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Medical Academic Vocabulary List (MAVL)

This page describes the Medical Academic Vocabulary List (MAVL), giving information on what the MAVL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the MAVL.

To explore the list more fully, try the MAVL highlighter (on this site).

What is the MAVL?


The Medical Academic Vocabulary List (MAVL) was developed by Lei Lei and Liu Dilin in 2015, based on a study of a 2.7 million-word corpus of medical academic English and a 3.5 million-word corpus of medical English textbooks. The coverage of the MAVL in the two corpuses was 19.44% and 20.18% respectively.

The MAVL can be contrasted with the earlier Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), developed in 2008, in four ways. First, unlike the MAWL, which used only medical academic English texts, the MAVL used both medical academic English texts alongside medical English textbooks to develop the list. Second, the MAVL considered all words in English, whereas the MAWL, like most other academic lists, eliminated higher frequency general words, in the same way that the Academic Word List was developed by Averil Coxhead by first eliminating words from the GSL. The MAVL included general words since many such words have a higher frequency in academic English than general English and frequently have special meanings in academic contexts, making them potentially more important for inclusion in a specialist academic list. In this regard, it is similar to the AVL (Academic Vocabulary List), developed by Gardner and Davies in 2014, from which it derives its name. A third difference is that the MAVL includes only lemmas (i.e. words and their inflected forms such as plurals or verb forms), rather than whole word families, which makes the list much shorter, with fewer than half as many total words as the MAWL. A fourth and final difference is greater coverage, with the MAVL covering 19.44% of words in medical academic English texts, compared to 10.52% for the MAWL, and 20.18% of words in medical English textbooks, in contrast to 12.97% for the MAWL.


Lei, L., Liu, D. (2016) 'A new medical academic word list: A corpus-based study with enhanced methodology', Journal of English for Academic Purposes, Vol 22, p.42-53.

Medical Academic Vocabulary List

The list below contains all 819 words in the MAVL, along with pronunciation, word form, definition and lemmas (i.e. inflected forms such as plurals and verb forms). Definitions come from the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site, and are only given for the word form in the list. Words (and lemmas) also contain hyperlinks for a more detailed definition (these open in an alert box on the same page).

No. Headword Form Definition Lemmas
1. of or relating to or near the abdomen. E.g.: abdominal muscles
1. the quality of being able to perform; a quality that permits or facilitates achievement or accomplishment.
2. possession of the qualities (especially mental qualities) required to do something or get something done.
1. not normal; not typical or usual or regular or conforming to a norm. E.g.: abnormal powers of concentration, abnormal amounts of rain, abnormal circumstances, an abnormal interest in food
2. departing from the normal in e.g. intelligence and development. E.g.: they were heartbroken when they learned their child was abnormal, an abnormal personality
3. much greater than the normal. E.g.: abnormal profits, abnormal ambition
1. an abnormal condition.
2. retardation sufficient to fall outside the normal range of intelligence.
3. marked strangeness as a consequence of being abnormal.
4. behavior that breaches the rule or etiquette or custom or morality.
1. the state of being absent. E.g.: he was surprised by the absence of any explanation
2. failure to be present.
3. the time interval during which something or somebody is away. E.g.: he visited during my absence
4. epilepsy characterized by paroxysmal attacks of brief clouding of consciousness (a possible other abnormalities).
1. not in a specified place physically or mentally.
2. lost in thought; showing preoccupation. E.g.: an absent stare, an absentminded professer
1. perfect or complete or pure. E.g.: absolute loyalty, absolute silence, absolute truth, absolute alcohol
2. complete and without restriction or qualification; sometimes used informally as intensifiers. E.g.: absolute freedom, an absolute dimwit
3. not limited by law. E.g.: an absolute monarch
4. expressing finality with no implication of possible change. E.g.: an absolute (or unequivocal) quarantee to respect the nation's authority
5. without conditions or limitations.
6. not capable of being violated or infringed.
1. (chemistry) a process in which one substance permeates another; a fluid permeates or is dissolved by a liquid or solid.
2. (physics) the process in which incident radiated energy is retained without reflection or transmission on passing through a medium. E.g.: the absorption of photons by atoms or molecules
3. the social process of absorbing one cultural group into harmony with another.
4. the process of absorbing nutrients into the body after digestion.
5. complete attention; intense mental effort.
6. the mental state of being preoccupied by something.
1. go together.
2. allow to have.
accorded, according, accords
1. get or gather together.
2. collect or gather.
accumulated, accumulates, accumulating
1. an increase by natural growth or addition.
2. several things grouped together or considered as a whole.
3. the act of accumulating.
4. (finance) profits that are not paid out as dividends but are added to the capital base of the corporation.
1. the quality of nearness to the truth or the true value. E.g.: he was beginning to doubt the accuracy of his compass
2. (mathematics) the number of significant figures given in a number. E.g.: the atomic clock enabled scientists to measure time with much greater accuracy
1. conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy. E.g.: an accurate reproduction, the accounting was accurate, accurate measurements, an accurate scale
2. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct.
1. with few mistakes. E.g.: he works very accurately
2. strictly correctly. E.g.: repeated the order accurately
1. any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt.
2. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide.
1. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract. E.g.: They acquired a new pet
2. take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect.
3. come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes).
4. locate (a moving entity) by means of a tracking system such as radar.
5. win something through one's efforts. E.g.: I acquired a passing knowledge of Chinese
6. acquire or gain knowledge or skills. E.g.: Children acquire language at an amazing rate
7. gain through experience. E.g.: I acquired a strong aversion to television
acquired, acquires, acquiring
1. put in motion or move to act.
2. make active or more active. E.g.: activate an old file
3. make more adsorptive. E.g.: activate a metal
4. aerate (sewage) so as to favor the growth of organisms that decompose organic matter.
5. make (substances) radioactive.
activated, activates, activating
1. stimulation of activity in an organism or chemical.
2. the activity of causing to have energy and be active.
3. making active and effective (as a bomb).
1. tending to become more severe or wider in scope. E.g.: active tuberculosis
2. engaged in or ready for military or naval operations. E.g.: on active duty
3. disposed to take action or effectuate change. E.g.: a director who takes an active interest in corporate operations, an active antagonism, he was active in drawing attention to their grievances
4. taking part in an activity. E.g.: an active member of the club, he was politically active
5. characterized by energetic activity. E.g.: an active toddler, active as a gazelle, an active man is a man of action
6. exerting influence or producing an effect. E.g.: an active ingredient
7. full of activity or engaged in continuous activity. E.g.: an active seaport, an active bond market, an active account
8. in operation. E.g.: an active tradition
9. of the sun; characterized by a high level activity in sunspots and flares and radio emissions.
10. expressing that the subject of the sentence has the semantic function of actor. E.g.: Hemingway favors active constructions
11. expressing action rather than a state of being; used of verbs (e.g. `to run') and participial adjectives (e.g. `running' in `running water').
12. (of e.g. volcanos) erupting or liable to erupt. E.g.: active volcanos
13. producing activity or change.
14. engaged in full-time work. E.g.: active duty, though past retirement age he is still active in his profession
15. being in physical motion. E.g.: active fish in the aquarium
16. characterized by energetic bodily activity. E.g.: tennis is an active sport
1. any specific activity. E.g.: they avoided all recreational activity
2. the state of being active. E.g.: his sphere of activity
3. an organic process that takes place in the body. E.g.: respiratory activity
4. (chemistry) the capacity of a substance to take part in a chemical reaction. E.g.: catalytic activity
5. a process existing in or produced by nature (rather than by the intent of human beings). E.g.: volcanic activity
6. the trait of being active; moving or acting rapidly and energetically. E.g.: the level of activity declines with age
1. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course. E.g.: acute appendicitis, the acute phase of the illness, acute patients
2. extremely sharp or intense. E.g.: acute pain, felt acute annoyance
3. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions. E.g.: an acute observer of politics and politicians
4. of an angle; less than 90 degrees.
5. ending in a sharp point.
6. of critical importance and consequence. E.g.: an acute (or critical) lack of research funds
1. (sometimes followed by `to') meeting the requirements especially of a task. E.g.: she had adequate training, her training was adequate, she was adequate to the job
2. enough to meet a purpose. E.g.: an adequate income, the food was adequate
3. about average; acceptable. E.g.: more than adequate as a secretary
1. in an adequate manner.
2. in an adequate manner or to an adequate degree. E.g.: he was adequately prepared
1. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space. E.g.: had adjacent rooms
2. having a common boundary or edge; touching.
3. near or close to but not necessarily touching. E.g.: lands adjacent to the mountains, New York and adjacent cities
1. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard.
2. place in a line or arrange so as to be parallel or straight.
3. adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions. E.g.: We must adjust to the bad economic situation
4. make correspondent or conformable.
5. decide how much is to be paid on an insurance claim.
adjusted, adjusting, adjusts
1. work in an administrative capacity; supervise. E.g.: administer a program
2. administer ritually; of church sacraments.
3. administer or bestow, as in small portions. E.g.: administer critical remarks to everyone present
4. give or apply (medications).
administered, administering, administers
1. a method of tending to (especially business) matters.
2. the persons (or committees or departments etc.) who make up a body for the purpose of administering something. E.g.: he claims that the present administration is corrupt
3. the act of administering medication.
4. the tenure of a president. E.g.: things were quiet during the Eisenhower administration
1. the act of admitting someone to enter. E.g.: the surgery was performed on his second admission to the clinic
2. an acknowledgment of the truth of something.
3. the fee charged for admission.
1. (of animals) fully developed. E.g.: an adult animal
1. a fully developed person from maturity onward.
2. any mature animal.
1. move forward, also in the metaphorical sense.
2. bring forward for consideration or acceptance. E.g.: advance an argument
3. increase or raise.
4. contribute to the progress or growth of.
5. cause to move forward.
6. obtain advantages, such as points, etc..
7. develop in a positive way.
8. develop further.
9. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position. E.g.: Women tend not to advance in the major law firms
10. pay in advance. E.g.: Can you advance me some money?
