropriate point, central point, critical point, crucial point, final point, focal point, obvious point
policycurrent policy, economic policy, educational policy, effective policy, environmental policy, foreign policy, government policy, key policy, make policy, national policy, public policy, security policy, social policy
politicalpolitical activism, political activity, political agenda, political arena, political authority, political circumstances, political climate, political conflict, political consciousness, political consensus, political consequences, political consideration, political context, political culture, political debate, political dimension, political economy, political environment, political factors, political identity, political ideology, political implications, political instability, political institution, political leader, political mobilization, political movement, political organization, political participation, political party, political philosophy, political reality, political reform, political representation, political significance, political spectrum, political stability, political status, political structure, (be) politically motivated, politically correct
pollutionenvironmental pollution
poorly(be) poorly understood
popularpopular culture, popular media, increasingly popular
population(be) densely populated, (be) sparsely populated, indigenous population, rural population
portionlarge portion, significant portion, small portion
posepose (a) challenge, pose (a) problem, pose (a) question, pose (a) threat (to)
positioncentral position, dominant position, final position, initial position, legal position, original position, privileged position, unique position
positivepositive action, positive aspect, positive attitude, positive connotation, positive correlation, positive discrimination, positive effect, positive feature, positive feedback, positive image, positive impact, positive influence, positive outcome, positive relationship, positive result, positive value, positive view, (be) positively associated (with), (be) positively correlated (with)
possibleconsider (a) possibility, possible consequences, possible explanation, possible outcome, possible source
potentialpotential benefits, potential conflict, potential customer, potential harm, potential impact, potential problem, potential risk, potential source, potential value, full potential, great potential, have potential, potentially dangerous
powereconomic power, explanatory power, legislative power, military power, nuclear power, predictive power, purchasing power, solar power, unequal power, powerful force, powerful group, powerful influence, powerful tool, extremely powerful
practicalpractical consideration, practical difficulties, practical issue, practical significance
practicecultural practice, established practice, normal practice, professional practice, reflective practice, religious practice, traditional practice, administrative practices
precedetake precedence (over), preceding chapter, preceding discussion, preceding section, immediately preceding
preciseprecise definition, precise nature
predictmake (a) prediction
predictivepredictive power
preferentialpreferential treatment
preliminarypreliminary data, preliminary findings, preliminary result
prematurepremature death
premisebasic premise
presentphysical presence, present (a) challenge, present (a) summary, present (an) argument, present context, present data, present difficulties, present evidence
presentationgive (a) presentation, oral presentation
presidentialpresidential election
pressnational press
pressurecompetitive pressure, increased pressure, increasing pressure
previousprevious chapter, previous decade, previous discussion, previous experience, previous generation, previous knowledge, previous paragraph, previous part, previous research, previous section, previous study, previous work, previously described, previously discussed, previously known, previously mentioned, previously thought
primary(be) primarily concerned (with), (be) primarily responsible (for), primary aim, primary care, primary concern, primary data, primary education, primary focus, primary function, primary objective, primary purpose, primary reason, primary research, primary responsibility, primary source, primary task
primeprime example, prime time
principalprincipal source
principlebasic principle, established principle, ethical principle, fundamental principle, general principle, guiding principle, key principle, main principle, moral principle, organising principle, underlying principle
priorprior experience, prior knowledge
priorityfirst priority, give priority (to), high priority, low priority
privateprivate individual, private investment, private sector, private sphere
privilegedprivileged position
probabilityconditional probability, high probability, low probability
problemproblem area, additional problem, central problem, complex problem, ethical problem, face (a) problem, financial problem, fundamental problem, identify (a) problem, major problem, methodological problem, pose (a) problem, potential problem, related problem, specific problem, technical problem, highly problematic, create problems, encounter problems, experience problems
proceedadopt (a) procedure, describe (a) procedure, follow (a) procedure, use (a) procedure, legal proceedings
processprocess data, process information, assessment process, begin (a) process, complex process, continuous process, creative process, democratic process, describe (a) process, developmental process, due process, dynamic process, evolutionary process, learning process, natural process, ongoing process, slow process, start (a) process, thinking process, thought process, underlying process, information processing