11. move forward. E.g.: we have to advance clocks and watches when we travel eastward
12. rise in rate or price.
advanced, advances, advancing
1. farther along in physical or mental development. E.g.: the child's skeletal age was classified as `advanced', children in the advanced classes in elementary school read far above grade average
2. comparatively late in a course of development. E.g.: the illness had reached an advanced stage, an advanced state of exhaustion
3. ahead of the times. E.g.: the advanced teaching methods, had advanced views on the subject
4. at a higher level in training or knowledge or skill. E.g.: an advanced degree, an advanced text in physics, special seminars for small groups of advanced students at the University
5. ahead in development; complex or intricate. E.g.: advanced technology
6. far along in time. E.g.: a man of advanced age, advanced in years
7. (of societies) highly developed especially in technology or industry. E.g.: advanced societies, an advanced country technologically
8. situated ahead or going before. E.g.: at that time the most advanced outpost was still east of the Rockies
1. contrary to your interests or welfare. E.g.: adverse circumstances
2. in an opposing direction. E.g.: adverse currents
1. have an effect upon. E.g.: Will the new rules affect me?
2. act physically on; have an effect upon.
3. connect closely and often incriminatingly. E.g.: This new ruling affects your business
4. make believe with the intent to deceive.
5. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon.
affected, affecting, affects
1. how long something has existed. E.g.: it was replaced because of its age
2. an era of history having some distinctive feature. E.g.: we live in a litigious age
3. a time in life (usually defined in years) at which some particular qualification or power arises. E.g.: she was now of school age
4. a late time of life. E.g.: old age is not for sissies, age hasn't slowed him down at all
5. a prolonged period of time. E.g.: we've known each other for ages
1. advanced in years; (`aged' is pronounced as two syllables). E.g.: aged members of the society
2. at an advanced stage of erosion (pronounced as one syllable). E.g.: aged rocks
3. having attained a specific age; (`aged' is pronounced as one syllable). E.g.: aged ten
4. of wines, fruit, cheeses; having reached a desired or final condition; (`aged' pronounced as one syllable). E.g.: mature well-aged cheeses
5. (used of tobacco) aging as a preservative process (`aged' is pronounced as one syllable).
1. an active and efficient cause; capable of producing a certain effect. E.g.: their research uncovered new disease agents
2. a substance that exerts some force or effect.
3. a representative who acts on behalf of other persons or organizations.
4. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission.
5. any agent or representative of a federal agency or bureau.
6. the semantic role of the animate entity that instigates or causes the hapening denoted by the verb in the clause.
1. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends. E.g.: an aggressive businessman, an aggressive basketball player, he was aggressive and imperious; positive in his convictions, aggressive drivers
2. marked by aggressive ambition and energy and initiative. E.g.: an aggressive young exective
3. tending to spread quickly. E.g.: an aggressive tumor
4. characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight. E.g.: aggressive acts against another country
1. the principal character in a work of fiction.
2. someone involved in a contest or battle (as in an agon).
3. a muscle that contracts while another relaxes. E.g.: when bending the elbow the biceps are the agonist
4. (biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction.
1. a simple water-soluble protein found in many animal tissues and liquids.
1. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation. E.g.: The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city
2. make or become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics or essence.
3. make an alteration to. E.g.: This dress needs to be altered
4. insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby.
5. remove the ovaries of.
altered, altering, alters
1. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another.
2. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment).
3. the act of revising or altering (involving reconsideration and modification).
1. changed in form or character without becoming something else. E.g.: the altered policy promised success, following an altered course we soon found ourselves back in civilization, he looked...with couded eyes and with an altered manner of breathing- Charle
2. having testicles or ovaries removed.
3. changed in order to improve or made more fit for a particular purpose. E.g.: instructions altered to suit the children's different ages
1. in place of, or as an alternative to. E.g.: alternatively we could buy a used car
1. an investigation of the component parts of a whole and their relations in making up the whole.
2. the abstract separation of a whole into its constituent parts in order to study the parts and their relations.
3. a form of literary criticism in which the structure of a piece of writing is analysed.
4. the use of closed-class words instead of inflections: e.g., `the father of the bride' instead of `the bride's father'.
5. a branch of mathematics involving calculus and the theory of limits; sequences and series and integration and differentiation.
6. a set of techniques for exploring underlying motives and a method of treating various mental disorders; based on the theories of Sigmund Freud. E.g.: his physician recommended psychoanalysis
1. a living organism characterized by voluntary movement.
1. someone who offers opposition.
2. a muscle that relaxes while another contracts. E.g.: when bending the elbow the triceps are the antagonist
3. a drug that neutralizes or counteracts the effects of another drug.
1. of or near the head end or toward the front plane of the body.
2. earlier in time.
1. (of a drug) used to reduce inflammation.
1. a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections. E.g.: when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs
1. any of a large variety of proteins normally present in the body or produced in response to an antigen which it neutralizes, thus producing an immune response.
1. a relatively permanent state of anxiety occurring in a variety of mental disorders.
2. a vague unpleasant emotion that is experienced in anticipation of some (usually ill-defined) misfortune.
1. a type of cell death in which the cell uses specialized cellular machinery to kill itself; a cell suicide mechanism that enables metazoans to control cell number and eliminate cells that threaten the animal's survival.
1. ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation. E.g.: his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons
2. the act of drawing spatially closer to something. E.g.: the hunter's approach scattered the geese
3. a way of entering or leaving.
4. the final path followed by an aircraft as it is landing.
5. the event of one object coming closer to another.
6. a tentative suggestion designed to elicit the reactions of others.
7. the temporal property of becoming nearer in time. E.g.: the approach of winter
8. a close approximation. E.g.: the nearest approach to genius
9. a relatively short golf shot intended to put the ball onto the putting green. E.g.: he lost the hole when his approach rolled over the green
1. suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc. E.g.: a book not appropriate for children, a funeral conducted the appropriate solemnity, it seems that an apology is appropriate
2. appropriate for achieving a particular end; implies a lack of concern for fairness.
3. meant or adapted for an occasion or use. E.g.: not an appropriate (or fit) time for flippancy
4. suitable and fitting.
5. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence.
1. the act of apprehending (especially apprehending a criminal).
2. the state of inactivity following an interruption. E.g.: the negotiations were in arrest
arrested, arresting, arrests
1. of or involving or contained in the arteries. E.g.: arterial disease, the arterial system, arterial blood
1. a blood vessel that carries blood from the heart to the body.
2. a major thoroughfare that bears important traffic.
1. an appraisal of the state of affairs. E.g.: they made an assay of the contents
2. a substance that is undergoing an analysis of its components.
3. a written report of the results of an analysis of the composition of some substance.
4. a quantitative or qualitative test of a substance (especially an ore or a drug) to determine its components; frequently used to test for the presence or concentration of infectious agents or antibodies etc..
1. place a value on; judge the worth of something.
2. charge (a person or a property) with a payment, such as a tax or a fine.
3. set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine).
4. estimate the value of (property) for taxation. E.g.: Our house hasn't been assessed in years
assessed, assesses, assessing
1. the classification of someone or something with respect to its worth.
2. an amount determined as payable. E.g.: the assessment for repairs outraged the club's membership
3. the market value set on assets.
4. the act of judging or assessing a person or situation or event.
1. make a logical or causal connection.
2. keep company with; hang out with. E.g.: He associates with strange people
3. bring or come into association or action.
associated, associates, associating
1. a formal organization of people or groups of people.
2. the act of consorting with or joining with others. E.g.: you cannot be convicted of criminal guilt by association
3. the state of being connected together as in memory or imagination. E.g.: his association of his father with being beaten was too strong to break
4. a social or business relationship. E.g.: many close associations with England
5. the process of bringing ideas or events together in memory or imagination. E.g.: conditioning is a form of learning by association
6. a relation resulting from interaction or dependence. E.g.: flints were found in association with the prehistoric remains of the bear, the host is not always injured by association with a parasite
7. (chemistry) any process of combination (especially in solution) that depends on relatively weak chemical bonding.
8. (ecology) a group of organisms (plants and animals) that live together in a certain geographical region and constitute a community with a few dominant species.
1. having no symptoms of illness or disease.
1. capable of being attributed. E.g.: the collapse of the movement was attributable to a lack of morale, an idea attributable to a Russian
1. attribute or credit to. E.g.: We attributed this quotation to Shakespeare
2. decide as to where something belongs in a scheme.
attributed, attributes, attributing
1. the quality of being at hand when needed.
1. approximating the statistical norm or average or expected value. E.g.: the average income in New England is below that of the nation, of average height for his age
2. lacking special distinction, rank, or status; commonly encountered. E.g.: average people
3. of no exceptional quality or ability. E.g.: a novel of average merit, the caliber of the students has gone from mediocre to above average
4. around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures. E.g.: an orange of average size
5. relating to or constituting the most frequent value in a distribution.
6. relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in an even-numbered set).
1. a statistic describing the location of a distribution.
1. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions.
2. the center around which something rotates.
3. the main stem or central part about which plant organs or plant parts such as branches are arranged.
4. in World War II the alliance of Germany and Italy in 1936 which later included Japan and other nations.
5. a group of countries in special alliance.
6. the 2nd cervical vertebra; serves as a pivot for turning the head.
1. relating to or caused by bacteria. E.g.: bacterial infection
1. a structure or object that impedes free movement.
2. any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective. E.g.: intolerance is a barrier to understanding
3. anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access.
1. especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem; especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a root-like stem. E.g.: basal placentation
2. serving as or forming a base.
3. of primary importance.
1. use as a basis for; found on. E.g.: base a claim on some observation
2. use (purified cocaine) by burning it and inhaling the fumes.
3. assign to a station.
based, bases, basing
1. an imaginary line or standard by which things are measured or compared. E.g.: the established a baseline for the budget
2. the back line bounding each end of a tennis or handball court; when serving the server must not step over this line.
3. the lines a baseball player must follow while running the bases.
1. promoting or enhancing well-being. E.g.: an arms limitation agreement beneficial to all countries, the beneficial effects of a temperate climate
2. tending to promote physical well-being; beneficial to health. E.g.: beneficial effects of a balanced diet
1. financial assistance in time of need.
2. something that aids or promotes well-being.
3. a performance to raise money for a charitable cause.
1. not dangerous to health; not recurrent or progressive (especially of a tumor).
2. pleasant and beneficial in nature or influence. E.g.: a benign smile, the benign sky, the benign influence of pure air
3. of disposition or manner. E.g.: the benign ruler of millions, benign intentions
1. (superlative of `good') having the most positive qualities. E.g.: the best film of the year, the best solution, the best time for planting, wore his best suit
2. (comparative and superlative of `well') wiser or more advantageous and hence advisable. E.g.: the White House thought it best not to respond
1. stick to firmly.
2. create social or emotional ties.
3. make fast; tie or secure, with or as if with a rope. E.g.: The Chinese would bind the feet of their women
4. wrap around with something so as to cover or enclose.
5. secure with or as if with ropes.
6. bind by an obligation; cause to be indebted.
7. form a chemical bond with. E.g.: The hydrogen binds the oxygen
8. provide with a binding. E.g.: bind the books in leather
9. fasten or secure with a rope, string, or cord.
10. cause to be constipated.
binding, binds, bound
1. the capacity to attract and hold something.
2. strip sewn over or along an edge for reinforcement or decoration.
3. the act of applying a bandage.
4. the front and back covering of a book. E.g.: the book had a leather binding
1. of or relating to biochemistry; involving chemical processes in living organisms.
1. pertaining to biology or to life and living things.
2. of parents and children; related by blood. E.g.: biological child
1. the science that studies living organisms.
2. characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms. E.g.: the biology of viruses
3. all the plant and animal life of a particular region.
1. examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease.
1. flow of blood from a ruptured blood vessels.
1. render unsuitable for passage. E.g.: block the way
2. hinder or prevent the progress or accomplishment of. E.g.: His brother blocked him at every turn
3. stop from happening or developing.
4. interfere with or prevent the reception of signals. E.g.: block the signals emitted by this station
5. run on a block system. E.g.: block trains
6. interrupt the normal function of by means of anesthesia. E.g.: block a nerve, block a muscle
7. shut out from view or get in the way so as to hide from sight. E.g.: The thick curtain blocked the action on the stage
8. stamp or emboss a title or design on a book with a block. E.g.: block the book cover
9. obstruct. E.g.: Her arteries are blocked
10. block passage through.
11. support, secure, or raise with a block. E.g.: block a plate for printing, block the wheels of a car
12. impede the movement of (an opponent or a ball). E.g.: block an attack
13. be unable to remember. E.g.: You are blocking the name of your first wife!
14. shape by using a block. E.g.: block a garment
15. shape into a block or blocks. E.g.: block the graphs so one can see the results clearly
16. prohibit the conversion or use of (assets).
blocked, blocking, blocks
1. the fluid (red in vertebrates) that is pumped by the heart. E.g.: blood carries oxygen and nutrients to the tissues and carries waste products away, the ancients believed that blood was the seat of the emotions
2. the descendants of one individual.
3. the shedding of blood resulting in murder. E.g.: he avenged the blood of his kinsmen
4. temperament or disposition. E.g.: a person of hot blood
5. a dissolute man in fashionable society.
6. people viewed as members of a group. E.g.: we need more young blood in this organization
1. the part of the alimentary canal between the stomach and the anus.
1. that part of the central nervous system that includes all the higher nervous centers; enclosed within the skull; continuous with the spinal cord.
2. mental ability. E.g.: he's got plenty of brains but no common sense
3. that which is responsible for one's thoughts and feelings; the seat of the faculty of reason.
4. someone who has exceptional intellectual ability and originality.
5. the brain of certain animals used as meat.
1. an onerous or difficult concern. E.g.: the burden of responsibility
2. weight to be borne or conveyed.
3. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work.
4. the central idea that is expanded in a document or discourse.
1. any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.
2. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer.
3. a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini.
4. the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22.
5. type genus of the family Cancridae.
1. any malignant tumor derived from epithelial tissue; one of the four major types of cancer.
1. of or relating to the heart. E.g.: cardiac arrest
1. of or pertaining to or involving the heart and blood vessels. E.g.: cardiovascular conditioning
1. the work of caring for or attending to someone or something. E.g.: no medical care was required
2. judiciousness in avoiding harm or danger. E.g.: he handled the vase with care
3. an anxious feeling. E.g.: care had aged him
4. a cause for feeling concern. E.g.: his major care was the illness of his wife
5. attention and management implying responsibility for safety. E.g.: he is in the care of a bodyguard
6. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order. E.g.: he wrote the manual on car care
1. someone whose employment involves carrying something. E.g.: the bonds were transmitted by carrier
2. a self-propelled wheeled vehicle designed specifically to carry something. E.g.: refrigerated carriers have revolutionized the grocery business
3. a large warship that carries planes and has a long flat deck for take-offs and landings.
4. an inactive substance that is a vehicle for a radioactive tracer of the same substance and that assists in its recovery after some chemical reaction.
5. a person or firm in the business of transporting people or goods or messages.
6. a radio wave that can be modulated in order to transmit a signal.
7. a man who delivers the mail.
8. a boy who delivers newspapers.
9. a person who has some pathogen to which he is immune but who can pass it on to others.
10. a rack attached to a vehicle; for carrying luggage or skis or the like.
1. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy.
2. an occurrence of something. E.g.: it was a case of bad judgment
3. a special set of circumstances. E.g.: it may rain in which case the picnic will be canceled
4. a problem requiring investigation. E.g.: Perry Mason solved the case of the missing heir
5. the actual state of things. E.g.: that was not the case
6. a statement of facts and reasons used to support an argument. E.g.: he stated his case clearly
7. a portable container for carrying several objects. E.g.: the musicians left their instrument cases backstage
8. a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation. E.g.: the cases that we studied were drawn from two different communities
9. a person requiring professional services. E.g.: a typical case was the suburban housewife described by a marriage counselor
10. the quantity contained in a case.
11. a glass container used to store and display items in a shop or museum or home.
12. a specific state of mind that is temporary. E.g.: a case of the jitters
13. nouns or pronouns or adjectives (often marked by inflection) related in some way to other words in a sentence.
14. the housing or outer covering of something. E.g.: the clock has a walnut case
15. a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities). E.g.: a mental case
16. an enveloping structure or covering enclosing an animal or plant organ or part.
17. the enclosing frame around a door or window opening.
18. bed linen consisting of a cover for a pillow. E.g.: the burglar carried his loot in a pillowcase
1. a collection of things sharing a common attribute.
2. a general concept that marks divisions or coordinations in a conceptual scheme.
1. events that provide the generative force that is the origin of something. E.g.: they are trying to determine the cause of the crash
2. a justification for something existing or happening. E.g.: he had no cause to complain
3. a series of actions advancing a principle or tending toward a particular end. E.g.: they worked in the cause of world peace
4. any entity that causes events to happen.
5. a comprehensive term for any proceeding in a court of law whereby an individual seeks a legal remedy.
1. give rise to; cause to happen or occur, not always intentionally. E.g.: cause a commotion, cause an accident
2. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner.
caused, causes, causing
1. any small compartment. E.g.: the cells of a honeycomb
2. (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; cells may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals.
3. a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction.
4. a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement.
5. a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections (cells), each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver.
6. small room is which a monk or nun lives.
7. a room where a prisoner is kept.
1. relating to cells. E.g.: cellular walls, cellular physiology
2. characterized by or divided into or containing cells or compartments (the smallest organizational or structural unit of an organism or organization). E.g.: the cellular construction of a beehive
1. involving intelligence rather than emotions or instinct. E.g.: a cerebral approach to the problem, cerebral drama
2. of or relating to the cerebrum or brain. E.g.: cerebral hemisphere, cerebral activity
1. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another. E.g.: the change was intended to increase sales, this storm is certainly a change for the worse
2. a relational difference between states; especially between states before and after some event. E.g.: he attributed the change to their marriage
3. the action of changing something. E.g.: the change of government had no impact on the economy, his change on abortion cost him the election
4. the result of alteration or modification. E.g.: there were marked changes in the lining of the lungs, there had been no change in the mountains
5. the balance of money received when the amount you tender is greater than the amount due. E.g.: I paid with a twenty and pocketed the change
6. a thing that is different. E.g.: he inspected several changes before selecting one
7. a different or fresh set of clothes. E.g.: she brought a change in her overnight bag
8. coins of small denomination regarded collectively. E.g.: he had a pocketful of change
9. money received in return for its equivalent in a larger denomination or a different currency. E.g.: he got change for a twenty and used it to pay the taxi driver
10. a difference that is usually pleasant. E.g.: it is a refreshing change to meet a woman mechanic
1. be characteristic of.
2. describe or portray the character or the qualities or peculiarities of.
characterised, characterises, characterising, characterize, characterized, characterizes, characterizing
1. typical or distinctive. E.g.: heard my friend's characteristic laugh, red and gold are the characteristic colors of autumn, stripes characteristic of the zebra
1. a prominent aspect of something. E.g.: generosity is one of his best characteristics
2. a distinguishing quality.
3. the integer part (positive or negative) of the representation of a logarithm; in the expression log 643 = 2.808 the characteristic is 2.
4. any measurable property of a device measured under closely specified conditions.
1. the part of the human body between the neck and the diaphragm or the corresponding part in other vertebrates.
2. box with a lid; used for storage; usually large and sturdy.
3. furniture with drawers for keeping clothes.
1. the time of person's life when they are a child.
2. the state of a child between infancy and adolescence.
1. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering. E.g.: chronic indigestion, a chronic shortage of funds, a chronic invalid
2. having a habit of long standing. E.g.: a chronic smoker
1. become widely known and passed on.
2. cause to become widely known. E.g.: circulate a rumor
3. cause to be distributed.
4. move through a space, circuit or system, returning to the starting point. E.g.: Blood circulates in my veins, The air here does not circulate
5. move in circles.
6. cause to move in a circuit or system. E.g.: The fan circulates the air in the room
7. move around freely. E.g.: She circulates among royalty
8. cause to move around. E.g.: circulate a rumor
circulated, circulates, circulating
1. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines).
2. movement through a circuit; especially the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels.
3. (library science) the count of books that are loaned by a library over a specified period.
4. number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold. E.g.: by increasing its circulation the newspaper hoped to increase its advertising
5. free movement or passage through a series of vessels (as of water through pipes or sap through a plant).
6. the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area.
1. the act of distributing things into classes or categories of the same type.
2. a group of people or things arranged by class or category.
3. the basic cognitive process of arranging into classes or categories.
4. restriction imposed by the government on documents or weapons that are available only to certain authorized people.