productfinal product, increased production, industrial production, increased productivity, imported products
professionalprofessional activity, professional body, professional colleague, professional development, professional experience, professional knowledge, professional practice, professional qualification, professional staff, professional standard, professional status, professional support, professional training, professional work
profilehigh profile, low profile
profoundprofound effect, profound impact
programmeeducational programme
progresstechnological progress
prominentprominent feature, prominent member, prominent role
promotepromote (the) development (of), promote equality
properly(be) properly understood
propertyphysical properties, similar properties, structural properties, intellectual property
proportion(a) great proportion (of), (a) high proportion (of), (a) increasing proportion (of), (a) large proportion (of), (a) significant proportion (of), (a) small proportion (of), (be) directly proportional (to)
proposeproposed legislation
prospectfuture prospects
prosperityeconomic prosperity
protectionenvironmental protection, legal protection
proveprove successful, prove useful
provideprovide (a) benefit, provide (a) clue, provide (a) focus, provide (a) foundation (for), provide (a) service, provide (a) source, provide (a) summary, provide (an) alternative, provide (an) example, provide (an) explanation, provide (an) illustration, provide (an) indication (of), provide (an) opportunity, provide (an) overview (of), provide access (to), provide assistance, provide care, provide context, provide coverage, provide data, provide evidence, provide feedback, provide guidance, provide information, provide material, provide resources, provide support, provide feedback, provide insight (into), educational provision, make provision
proximityclose proximity, physical proximity
publicpublic access, public administration, public attitudes, public authority, public awareness, public debate, public discourse, public display, public domain, public expenditure, public funds, public image, public institution, public perception, public policy, public sector, public sphere, public transport, public welfare, wider public, publicly available
publishpublish (a) journal, publish (a) report, publish (an) article, publish research, published literature, published material, published research, published work
purchasepurchasing power
purposeprimary purpose, specific purpose
purposes(for) research purposes
qualificationeducational qualification, professional qualification
qualitativequalitative analysis, qualitative approach, qualitative data, qualitative method, qualitative research, qualitative study, qualitatively different
qualityhigh quality, low quality, personal quality
quantityquantitative analysis, quantitative approach, quantitative data, quantitative method, quantitative research, quantitative result, quantitative study, large quantities (of), small quantities (of), vast quantities (of)
questioncentral question, complex question, crucial question, ethical question, fundamental question, pose (a) question, raise (a) question, reflective question, related question, specific question
racialracial differences, racial discrimination, racial equality, racial group, racial stereotype
radicalradical change, radical critique, radical differences, radical transformation, radically different
raiseraise (a) question, raise (an) issue, raise awareness
randomrandom error, random sample, random variable, (be) randomly assigned (to), (be) randomly chosen, (be) randomly selected
range(a) broad range (of), (a) diverse range (of), (a) great range (of), (a) large range (of), (a) limited range (of), (a) narrow range (of), (a) vast range (of), (a) whole range (of), (a) wide range (of), (a, the) full range (of), (the) entire range (of), cover (a) range (of)
rapidrapid expansion, rapidly changing, rapidly growing, change rapidly, expand rapidly, grow rapidly
rarerelatively rare
rateannual rate, constant rate, high rate, overall rate
rawraw data
reachreach (a) consensus, reach (a) peak, reach (an) agreement
reactadverse reaction, chemical reaction, emotional reaction, strong reaction
readwidely read
ready(be) readily understood, readily accessible, readily available, ready access
realreal issue, historical reality, objective reality, political reality
realize(be) fully realized
reasoncompelling reason, major reason, obvious reason, primary reason, underlying reason
receivereceive feedback, receive information, receive treatment, well received
recentrecent decades, recent evidence, recent research, recent study, recent survey, relatively recent
reciprocalreciprocal relationship
recognizemutual recognition, (be) widely recognized
recommendmake (a) recommendation
recordrecord data, accurate record, historical record
recurrentrecurrent theme
reducereduce (the) likelihood, reduce emissions, reduce stress, (be) greatly reduced, (be) significantly reduced, significant reduction
referspecific reference, (be) commonly referred (to) (as), (be) frequently referred (to)
reflectcritical reflection, reflective practice, reflective question
reformeconomic reform, political reform, social reform, welfare reform
regarded(be) widely regarded (as)
regionregional development, regional differences, regional variation
regulateregulatory agency, regulatory framework
relaterelated activity, related area, related aspect, related factor, related information, related issue, related problem, related question, related topic, (be) clearly related (to), (be) closely related (to), (be) directly related (to), (be) strongly related (to), causal relation, economic relations, causal relationship, clear relationship, close relationship, complex relationship, direct relationship, establish (a) relationship, intimate relationship, linear relationship, personal relationship, positive relationship, reciprocal relationship, significant relationship, social relationship, special relationship, strong relationship, symbiotic relationship, economic relationships, interpersonal relationships, relative autonomy, relative merits, relative status, relatively common, relatively constant, relatively few, relatively high, relatively little, relatively low, relatively minor, relatively rare, relatively recent, relatively simple, relatively stable, relatively straightforward
relevantrelevant data, relevant factors, relevant information, relevant issue, relevant literature, relevant material, consider relevant, highly relevant, particularly relevant
religiousreligious belief, religious faith, religious freedom, religious group, religious identity, religious movement, religious practice
relyreliable data, reliable information, rely heavily (on)
remainremain constant, remain stable, remain unchanged, remain unclear
remarkremarkably similar, concluding remarks
remove(be) far removed (from)
renewrenewable energy, renewed interest
reportreport data, report findings, annual report, publish (a) report
representationgraphical representation, political representation, schematic representation, visual representation
representativerepresentative government
requirerequire consideration, require knowledge, require resources, functional requirement, legal requirement, meet (a) requirement, minimum requirement
research(for) research purposes, research effort, research evidence, research findings, research methodology, research topic, academic research, basic research, carry out research (of), comparative research, conduct research, considerable research, current research, earlier research, educational research, empirical research, existing research, experimental research, extensive research, field research, further research, future research, initial research, little research, original research, past research, previous research, primary research, publish research, published research, qualitative research, quantitative research, recent research, scholarly research, scientific research, traditional research, undertake research
resemblebear resemblance (to), closely resemble
resolveconflict resolution, resolve (a) conflict, resolve (a) dispute
resourceadditional resources, allocate resources, available resources, economic resources, electronic resources, financial resources, learning resources, limited resources, natural resources, provide resources, require resources, scarce resources, sufficient resources, use resources, valuable resources
respondrespond appropriately, appropriate response, emotional response, individual response
responsibleaccept responsibility, assume responsibility, individual responsibility, personal responsibility, primary responsibility, social responsibility, take responsibility, (be) directly responsible (for), (be) largely responsible (for), (be) partly responsible (for), (be) primarily responsible (for), socially responsible
restrictimpose restrictions
resultfinal result, obtain (a) result, positive result, preliminary result, quantitative result, similar result, consistent results, experimental results
retrievalinformation retrieval
reviewreview (a) study, annual review, brief review, comprehensive review, critical review
reviserevised edition, revised version
richrich source
rightlegal right, natural right, individual rights
risingrising cost
riskrisk assessment, increased risk, potential risk
roleactive role, assume (the) role (of), central role, consider (the) role (of), critical role, crucial role, direct role, dominant role, essential role, examine (the) role (of), key role, leading role, major role, minor role, pivotal role, play (a) role (in), prominent role, significant role, take (a) role (in), take on (the)  role (of, as), take up (the) role (of, as), vital role
root(be) deeply rooted, historical roots
roughlyroughly equal, roughly equivalent
rulelegal rule, ruling class, ruling party
ruralrural area, rural community, rural economy, rural population, rural society
safesafe sex, personal safety
salientsalient characteristic, salient feature
samplerandom sample
scarcescarce resources
schemeschematic representation
scholarlyscholarly journal, scholarly literature, scholarly research, scholarly work
sciencebiological science, natural science, physical science, scientific community, scientific discourse, scientific evidence, scientific investigation, scientific method, scientific objectivity, scientific research, scientific theory
scoreaverage score, high score, mean score, test score
scrutinyclose scrutiny, critical scrutiny
secondarysecondary data, secondary education, secondary source
sectionconcluding section, final section, introductory section, opening section, preceding section, previous section
sectorbusiness sector, economic sector, manufacturing sector, private sector, public sector, service sector, state sector
securesecurity policy, national security
seekseek help, seek information
seemseem appropriate, seem obvious, seem plausible, seem unlikely
select(be) carefully selected, (be) randomly selected, highly selective
seminalseminal study, seminal work
seniorsenior management
sense(in a) literal sense, specific sense, extremely sensitive, highly sensitive, particularly sensitive
separateseparate entity
seriousserious challenge, serious consequences, serious offence
serveserve (a) function
serviceservice sector, military service, provide (a) service
setset (a) goal, set (a) target, set (an) objective, set (the) agenda, set (the) parameters, complex set, data set