1. arrange or order by classes or categories. E.g.: How would you classify these pottery shards--are they prehistoric?
2. declare unavailable, as for security reasons.
3. assign to a class or kind.
classified, classifies, classifying
1. the distance by which one thing clears another; the space between them.
2. vertical space available to allow easy passage under something.
3. permission to proceed. E.g.: the plane was given clearance to land
1. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists.
2. meeting for diagnosis of problems and instruction or remedial work in a particular activity.
3. a healthcare facility for outpatient care.
1. relating to a clinic or conducted in or as if in a clinic and depending on direct observation of patients. E.g.: clinical observation, clinical case study
2. scientifically detached; unemotional. E.g.: he spoke in the clipped clinical monotones typical of police testimony
1. in a clinical manner. E.g.: she is clinically qualified
1. a practitioner (of medicine or psychology) who does clinical work instead of laboratory experiments.
1. a grouping of a number of similar things. E.g.: a cluster of admirers
1. attach a code to.
2. convert ordinary language into code. E.g.: We should encode the message for security reasons
coded, codes, coding
1. of or being or relating to or involving cognition. E.g.: cognitive psychology, cognitive style
1. a company of companions or supporters.
2. a band of warriors (originally a unit of a Roman Legion).
3. a group people having approximately the same age.
1. get or gather together.
2. call for and obtain payment of. E.g.: we collected over a million dollars in outstanding debts, he collected the rent
3. assemble or get together.
4. get or bring together.
5. gather or collect.
collected, collecting, collects
1. several things grouped together or considered as a whole.
2. a publication containing a variety of works.
3. request for a sum of money.
4. the act of gathering something together.
1. a collection of things that have been combined; an assemblage of separate parts or qualities.
2. a coordinated sequence of chess moves.
3. a sequence of numbers or letters that opens a combination lock. E.g.: he forgot the combination to the safe
4. a group of people (often temporary) having a common purpose. E.g.: they were a winning combination
5. an alliance of people or corporations or countries for a special purpose (formerly to achieve some antisocial end but now for general political or economic purposes).
6. the act of arranging elements into specified groups without regard to order.
7. the act of combining things to form a new whole.
1. put or add together. E.g.: combine resources
2. have or possess in combination.
3. combine so as to form a whole; mix.
4. add together from different sources. E.g.: combine resources
5. join for a common purpose or in a common action. E.g.: These forces combined with others
6. gather in a mass, sum, or whole.
7. mix together different elements.
combined, combines, combining
1. involving the joint activity of two or more. E.g.: the attack was met by the combined strength of two divisions
2. made or joined or united into one.
1. belonging to or participated in by a community as a whole; public. E.g.: for the common good, common lands are set aside for use by all members of a community
2. of no special distinction or quality; widely known or commonly encountered; average or ordinary or usual. E.g.: the common man, a common sailor, the common cold, a common nuisance, followed common procedure, it is common knowledge that she lives alon
3. common to or shared by two or more parties. E.g.: a common friend
4. commonly encountered. E.g.: a common (or familiar) complaint
5. being or characteristic of or appropriate to everyday language. E.g.: common parlance
6. of or associated with the great masses of people. E.g.: the common people in those days suffered greatly, behavior that branded him as common
7. of low or inferior quality or value. E.g.: produced...the common cloths used by the poorer population
8. lacking refinement or cultivation or taste. E.g.: behavior that branded him as common
9. to be expected; standard. E.g.: common decency
1. under normal conditions.
1. able to be compared or worthy of comparison.
2. conforming in every respect.
1. a small space or subdivision for storage.
2. a partitioned section or separate room within a larger enclosed area.
1. having every necessary or normal part or component or step. E.g.: a complete meal, a complete wardrobe, a complete set pf the Britannica, a complete set of china, a complete defeat, a complete accounting
2. perfect and complete in every respect; having all necessary qualities. E.g.: a complete gentleman
3. having all four whorls or principal parts--sepals and petals and stamens and carpels (or pistils). E.g.: complete flowers
4. highly skilled. E.g.: a complete musician
5. without qualification; used informally as (often pejorative) intensifiers. E.g.: a complete coward
6. having come or been brought to a conclusion. E.g.: the harvesting was complete
1. come or bring to a finish or an end. E.g.: She completed the requirements for her Master's Degree
2. bring to a whole, with all the necessary parts or elements. E.g.: A child would complete the family
3. complete or carry out.
4. complete a pass.
5. write all the required information onto a form.
completed, completes, completing
1. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts. E.g.: the complex of shopping malls, houses, and roads created a new town
2. a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated.
3. (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior.
4. a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures.
1. acting according to certain accepted standards.
2. happy friendly agreement.
3. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others.
4. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another.
1. the act or process of complicating.
2. a situation or condition that is complex or confused. E.g.: her coming was a serious complication
3. any disease or disorder that occurs during the course of (or because of) another disease. E.g.: bed sores are a common complication in cases of paralysis
4. a development that complicates a situation.
5. puzzling complexity.
1. an abstract part of something. E.g.: jealousy was a component of his character
2. something determined in relation to something that includes it. E.g.: the smaller component is hard to reach
3. an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system. E.g.: spare components for cars, a component or constituent element of a system
1. form the substance of. E.g.: Greed and ambition composed his personality
2. write music. E.g.: Beethoven composed nine symphonies
3. produce a literary work. E.g.: She composed a poem
4. put together out of existing material.
5. calm (someone, especially oneself); make quiet. E.g.: She had to compose herself before she could reply to this terrible insult
6. draw up the plans or basic details for.
composed, composes, composing
1. (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.
2. a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts.
3. an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in the Orient).
1. make a compromise; arrive at a compromise. E.g.: nobody will get everything he wants; we all must compromise
2. settle by concession.
3. expose or make liable to danger, suspicion, or disrepute. E.g.: The nuclear secrets of the state were compromised by the spy
compromised, compromises, compromising, compromize, compromized, compromizes, compromizing
1. make a mathematical calculation or computation.
computed, computes, computing
1. the strength of a solution; number of molecules of a substance in a given volume (expressed as moles/cubic meter).
2. the spatial property of being crowded together.
3. strengthening the concentration (as of a solute in a mixture) by removing extraneous material.
4. increase in density.
5. complete attention; intense mental effort.
6. bringing together military forces.
7. great and constant diligence and attention.
1. following as a consequence.
1. a state at a particular time. E.g.: a condition (or state) of disrepair
2. a mode of being or form of existence of a person or thing. E.g.: the human condition
3. an assumption on which rests the validity or effect of something else.
4. (usually plural) a statement of what is required as part of an agreement. E.g.: the contract set out the conditions of the lease
5. the state of (good) health (especially in the phrases `in condition' or `in shape' or `out of condition' or `out of shape').
6. information that should be kept in mind when making a decision.
7. the procedure that is varied in order to estimate a variable's effect by comparison with a control condition.
1. direct the course of; manage or control. E.g.: You cannot conduct business like this
2. lead, as in the performance of a composition. E.g.: conduct an orchestra; Bairenboim conducted the Chicago symphony for years
3. behave in a certain manner. E.g.: They conducted themselves well during these difficult times
4. transmit or serve as the medium for transmission. E.g.: Many metals conduct heat
5. take somebody somewhere. E.g.: He conducted us to the palace
6. lead musicians in the performance of. E.g.: Bernstein conducted Mahler like no other conductor, she cannot conduct modern pieces
conducted, conducting, conducts
1. have a conference in order to talk something over. E.g.: We conferred about a plan of action
2. present. E.g.: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated
confering, conferred, conferring, confers
1. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts. E.g.: his story confirmed my doubts
2. strengthen or make more firm. E.g.: The witnesses confirmed the victim's account
3. make more firm.
4. as of a person to a position. E.g.: The Senate confirmed the President's candidate for Secretary of Defense
5. administer the rite of confirmation to. E.g.: the children were confirmed in their mother's faith
confirmed, confirming, confirms
1. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole. E.g.: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions, those rights and obligations are based on an unstated consensus
1. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating).
2. involving the lungs with progressive wasting of the body.
3. (economics) the utilization of economic goods to satisfy needs or in manufacturing. E.g.: the consumption of energy has increased steadily
4. the act of consuming something.
1. everything that is included in a collection. E.g.: he emptied the contents of his pockets, the two groups were similar in content
2. what a communication that is about something is about.
3. the proportion of a substance that is contained in a mixture or alloy etc..
4. the amount that can be contained.
5. the sum or range of what has been perceived, discovered, or learned.
6. the state of being contented with your situation in life. E.g.: he relaxed in sleepy contentedness, they could read to their heart's content
7. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation.
1. continuing in time or space without interruption. E.g.: a continuous rearrangement of electrons in the solar atoms results in the emission of light- James Jeans, a continuous bout of illness lasting six months, lived in continuous fear, a continuous row
2. of a function or curve; extending without break or irregularity.
1. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared. E.g.: in contrast to, by contrast
2. the act of distinguishing by comparing differences.
3. a conceptual separation or demarcation.
4. the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors.
5. the range of optical density and tone on a photographic negative or print (or the extent to which adjacent areas on a television screen differ in brightness).
1. power to direct or determine. E.g.: under control
2. a relation of constraint of one entity (thing or person or group) by another. E.g.: measures for the control of disease, they instituted controls over drinking on campus
3. (physiology) regulation or maintenance of a function or action or reflex etc. E.g.: the timing and control of his movements were unimpaired, he had lost control of his sphincters
4. a standard against which other conditions can be compared in a scientific experiment. E.g.: the control condition was inappropriate for the conclusions he wished to draw
5. the activity of managing or exerting control over something. E.g.: the control of the mob by the police was admirable
6. the state that exists when one person or group has power over another.
7. discipline in personal and social activities. E.g.: she never lost control of herself
8. great skillfulness and knowledge of some subject or activity.
9. the economic policy of controlling or limiting or curbing prices or wages etc.. E.g.: they wanted to repeal all the legislation that imposed economic controls
10. a mechanism that controls the operation of a machine. E.g.: the speed control on his turntable was not working properly, I turned the controls over to her
11. a spiritual agency that is assumed to assist the medium during a seance.
1. exercise authoritative control or power over. E.g.: control the budget
2. lessen the intensity of; temper; hold in restraint; hold or keep within limits. E.g.: control your anger
3. handle and cause to function. E.g.: control the lever
4. control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to one's advantage. E.g.: She is a very controlling mother and doesn't let her children grow up
5. verify or regulate by conducting a parallel experiment or comparing with another standard, of scientific experiments. E.g.: Are you controlling for the temperature?
6. verify by using a duplicate register for comparison. E.g.: control an account
7. be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something. E.g.: control the quality of the product
8. have a firm understanding or knowledge of; be on top of. E.g.: Do you control these data?
controlled, controlling, controls
1. restrained or managed or kept within certain bounds. E.g.: controlled emotions, the controlled release of water from reservoirs
2. curbed or regulated. E.g.: controlled emotions
1. marked by or capable of arousing controversy. E.g.: the issue of the death penalty is highly controversial, Rushdie's controversial book, a controversial decision on affirmative action
1. with the terms of the relation reversed. E.g.: conversely, not all women are mothers
1. an event that results in a transformation.
2. a change in the units or form of an expression. E.g.: conversion from Fahrenheit to Centigrade
3. a successful free throw or try for point after a touchdown.
4. a spiritual enlightenment causing a person to lead a new life.
5. (psychiatry) a defense mechanism represses emotional conflicts which are then converted into physical symptoms that have no organic basis.
6. a change of religion. E.g.: his conversion to the Catholic faith
7. interchange of subject and predicate of a proposition.
8. act of exchanging one type of money or security for another.
9. the act of changing from one use or function or purpose to another.
1. the center of an object. E.g.: the ball has a titanium core
2. a small group of indispensable persons or things. E.g.: five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program
3. the central part of the Earth.
4. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience.
5. a cylindrical sample of soil or rock obtained with a hollow drill.
6. an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality.
7. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work.
8. the chamber of a nuclear reactor containing the fissile material where the reaction takes place.
9. a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil.
1. make right or correct.
2. make reparations or amends for.
3. censure severely.
4. adjust or make up for. E.g.: engineers will work to correct the effects or air resistance
5. punish in order to gain control or enforce obedience.
6. go down in value. E.g.: the stock market corrected
7. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard. E.g.: correct the alignment of the front wheels
8. treat a defect. E.g.: The new contact lenses will correct for his myopia
corrected, correcting, corrects
1. the act of offering an improvement to replace a mistake; setting right.
2. a quantity that is added or subtracted in order to increase the accuracy of a scientific measure.
3. something substituted for an error.
4. a rebuke for making a mistake.
5. a drop in stock market activity or stock prices following a period of increases. E.g.: market runups are invariably followed by a correction
6. the act of punishing.
7. treatment of a specific defect. E.g.: the correction of his vision with eye glasses
1. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation. E.g.: Do these facts correlate?
2. bring into a mutual, complementary, or reciprocal relation. E.g.: I cannot correlate these two pieces of information
correlated, correlates, correlating
1. a reciprocal relation between two or more things.
2. a statistic representing how closely two variables co-vary; it can vary from -1 (perfect negative correlation) through 0 (no correlation) to +1 (perfect positive correlation). E.g.: what is the correlation between those two variables?
3. a statistical relation between two or more variables such that systematic changes in the value of one variable are accompanied by systematic changes in the other.
1. the total number counted. E.g.: a blood count
2. the act of counting. E.g.: the counting continued for several hours
3. a nobleman (in various countries) having rank equal to a British earl.
1. a chemical waste molecule that is generated as the end product of creatine metabolism, transported through the bloodstream to the kidneys and excreted in urine.
1. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated.
2. the ideal in terms of which something can be judged.
criteria, criterions
1. marked by a tendency to find and call attention to errors and flaws. E.g.: a critical attitude
2. at or of a point at which a property or phenomenon suffers an abrupt change especially having enough mass to sustain a chain reaction. E.g.: a critical temperature of water is 100 degrees C--its boiling point at standard atmospheric pressure, critical mass;
3. characterized by careful evaluation and judgment. E.g.: a critical reading, a critical dissertation, a critical analysis of Melville's writings
4. urgently needed; absolutely necessary. E.g.: a critical element of the plan, critical medical supplies
5. forming or having the nature of a turning point or crisis. E.g.: a critical point in the campaign, the critical test
6. being in or verging on a state of crisis or emergency. E.g.: a critical shortage of food, a critical illness, an illness at the critical stage
7. of or involving or characteristic of critics or criticism. E.g.: critical acclaim
1. a particular society at a particular time and place.
2. the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group.
3. all the knowledge and values shared by a society.
4. (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar). E.g.: the culture of cells in a Petri dish
5. (bacteriology) the product of cultivating micro-organisms in a nutrient medium.
6. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality.
7. the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization. E.g.: the developing drug culture, the reason that the agency is doomed to inaction has something to do with the FBI culture
8. the raising of plants or animals. E.g.: the culture of oysters
1. occurring in or belonging to the present time. E.g.: current events, the current topic, current negotiations, current psychoanalytic theories, the ship's current position
1. the trace of a point whose direction of motion changes.
2. a line on a graph representing data.
3. a baseball thrown with spin so that its path curves as it approach the batter.
4. the property possessed by the curving of a line or surface.
5. curved segment (of a road or river or railroad track etc.).
1. an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs. E.g.: the neverending cycle of the seasons
2. a series of poems or songs on the same theme. E.g.: schubert's song cycles
3. a periodically repeated sequence of events. E.g.: a cycle of reprisal and retaliation
4. the unit of frequency; one Hertz has a periodic interval of one second.
5. a single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon. E.g.: a year constitutes a cycle of the seasons
6. a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals.
1. any of various proteins secreted by cells of the immune system that serve to regulate the immune system.
1. the occurrence of a change for the worse.
2. loss of military equipment.
3. the act of damaging something or someone.
4. the amount of money needed to purchase something. E.g.: how much is the damage?
5. a legal injury is any damage resulting from a violation of a legal right.
1. an item of factual information derived from measurement or research.
1. the event of dying or departure from life. E.g.: her death came as a terrible shock
2. the permanent end of all life functions in an organism or part of an organism. E.g.: the animal died a painful death
3. the time at which life ends; continuing until dead. E.g.: she stayed until his death
4. the personification of death.
5. the absence of life or state of being dead. E.g.: he seemed more content in death than he had ever been in life
6. the time when something ends. E.g.: it was the death of all his plans
7. the act of killing. E.g.: he had two deaths on his conscience
8. a final state.
1. a change downward. E.g.: there was a decrease in his temperature as the fever subsided
2. a process of becoming smaller or shorter.
3. the amount by which something decreases.
4. the act of decreasing or reducing something.
1. decrease in size, extent, or range. E.g.: The amount of homework decreased towards the end of the semester
2. make smaller. E.g.: He decreased his staff
decreased, decreases, decreasing
1. an imperfection in a bodily system. E.g.: visual defects, this device permits detection of defects in the lungs
2. a failing or deficiency. E.g.: that interpretation is an unfortunate defect of our lack of information
3. an imperfection in a device or machine. E.g.: if there are any defects you should send it back to the manufacturer
4. a mark or flaw that spoils the appearance of something (especially on a person's body).
1. the state of needing something that is absent or unavailable. E.g.: water is the critical deficiency in desert regions
2. lack of an adequate quantity or number.
1. give a definition for the meaning of a word.
2. determine the essential quality of.
3. determine the nature of. E.g.: What defines a good wine?
4. delineate the form or outline of. E.g.: The tree was clearly defined by the light, The camera could define the smallest object
defined, defines, defining
1. a concise explanation of the meaning of a word or phrase or symbol.
2. clarity of outline. E.g.: exercise had give his muscles superior definition
1. clearly defined or formulated.
2. of recognized authority or excellence. E.g.: the definitive work on Greece
3. supplying or being a final or conclusive settlement. E.g.: a definitive verdict
1. time during which some action is awaited. E.g.: instant replay caused too long a delay
2. the act of delaying; inactivity resulting in something being put off until a later time.
1. cause to be slowed down or delayed. E.g.: Traffic was delayed by the bad weather, she delayed the work that she didn't want to perform
2. act later than planned, scheduled, or required. E.g.: Don't delay your application to graduate school or else it won't be considered
3. stop or halt.
4. slow the growth or development of.
delayed, delaying, delays
1. the act of delivering or distributing something (as goods or mail). E.g.: his reluctant delivery of bad news
2. the event of giving birth. E.g.: she had a difficult delivery
3. your characteristic style or manner of expressing yourself orally.
4. the voluntary transfer of something (title or possession) from one party to another.
5. (baseball) the throwing of a baseball by a pitcher to a batter.
6. recovery or preservation from loss or danger.
7. the act of delivering a child.
1. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience.
2. establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. E.g.: The experiment demonstrated the instability of the compound
3. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes. E.g.: This decision demonstrates his se
4. march in protest; take part in a demonstration. E.g.: Thousands demonstrated against globalization during the meeting of the most powerful economic nations in Seattle
demonstrated, demonstrates, demonstrating
1. the amount per unit size.
2. the spatial property of being crowded together.
1. lack of independence or self-sufficiency.
2. being abnormally tolerant to and dependent on something that is psychologically or physically habit-forming (especially alcohol or narcotic drugs).
1. not independent. E.g.: dependent children
2. contingent on something else.
3. of a clause; unable to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence. E.g.: a subordinate (or dependent) clause functions as a noun or adjective or adverb within a sentence
4. being under the power or sovereignty of another or others. E.g.: a dependent prince
5. addicted to a drug.
1. reason by deduction; establish by deduction.
2. obtain. E.g.: derive pleasure from one's garden
3. come from. E.g.: The present name derives from an older form
4. develop or evolve, especially from a latent or potential state.
5. come from; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example.
derived, derives, deriving
1. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of. E.g.: She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water
detected, detecting, detects
1. capable of being detected.
2. easily seen or detected. E.g.: a detectable note of sarcasm
1. the perception that something has occurred or some state exists. E.g.: early detection can often lead to a cure
2. the act of detecting something; catching sight of something.
3. the detection that a signal is being received.
4. a police investigation to determine the perpetrator. E.g.: detection is hard on the feet
1. a determining or causal element or factor. E.g.: education is an important determinant of one's outlook on life
2. a square matrix used to solve simultaneous equations.