settingeducational setting, social setting
severelyseverely affect
sexbiological sex, safe sex, sexual abuse, sexual act, sexual behaviour, sexual contact, sexual difference, sexual exploitation, sexual identity, sexual intercourse, sexual orientation, sexual violence
shareshare information, shared experience, shared meaning, shared values, widely shared, information sharing
sharpsharp contrast, sharp distinction
shiftglobal shift, major shift, significant shift, shift emphasis
shortshort duration, short period
showshow (a) tendency, show (a) trend, show evidence, show variation
sidenegative side
signsign (a) treaty
significantcultural significance, great significance, little significance, political significance, practical significance, social significance, statistical significance, (a) significant amount (of), (a) significant degree (of), (a) significant proportion (of), significant change, significant contribution, significant correlation, significant correlation, significant development, significant difference, significant effect, significant factor, significant feature, significant figures, significant growth, significant impact, significant improvement, significant increase, significant influence, significant interaction, significant number, significant part, significant portion, significant reduction, significant relationship, significant role, significant shift, significant variation, highly significant, particularly significant, statistically significant, (be) significantly correlated (with), (be) significantly reduced, significantly affect, significantly higher, significantly increase, contribute significantly, differ significantly, vary significantly
similarsimilar approach, similar argument, similar characteristics, similar effect, similar issue, similar pattern, similar properties, similar result, similar situation, broadly similar, remarkably similar
simplesimple majority, relatively simple, simplified version
singlesingle currency, single element, single entity, single individual, single issue, single source, single variable
situationcomplex situation, similar situation
skilltechnical skill, transferable skill, skilled worker, highly skilled, academic skills, appropriate skills, cognitive skills, core skills, interpersonal skills, unskilled worker
slightlyslightly different, slightly higher
slowslow process
small(a) small proportion (of), small fraction, small minority, small percentage, small portion, small quantities (of)
socialsocial activity, social aspect, social attitudes, social background, social behaviour, social circumstances, social conflict, social consequences, social construct, social contact, social context, social democracy, social dimension, social environment, social equality, social exclusion, social expectations, social factors, social function, social identity, social implications, social inequality, social institution, social integration, social interaction, social isolation, social mobility, social movement, social norm, social organization, social phenomenon, social policy, social reform, social relationship, social responsibility, social setting, social significance, social status, social structure, social theory, social transformation, social trend, social welfare, (be) socially constructed, socially acceptable, socially desirable, socially responsible, capitalist society, civil society, contemporary society, democratic society, human society, industrial society, modern society, rural society, traditional society, western society, wider society, socioeconomic status
solarsolar energy, solar panel, solar power, solar system
solutionalternative solution, optimal solution
sophisticatedhighly sophisticated, increasingly sophisticated
sourcesource material, alternative source, become (a) source (of), common source, external source, key source, main source, major source, original source, possible source, potential source, primary source, principal source, provide (a) source, rich source, secondary source, single source, use (a) source, useful source, multiple sources
sovereignsovereign state
spacepersonal space, physical space
sparinglyuse sparingly
sparsely(be) sparsely populated
speakernative speaker
specialspecial circumstances, special emphasis, special issue, special relationship, special status
specieshuman species
specificspecific area, specific aspect, specific case, specific characteristic, specific context, specific example, specific factor, specific feature, specific focus, specific form, specific function, specific information, specific issue, specific knowledge, specific meaning, specific needs, specific problem, specific purpose, specific question, specific reference, specific sense, specific type, culturally specific, historically specific, (be) specifically designed (to, for)
spectrumbroad spectrum, political spectrum
spheredomestic sphere, private sphere, public sphere
stablepolitical instability, economic stability, political stability, relatively stable, remain stable
staffprofessional staff
stagedevelopmental stage, earlier stage, final stage, initial stage, planning stage
standardstandard approach, standard error, standard format, standard method, high standard, living standard, minimum standard, professional standard
starkstark contrast
startstart (a) process
statestate explicitly, state sector, democratic state, federal state, independent state, mental state, sovereign state, clear statement, general statement, make (a) statement, written statement
statisticstatistical analysis, statistical data, statistical information, statistical method, statistical significance, statistical technique, statistical test, statistically significant, descriptive statistics, official statistics, use statistics