1. the act of determining the properties of something.
2. the quality of being determined to do or achieve something. E.g.: his determination showed in his every movement
3. a position or opinion or judgment reached after consideration. E.g.: satisfied with the panel's determination
4. the act of making up your mind about something.
1. after a calculation, investigation, experiment, survey, or study.
2. shape or influence; give direction to. E.g.: experience often determines ability
3. fix conclusively or authoritatively.
4. decide upon or fix definitely.
5. reach, make, or come to a decision about something.
6. fix in scope; fix the boundaries of; the tree determines the border of the property.
7. settle conclusively; come to terms.
8. find out, learn, or determine with certainty, usually by making an inquiry or other effort.
determined, determines, determining
1. make something new, such as a product or a mental or artistic creation. E.g.: Her company developed a new kind of building material that withstands all kinds of weather, They developed a new technique
2. work out. E.g.: We have developed a new theory of evolution
3. gain through experience. E.g.: Children must develop a sense of right and wrong, Dave developed leadership qualities in his new position, develop a passion for painting
4. come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes). E.g.: The patient developed abdominal pains, Well-developed breasts
5. come into existence; take on form or shape.
6. change the use of and make available or usable. E.g.: develop land, The country developed its natural resources
7. elaborate, as of theories and hypotheses. E.g.: Could you develop the ideas in your thesis
8. create by training and teaching. E.g.: we develop the leaders for the future
9. be gradually disclosed or unfolded; become manifest. E.g.: The plot developed slowly;
10. grow, progress, unfold, or evolve through a process of evolution, natural growth, differentiation, or a conducive environment. E.g.: A flower developed on the branch, The country developed into a mighty superpower, The embryo develops into a fetus
11. become technologically advanced. E.g.: Many countries in Asia are now developing at a very fast pace
12. cause to grow and differentiate in ways conforming to its natural development. E.g.: The perfect climate here develops the grain, He developed a new kind of apple
13. generate gradually. E.g.: We must develop more potential customers, develop a market for the new mobile phone
14. grow emotionally or mature. E.g.: The child developed beautifully in her new kindergarten
15. make visible by means of chemical solutions. E.g.: Please develop this roll of film for me
16. superimpose a three-dimensional surface on a plane without stretching, in geometry.
17. move one's pieces into strategically more advantageous positions. E.g.: Spassky developed quickly
18. move into a strategically more advantageous position. E.g.: develop the rook
19. elaborate by the unfolding of a musical idea and by the working out of the rhythmic and harmonic changes in the theme. E.g.: develop the melody and change the key
20. happen. E.g.: Report the news as it develops
21. expand in the form of a series.
developed, developing, develops
1. a variation that deviates from the standard or norm. E.g.: the deviation from the mean
2. the difference between an observed value and the expected value of a variable or function.
3. the error of a compass due to local magnetic disturbances.
4. deviate behavior.
5. a turning aside (of your course or attention or concern).
1. an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose. E.g.: the device is small enough to wear on your wrist, a device intended to conserve water
2. something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect.
3. any clever (deceptive) maneuver. E.g.: he would stoop to any device to win a point
4. any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery).
5. an emblematic design (especially in heraldry). E.g.: he was recognized by the device on his shield
1. any of several metabolic disorders marked by excessive urination and persistent thirst.
1. determine or distinguish the nature of a problem or an illness through a diagnostic analysis.
2. subject to a medical analysis.
diagnosed, diagnoses, diagnosing
1. identifying the nature or cause of some phenomenon.
1. concerned with diagnosis; used for furthering diagnosis. E.g.: a diagnostic clinic, a diagnostic reading test, diagnostic information
2. characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease. E.g.: a diagnostic sign of yellow fever, diagnostic information
1. the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference.
2. a straight line connecting the center of a circle with two points on its perimeter (or the center of a sphere with two points on its surface).
1. a prescribed selection of foods.
2. a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan).
3. the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal).
4. the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods).
1. relating to or showing a difference. E.g.: differential treatment
2. involving or containing one or more derivatives. E.g.: differential equation
1. mark as different.
2. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense.
3. calculate a derivative; take the derivative.
4. become different during development. E.g.: cells differentiate
5. evolve so as to lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment.
6. become distinct and acquire a different character.
differentiated, differentiates, differentiating
1. a discrimination between things as different and distinct.
2. the mathematical process of obtaining the derivative of a function.
3. (biology) the structural adaptation of some body part for a particular function. E.g.: cell differentiation in the developing embryo
1. spread out; not concentrated in one place. E.g.: a large diffuse organization
2. lacking conciseness. E.g.: a diffuse historical novel
1. decrease in size, extent, or range.
2. lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of.
diminished, diminishes, diminishing
1. the condition of being unable to perform as a consequence of physical or mental unfitness. E.g.: reading disability
1. the sudden giving off of energy.
2. the act of venting.
3. a substance that is emitted or released.
4. any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body. E.g.: the discharge of pus
5. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field.
6. the pouring forth of a fluid.
7. the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart).
8. a formal written statement of relinquishment.
9. the act of discharging a gun.
1. put an end to a state or an activity.
2. come or be at an end. E.g.: the support from our sponsoring agency will discontinue after March 31
3. prevent completion.
discontinued, discontinues, discontinuing
1. an impairment of health or a condition of abnormal functioning.
1. condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning. E.g.: the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder
2. a condition in which things are not in their expected places. E.g.: the files are in complete disorder
3. a disturbance of the peace or of public order.
1. situated farthest from point of attachment or origin, as of a limb or bone.
2. directed away from the midline or mesial plane of the body.
1. mark as different. E.g.: We distinguish several kinds of maple
2. detect with the senses.
3. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense. E.g.: His modesty distinguishes him form his peers
4. make conspicuous or noteworthy.
5. identify as in botany or biology, for example.
distinguished, distinguishes, distinguishing
1. psychological suffering. E.g.: the death of his wife caused him great distress
2. a state of adversity (danger or affliction or need). E.g.: a ship in distress, she was the classic maiden in distress
3. extreme physical pain. E.g.: the patient appeared to be in distress
4. the seizure and holding of property as security for payment of a debt or satisfaction of a claim. E.g.: Originally distress was a landloard's remedy against a tenant for unpaid rents or property damage but now the landlord is given a landlord's lien
1. (statistics) an arrangement of values of a variable showing their observed or theoretical frequency of occurrence.
2. the spatial property of being scattered about over an area or volume.
3. the act of distributing or spreading or apportioning.
4. the commercial activity of transporting and selling goods from a producer to a consumer.
1. separate into parts or portions. E.g.: divide the cake into three equal parts
2. perform a division. E.g.: Can you divide 49 by seven?
3. act as a barrier between; stand between. E.g.: The mountain range divides the two countries
4. come apart.
5. make a division or separation.
6. force, take, or pull apart.
divided, divides, dividing
1. record in detail. E.g.: The parents documented every step of their child's development
2. support or supply with references. E.g.: Can you document your claims?
documented, documenting, documents
1. a particular environment or walk of life.
2. territory over which rule or control is exercised. E.g.: his domain extended into Europe
3. the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined.
4. people in general; especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest.
5. a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about. E.g.: it was a limited domain of discourse
1. the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time.
1. a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time.
2. the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time.
3. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide.
1. a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic.
1. owed and payable immediately or on demand. E.g.: payment is due
2. proper and appropriate; fitting. E.g.: due esteem
3. scheduled to arrive. E.g.: the train is due in 15 minutes
4. suitable to or expected in the circumstances. E.g.: all due respect, due cause to honor them, a long due promotion, in due course
5. reasonable in the circumstances. E.g.: gave my comments due consideration, exercising due care
1. the period of time during which something continues.
2. the property of enduring or continuing in time.
3. continuance in time. E.g.: the ceremony was of short duration
1. (medicine) any disturbance in the function of an organ or body part.
1. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon. E.g.: the magnetic effect was greater when the rod was lengthwise
2. an outward appearance. E.g.: she retained that bold effect in her reproductions of the original painting
3. (of a law) having legal validity. E.g.: the law is still in effect
4. a symptom caused by an illness or a drug. E.g.: the effects of sleep loss, the effect of the anesthetic
5. an impression (especially one that is artificial or contrived). E.g.: he just did it for effect
6. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work.
1. producing or capable of producing an intended result or having a striking effect. E.g.: an air-cooled motor was more effective than a witch's broomstick for rapid long-distance transportation-LewisMumford, effective teaching methods, effective steps towar
2. able to accomplish a purpose; functioning effectively. E.g.: people who will do nothing unless they get something out of it for themselves are often highly effective persons...-G.B.Shaw, effective personnel
3. works well as a means or remedy. E.g.: an effective reprimand, a lotion that is effective in cases of prickly heat
4. exerting force or influence. E.g.: the law is effective immediately
5. existing in fact; not theoretical; real. E.g.: a decline in the effective demand, confused increased equipment and expenditure with the quantity of effective work done
6. equipped and ready for service. E.g.: the fort was held by about 100 effective soldiers
1. power to be effective; the quality of being able to bring about an effect.
2. capacity to produce strong physiological or chemical effects.
1. capacity or power to produce a desired effect. E.g.: concern about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine
1. advanced in years; (`aged' is pronounced as two syllables). E.g.: elderly residents could remember the construction of the first skyscraper
1. raised above ground level; on elevated rails. E.g.: elevated railway
2. raised above the ground. E.g.: an elevated platform
1. the event of something being raised upward. E.g.: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon
2. the highest level or degree attainable.
3. angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object).
4. a raised or elevated geological formation.
5. distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level). E.g.: there was snow at the higher elevations
6. (ballet) the height of a dancer's leap or jump. E.g.: a dancer of exceptional elevation
7. drawing of an exterior of a structure.
8. the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something. E.g.: his elevation to cardinal
1. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses).
2. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning).
3. derive by reason. E.g.: elicit a solution
elicited, eliciting, elicits
1. terminate or take out. E.g.: Let's eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics
2. do away with.
3. kill in large numbers.
4. dismiss from consideration. E.g.: This possibility can be eliminated from our consideration
5. eliminate from the body.
6. remove from a contest or race. E.g.: The cyclist has eliminated all the competitors in the race
7. remove (an unknown variable) from two or more equations.
eliminated, eliminates, eliminating
1. give extra weight to (a communication).