statuscurrent status, economic status, equal status, high status, legal status, low status, political status, professional status, relative status, social status, socioeconomic status, special status
stepfinal step
stereotypegender stereotype, negative stereotype, racial stereotype
storestore data, store information
straightforwardfairly straightforward, relatively straightforward
strategystrategic decision, strategic importance, strategic management, strategic objective, strategic planning, alternative strategy, coping strategy, develop (a) strategy, have (a) strategy, learning strategy, teaching strategy, use (a) strategy
stressstress level, cause stress, reduce stress
strikingstriking contrast, striking example, striking feature, particularly striking
strongstrong bond, strong correlation, strong emphasis, strong evidence, strong link, strong reaction, strong relationship, strong tendency, (be) strongly associated (with), (be) strongly correlated (with), (be) strongly influenced (by), (be) strongly linked, (be) strongly opposed, (be) strongly related (to), strongly agree, strongly disagree, strongly suggest
structurestructural adjustment, structural change, structural element, structural feature, structural properties, basic structure, clear structure, complex structure, economic structure, existing structure, formal structure, global structure, hierarchical structure, institutional structure, internal structure, organizational structure, overall structure, political structure, social structure, underlying structure, (be) highly structured
studynumerous studies, academic study, classic study, comparative study, conduct (a) study, detailed study, earlier study, early study, empirical study, experimental study, further study, future study, historical study, intensive study, longitudinal study, perform (a) study, pilot study, previous study, qualitative study, quantitative study, recent study, review (a) study, seminal study, subsequent study, systematic study, theoretical study
subjectsubject area
subsequentsubsequent analysis, subsequent chapter, subsequent development, subsequent study, subsequent work
substantial(a) substantial amount (of), substantial difference, substantial evidence, substantial number, substantial part, substantially different
successacademic success, economic success, successful implementation, highly successful, particularly successful, prove successful
sufficientsufficient condition, sufficient detail, sufficient evidence, sufficient information, sufficient resources
suggeststrongly suggest
suited(be) ideally suited, (be) particularly suited (to)
summarybrief summary, present (a) summary, provide (a) summary, useful summary
superiorsuperior performance
supportsupport (an) argument, additional support, considerable support, emotional support, empirical support, financial support, institutional support, mutual support, professional support, provide support, technical support, widespread support, supporting evidence
surprisinghardly surprising
surveysurvey data, conduct (a) survey, national survey, recent survey
symbioticsymbiotic relationship
symptomphysical symptom
systembinary system, capitalist system, complex system, comprehensive system, dynamic system, economic system, educational system, integrated system, legal system, solar system, transport system
systematicsystematic analysis, systematic approach, systematic study
tacittacit knowledge
taketake (a) role (in), take (an) approach, take initiative, take precedence (over), take responsibility, take into consideration, take on (the)  role (of, as), take up (the) role (of, as)
targettarget audience, meet (a) target, set (a) target
taskcarry out (the) task, complete (a) task, main task, perform (a) task, primary task
teachteaching strategy
technicaltechnical aspect, technical assistance, technical detail, technical expertise, technical issue, technical knowledge, technical problem, technical skill, technical support, technical term
techniquebasic technique, develop (a) technique, employ (a) technique, statistical technique, use (a) technique
technologytechnological advances, technological change, technological development, technological innovation, technological progress, advanced technology, current technology, digital technology, modern technology
tendencygeneral tendency, have (a) tendency (to), increasing tendency, natural tendency, show (a) tendency, strong tendency
tenetcentral tenet
termtechnical term
testtest (a) theory, test score, diagnostic test, statistical test
textclassic text, introductory text, key text, literary text, original text, textual analysis
themethematic analysis, central theme, common theme, key theme, main theme, major theme, recurrent theme
theorytheoretical analysis, theoretical approach, theoretical basis, theoretical concept, theoretical debate, theoretical framework, theoretical issue, theoretical model, theoretical perspective, theoretical study, theoretical understanding, theoretical work, apply (the) theory, classical theory, critical theory, cultural theory, develop (a) theory, economic theory, evolutionary theory, general theory, scientific theory, social theory, test (a) theory, use (a) theory
thinkthink differently, thinking process, creative thinking, critical thinking
thirdthird party
thoughtthought process, careful thought, previously thought
threatexternal threat, perceived threat, pose (a) threat (to)
tied(be) closely tied
tightly(be) tightly controlled
timebrief time, prime time
timesearlier times
toolanalytical tool, powerful tool, useful tool
toptop management
topiccover (a) topic, discuss (a) topic, key topic, related topic, research topic
totaltotal income, totally different
tradeglobal trade
traditioncultural tradition, literary tradition, western tradition, traditional approach, traditional culture, traditional form, traditional method, traditional practice, traditional research, traditional society, traditional value, traditional view
trainingprofessional training
transactionbusiness transaction, commercial transaction
transfertransferable skill
transformradical transformation, social transformation, undergo transformation
transitmake (a) transition
transmittransmit data, transmit information
transporttransport system, public transport
treattreat differently, treat equally, appropriate treatment, effective treatment, equal treatment, fair treatment, give (sb) treatment, medical treatment, preferential treatment, receive treatment, unfair treatment
treatyinternational treaty, peace treaty, sign (a) treaty
trendcurrent trend, general trend, growing trend, increasing trend, show (a) trend, social trend
trueequally true
trustmutual trust
turnoverhigh turnover, low turnover
typedistinct type, specific type
typicaltypical example
ultimateultimate goal
undergoundergo transformation
underlieunderlying assumption, underlying cause, underlying principle, underlying process, underlying reason, underlying structure
understandclearly understand, fully understand, (a) deep understanding (of), mutual understanding, theoretical understanding, (be) easily understood, (be) poorly understood, (be) properly understood, (be) readily understood
undertakeundertake (an) activity, undertake research, undertake work
uniqueunique individual, unique opportunity, unique position
universally(be) universally accepted
urbanurban area, urban centre, urban design, urban development, urban environment
usagecommon usage
useuse (a) format, use (a) method, use (a) methodology, use (a) procedure, use (a) source, use (a) strategy, use (a) technique, use (a) theory, use (an) approach, use (the) analysis, use (the) concept concept, use (the) data data, use (the) definition, use criteria, use effectively, use resources, use sparingly, use statistics, continued use, widespread use, (be) commonly used, (be) extensively used, (be) frequently used, (be) widely used, useful information, useful material, useful means, useful source, useful summary, useful tool, extremely useful, particularly useful, prove useful
validvalid argument, equally valid
valuevaluable information, valuable resources, extremely valuable, particularly valuable, core value, economic value, high value, intrinsic value, minimum value, negative value, numerical value, positive value, potential value, traditional value, (be) highly valued, cultural values, shared values
variousvarious aspects
varydependent variable, highly variable, independent variable, individual variable, random variable, single variable, considerable variation, genetic variation, individual variation, regional variation, show variation, significant variation, wide variation, vary considerably, vary greatly, vary significantly, vary widely, varying degree
vast(a) vast amount (of), (a) vast array (of), (a) vast range (of), vast area, vast majority, vast number, vast quantities (of)
verbalverbal communication, verbal language
versionearlier version, electronic version, final version, modified version, online version, original version, revised version, simplified version
vestedvested interest
viewalternative view, conventional view, negative view, positive view, traditional view
villageglobal village
violencedomestic violence, sexual violence
virtualvirtual community, virtually impossible
visiblebecome visible, clearly visible, make visible
visualvisual image, visual media, visual perception, visual representation
vital(be of) vital importance, vital part, vital role
vulnerablevulnerable group
wageminimum wage
warnuclear war
way(in a) meaningful way, alternative way, appropriate way, identify (a) way
weaponnuclear weapon
welfarewelfare reform, economic welfare, public welfare, social welfare
well(be) well documented, (be) well established, well aware, well designed, well educated, well received
westernwestern democracy, western society, western tradition
whole(a) whole range (of), whole area, whole period
wide(a) wide array (of), (a) wide range (of), wide area, wide variation, (be) widely accepted, (be) widely adopted, (be) widely believed, (be) widely discussed, (be) widely dispersed, (be) widely distributed, (be) widely known, (be) widely recognized, (be) widely regarded (as), (be) widely used, widely available, widely different, widely read, widely shared, differ widely, vary widely, wider audience, wider community, wider context, wider implications, wider issue, wider public, wider society
widespreadwidespread acceptance, widespread belief, widespread support, widespread use, become widespread
wisdomconventional wisdom
workwork effectively, academic work, classic work, creative work, earlier work, empirical work, experimental work, intellectual work, later work, original work, pioneering work, previous work, professional work, published work, scholarly work, seminal work, subsequent work, theoretical work, undertake work, manual worker, migrant worker, skilled worker, unskilled worker
worldacademic world, capitalist world, changing world, contemporary world, external world, natural world, physical world
writeacademic writing, critical writing, historical writing, later writings, written comment, written communication, written statement
yearacademic year
youngyounger generation


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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 28 November 2022.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

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