2. to stress, single out as important.
emphasised, emphasises, emphasising, emphasize, emphasized, emphasizes, emphasizing
1. derived from experiment and observation rather than theory. E.g.: an empirical basis for an ethical theory, empirical laws, empirical data, an empirical treatment of a disease about which little is known
2. relying on medical quackery.
1. convert ordinary language into code. E.g.: We should encode the message for security reasons
encoded, encodes, encoding
1. of or resembling an endogen.
2. derived or originating internally.
1. of or relating to or located in the endothelium.
1. increase. E.g.: This will enhance your enjoyment
2. make better or more attractive. E.g.: This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat
enhanced, enhances, enhancing
1. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving).
1. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions.
1. of or relating to epidemiology. E.g.: epidemiological studies
1. the branch of medical science dealing with the transmission and control of disease.
1. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events.
2. a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series.
3. a part of a broadcast serial.
4. film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie.
1. equal in amount or value. E.g.: equivalent amounts
2. being essentially equal to something. E.g.: a wish that was equivalent to a command
1. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention. E.g.: she was quick to point out my errors
2. inadvertent incorrectness.
3. a misconception resulting from incorrect information.
4. (baseball) a failure of a defensive player to make an out when normal play would have sufficed.
5. departure from what is ethically acceptable.
6. (computer science) the occurrence of an incorrect result produced by a computer.
7. part of a statement that is not correct. E.g.: the book was full of errors
1. brought about or set up or accepted; especially long established. E.g.: the established social order, a team established as a member of a major league, enjoyed his prestige as an established writer, an established pr
2. securely established. E.g.: an established reputation
3. settled securely and unconditionally.
4. shown to be valid beyond a reasonable doubt. E.g.: the established facts in the case
5. conforming with accepted standards.
6. introduced from another region and persisting without cultivation.
1. act of ascertaining or fixing the value or worth of.
2. an appraisal of the value of something.
1. something that happens at a given place and time.
2. a special set of circumstances. E.g.: in that event, the first possibility is excluded
3. a phenomenon located at a single point in space-time; the fundamental observational entity in relativity theory.
4. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon. E.g.: he acted very wise after the event
1. your basis for belief or disbelief; knowledge on which to base belief. E.g.: the evidence that smoking causes lung cancer is very compelling
2. an indication that makes something evident. E.g.: his trembling was evidence of his fear
3. (law) all the means by which any alleged matter of fact whose truth is investigated at judicial trial is established or disproved.
1. clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or senses. E.g.: evident hostility
2. capable of being seen or noticed. E.g.: a clearly evident erasure in the manuscript
1. work out.
2. undergo development or evolution. E.g.: Modern man evolved a long time ago
3. gain through experience.
evolved, evolves, evolving
1. marked by strict and particular and complete accordance with fact. E.g.: an exact mind, an exact copy, hit the exact center of the target
2. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct.
1. the act of examining something closely (as for mistakes).
2. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge.
3. formal systematic questioning.
4. examination of conscience (as done daily by Jesuits).
5. the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned.
1. consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning.
2. observe, check out, and look over carefully or inspect. E.g.: The customs agent examined the baggage
3. question or examine thoroughly and closely.
4. question closely.
5. put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to.
examined, examines, examining
1. go beyond. E.g.: Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds
2. go beyond. E.g.: She exceeded our expectations
3. be or do something to a greater degree. E.g.: This exceeds all my expectations
exceeded, exceeding, exceeds
1. more than is needed, desired, or required. E.g.: trying to lose excess weight
1. beyond normal limits. E.g.: excessive charges
2. unrestrained in especially feelings.
1. prevent from being included or considered or accepted. E.g.: The bad results were excluded from the report
2. prevent from entering; shut out. E.g.: This policy excludes people who have a criminal record from entering the country
3. lack or fail to include. E.g.: The cost for the trip excludes food and beverages
4. prevent from entering; keep out.
5. put out or expel from a place.
excluded, excludes, excluding
1. the state of being excluded.
2. the state of being excommunicated.
3. a deliberate act of omission.
4. the act of forcing out someone or something.
1. the activity of exerting your muscles in various ways to keep fit. E.g.: the doctor recommended regular exercise
2. the act of using.
3. systematic training by multiple repetitions.
4. a task performed or problem solved in order to develop skill or understanding.
5. (usually plural) a ceremony that involves processions and speeches. E.g.: academic exercises
1. put to use. E.g.: exert one's power or influence
2. of power or authority.
3. make a great effort at a mental or physical task. E.g.: exert oneself
exerted, exerting, exerts
1. show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill. E.g.: he exhibits a great talent
2. to show, make visible or apparent. E.g.: The Metropolitan Museum is exhibiting Goya's works this month
3. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience.
4. walk ostentatiously.
exhibited, exhibiting, exhibits
1. go or live through.
2. have firsthand knowledge of states, situations, emotions, or sensations.
3. (of mental or physical states or experiences) experience or feel. E.g.: experience vertigo
4. undergo an emotional sensation.
5. undergo.
experienced, experiences, experiencing
1. having become knowledgeable or skillful from observation or participation.
1. the act of conducting a controlled test or investigation.
2. the testing of an idea. E.g.: it was an experiment in living, not all experimentation is done in laboratories
3. a venture at something new or different. E.g.: as an experiment he decided to grow a beard
1. relating to or based on experiment. E.g.: experimental physics
2. relying on observation or experiment. E.g.: experimental results that supported the hypothesis
3. of the nature of or undergoing an experiment. E.g.: an experimental drug
1. expose or make accessible to some action or influence. E.g.: expose the blanket to sunshine
2. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret.
3. to show, make visible or apparent.
4. remove all or part of one's clothes to show one's body. E.g.: The man exposed himself in the subway
5. disclose to view as by removing a cover.
6. put in a dangerous, disadvantageous, or difficult position.
7. expose to light, of photographic film.
8. expose while ridiculing; especially of pretentious or false claims and ideas.
9. abandon by leaving out in the open air. E.g.: The infant was exposed by the teenage mother
exposed, exposes, exposing
1. vulnerability to the elements; to the action of heat or cold or wind or rain. E.g.: exposure to the weather or they died from exposure;
2. the act of subjecting someone to an influencing experience. E.g.: she denounced the exposure of children to pornography
3. the disclosure of something secret. E.g.: they feared exposure of their campaign plans
4. aspect re light or wind. E.g.: the studio had a northern exposure
5. the state of being vulnerable or exposed. E.g.: his exposure to ridicule
6. the intensity of light falling on a photographic film or plate. E.g.: he used the wrong exposure
7. a picture of a person or scene in the form of a print or transparent slide; recorded by a camera on light-sensitive material.
8. the act of exposing film to light.
9. presentation to view in an open or public manner. E.g.: the exposure of his anger was shocking
10. abandoning without shelter or protection (as by leaving as infant out in the open).
1. give expression to.
2. articulate; either verbally or with a cry, shout, or noise. E.g.: She expressed her anger
3. indicate through a symbol, formula, etc.. E.g.: Can you express this distance in kilometers?
4. serve as a means for expressing something.
5. manifest the effects of (a gene or genetic trait). E.g.: Many of the laboratory animals express the trait
6. obtain from a substance, as by mechanical action. E.g.: Italians express coffee rather than filter it
7. send my rapid transport or special messenger service. E.g.: She expressed the letter to Florida
expressed, expresses, expressing
1. the expression on a person's face. E.g.: a sad expression
2. expression without words. E.g.: tears are an expression of grief
3. the communication (in speech or writing) of your beliefs or opinions. E.g.: expressions of good will, he helped me find expression for my ideas
4. a word or phrase that particular people use in particular situations. E.g.: pardon the expression
5. the style of expressing yourself. E.g.: his manner of expression showed how much he cared
6. a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement.
7. (genetics) the process of expressing a gene.
8. a group of words that form a constituent of a sentence and are considered as a single unit.
9. the act of forcing something out by squeezing or pressing. E.g.: the expression of milk from her breast
1. a mutually agreed delay in the date set for the completion of a job or payment of a debt. E.g.: they applied for an extension of the loan
2. act of expanding in scope; making more widely available. E.g.: extension of the program to all in need
3. the spreading of something (a belief or practice) into new regions.
4. an educational opportunity provided by colleges and universities to people who not enrolled as regular students.
5. act of stretching or straightening out a flexed limb.
6. a string of characters beginning with a period and followed by one to three letters; the optional second part of a PC computer filename. E.g.: most applications provide extensions for the files they create, most BASIC files use the filename extension .BAS
7. the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to. E.g.: the extension of `satellite of Mars' is the set containing only Demos and Phobos
8. the ability to raise the working leg high in the air. E.g.: the dancer was praised for her uncanny extension, good extension comes from a combination of training and native ability
9. amount or degree or range to which something extends. E.g.: the wire has an extension of 50 feet
10. an additional telephone set that is connected to the same telephone line.
11. an addition to the length of something.
12. an addition that extends a main building.
1. large in spatial extent or range. E.g.: an extensive Roman settlement in northwest England
2. having broad range or effect. E.g.: had extensive press coverage
3. large in number or quantity (especially of discourse). E.g.: extensive press coverage
4. great in range or scope. E.g.: extensive examples of picture writing, suffered extensive damage
5. of agriculture; increasing productivity by using large areas with minimal outlay and labor. E.g.: producing wheat under extensive conditions, agriculture of the extensive type
1. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface. E.g.: the external auditory canal, external pressures
2. coming from the outside.
3. from or between other countries. E.g.: external commerce
4. purely outward or superficial. E.g.: external composure, an external concern for reputation- A.R.Gurney,Jr.
1. located or occurring outside a cell or cells. E.g.: extracellular fluid
1. make easier. E.g.: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge
2. be of use.
3. physiology: increase the likelihood of (a response). E.g.: The stimulus facilitates a delayed impulse
facilitated, facilitates, facilitating
1. anything that contributes causally to a result. E.g.: a number of factors determined the outcome
2. an abstract part of something. E.g.: a key factor in her success
3. any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together.
4. one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer. E.g.: what are the 4 factors of 6?
5. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission.
6. an independent variable in statistics.
7. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity. E.g.: genes were formerly called factors
1. an act that fails. E.g.: his failure to pass the test
2. an event that does not accomplish its intended purpose. E.g.: the surprise party was a complete failure
3. lack of success. E.g.: he felt that his entire life had been a failure, that year there was a crop failure
4. a person with a record of failing; someone who loses consistently.
5. an unexpected omission. E.g.: he resented my failure to return his call, the mechanic's failure to check the brakes
6. inability to discharge all your debts as they come due. E.g.: fraudulent loans led to the failure of many banks
7. loss of ability to function normally. E.g.: kidney failure
1. not in accordance with the fact or reality or actuality. E.g.: gave false testimony under oath, false tales of bravery
2. arising from error. E.g.: a false assumption
3. erroneous and usually accidental. E.g.: a false start, a false alarm
4. deliberately deceptive. E.g.: hollow (or false) promises, false pretenses
5. inappropriate to reality or facts. E.g.: false hopes
6. not genuine or real; being an imitation of the genuine article. E.g.: false teeth
7. designed to deceive. E.g.: a suitcase with a false bottom
8. inaccurate in pitch. E.g.: a false (or sour) note
9. adopted in order to deceive.
10. (used especially of persons) not dependable in devotion or affection; unfaithful. E.g.: a false friend
1. relating to or having the characteristics of a family. E.g.: children of the same familial background, familial aggregation
2. tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity. E.g.: familial traits
1. temporary loss of strength and energy resulting from hard physical or mental work. E.g.: he was hospitalized for extreme fatigue, growing fatigue was apparent from the decline in the execution of their athletic skills
2. used of materials (especially metals) in a weakened state caused by long stress. E.g.: metal fatigue
3. (always used with a modifier) boredom resulting from overexposure to something. E.g.: he was suffering from museum fatigue, after watching TV with her husband she had a bad case of football fatigue, the American public is experiencing scandal fatigue
4. labor of a nonmilitary kind done by soldiers (cleaning or digging or draining or so on). E.g.: the soldiers were put on fatigue to teach them a lesson, they were assigned to kitchen fatigues
1. being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces fertilizable gametes (ova) from which offspring develop. E.g.: a female heir, female holly trees bear the berries
2. characteristic of or peculiar to a woman. E.g.: female sensitiveness, female suffrage
3. for or composed of women or girls. E.g.: the female lead in the play, a female chorus
1. an animal that produces gametes (ova) that can be fertilized by male gametes (spermatozoa).
2. a person who belongs to the sex that can have babies.
1. a rise in the temperature of the body; frequently a symptom of infection.
2. intense nervous anticipation. E.g.: in a fever of resentment
1. a diagram or picture illustrating textual material.
1. the motion characteristic of fluids (liquids or gases).
2. the amount of fluid that flows in a given time.
3. the act of flowing or streaming; continuous progression.
4. any uninterrupted stream or discharge.
5. something that resembles a flowing stream in moving continuously. E.g.: the museum had planned carefully for the flow of visitors
6. dominant course (suggestive of running water) of successive events or ideas. E.g.: the flow of thought
7. the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause.
1. a substance that is fluid at room temperature and pressure.
2. a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas.
1. having or localized centrally at a focus. E.g.: focal point, focal infection
2. of or relating to a focus. E.g.: focal length
1. the concentration of attention or energy on something. E.g.: the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology
2. maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system. E.g.: in focus, out of focus
3. maximum clarity or distinctness of an idea. E.g.: the controversy brought clearly into focus an important difference of opinion
4. a central point or locus of an infection in an organism. E.g.: the focus of infection
5. special emphasis attached to something.
6. a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges.
7. a fixed reference point on the concave side of a conic section.
foci, focuses
1. direct one's attention on something. E.g.: Please focus on your studies and not on your hobbies
2. cause to converge on or toward a central point.
3. bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions.
4. become focussed or come into focus. E.g.: The light focused
5. put (an image) into focus. E.g.: Please focus the image; we cannot enjoy the movie
focused, focuses, focusing, focussed, focussing
1. of or relating to a fetus.
1. a piece of work that exploits or builds on earlier work. E.g.: his new software is a follow-up to the programs they started with
2. an activity that continues something that has already begun or that repeats something that has already been done.
3. a subsequent examination of a patient for the purpose of monitoring earlier treatment.
1. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit. E.g.: a defensive formation, a formation of planes
2. a particular spatial arrangement.
3. the fabrication of something in a particular shape.
4. the act of forming something.
5. (geology) the geological features of the earth.
6. natural process that causes something to form. E.g.: the formation of gas in the intestine, the formation of crystals, the formation of pseudopods
7. creation by mental activity. E.g.: the formation of sentences, the formation of memories
1. a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process.
2. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole.
3. the quotient of two rational numbers.
1. a piece broken off or cut off of something else. E.g.: a fragment of rock
2. a broken piece of a brittle artifact.
3. an incomplete piece. E.g.: fragments of a play
1. the number of occurrences within a given time period (usually 1 second). E.g.: the frequency of modulation was 40 cycles per second
2. the ratio of the number of observations in a statistical category to the total number of observations.
3. the number of observations in a given statistical category.
1. coming at short intervals or habitually. E.g.: a frequent guest, frequent complaints
2. frequently encountered. E.g.: a frequent (or common) error is using the transitive verb `lay' for the intransitive `lie';
1. a mathematical relation such that each element of one set is associated with at least one element of another set.
2. what something is used for. E.g.: the function of an auger is to bore holes
3. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. E.g.: the function of a teacher
4. a relation such that one thing is dependent on another. E.g.: height is a function of age, price is a function of supply and demand
5. a formal or official social gathering or ceremony. E.g.: it was a black-tie function
6. a vaguely specified social event. E.g.: a seemingly endless round of social functions
7. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
1. perform as expected when applied.
2. serve a purpose, role, or function. E.g.: The table functions as a desk
3. perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function.
functioned, functioning, functions
1. designed for or capable of a particular function or use. E.g.: a style of writing in which every word is functional, functional architecture
2. involving or affecting function rather than physiology. E.g.: functional deafness
3. relating to or based on function especially as opposed to structure. E.g.: the problem now is not a constitutional one; it is a functional one, delegates elected on a functional rather than a geographical basis
4. fit or ready for use or service. E.g.: the toaster was still functional even after being dropped
5. designed for or adapted to a function or use. E.g.: functional education selects knowledge that is concrete and usable rather than abstract and theoretical, functional architecture
6. (of e.g. a machine) performing or capable of performing. E.g.: a functional set of brakes
1. a quantity that is added. E.g.: they recorded the cattle's gain in weight over a period of weeks
2. the advantageous quality of being beneficial.
3. the amount of increase in signal power or voltage or current expressed as the ratio of output to input.
4. the amount by which the revenue of a business exceeds its cost of operating.
1. of or relating to the stomach and intestines. E.g.: a gastrointestinal disorder
1. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity. E.g.: genes were formerly called factors
1. speak or write in generalities.
2. draw from specific cases for more general cases.
3. cater to popular taste to make popular and present to the general public; bring into general or common use.
4. become systemic and spread throughout the body.
generalised, generalises, generalising, generalize, generalized, generalizes, generalizing
1. bring into existence. E.g.: The new manager generated a lot of problems, The computer bug generated chaos in the office
2. give or supply.
3. produce (energy). E.g.: We can't generate enough power for the entire city, The hydroelectric plant needs to to generate more electricity
4. make children.
generated, generates, generating
1. tending to occur among members of a family usually by heredity. E.g.: genetically transmitted features
2. of or relating to or produced by or being a gene. E.g.: genetic code
3. of or relating to the science of genetics. E.g.: genetic research
1. the ordering of genes in a haploid set of chromosomes of a particular organism; the full DNA sequence of an organism. E.g.: the human genome contains approximately three billion chemical base pairs
1. a group of organisms sharing a specific genetic constitution.
2. the particular alleles at specified loci present in an organism.
1. involving the entire earth; not limited or provincial in scope. E.g.: global war, global monetary policy
2. having the shape of a sphere or ball.
1. a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy.
1. a body of students who are taught together.
2. a relative position or degree of value in a graded group. E.g.: lumber of the highest grade
3. the gradient of a slope or road or other surface. E.g.: the road had a steep grade
4. one-hundredth of a right angle.
5. a degree of ablaut.
6. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance). E.g.: grade A milk
7. the height of the ground on which something stands. E.g.: the base of the tower was below grade
8. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality.
9. a variety of cattle produced by crossbreeding with a superior breed.
1. not to be surpassed.
2. greatest in size of those under consideration.
3. greatest in importance or degree or significance or achievement. E.g.: our greatest statesmen
4. highest in quality.
1. any number of entities (members) considered as a unit.
2. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule.
3. a set that is closed, associative, has an identity element and every element has an inverse.
1. (biology) the process of an individual organism growing organically; a purely biological unfolding of events involved in an organism changing gradually from a simple to a more complex level.
2. a progression from simpler to more complex forms. E.g.: the growth of culture
3. a process of becoming larger or longer or more numerous or more important. E.g.: the growth of population
4. vegetation that has grown. E.g.: a growth of trees, the only growth was some salt grass
5. the gradual beginning or coming forth.
6. (pathology) an abnormal proliferation of tissue (as in a tumor).
7. something grown or growing. E.g.: a growth of hair
1. direct the course; determine the direction of travelling.
2. take somebody somewhere.
3. be a guiding force, as with directions or advice.
4. use as a guide. E.g.: They had the lights to guide on
5. guide or pass over something.
guided, guides, guiding
1. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters.
2. a detailed plan or explanation to guide you in setting standards or determining a course of action.
3. a rule or principle that provides guidance to appropriate behavior.
1. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune. E.g.: drinking alcohol is a health hazard
2. an unknown and unpredictable phenomenon that causes an event to result one way rather than another.
3. an obstacle on a golf course.
1. the natural process by which the body repairs itself.
1. a healthy state of wellbeing free from disease. E.g.: physicians should be held responsible for the health of their patients
2. the general condition of body and mind. E.g.: his delicate health, in poor health
1. having or indicating good health in body or mind; free from infirmity or disease. E.g.: a rosy healthy baby, staying fit and healthy
2. financially secure and functioning well. E.g.: a healthy economy
3. promoting health; healthful. E.g.: a healthy diet, clean healthy air, plenty of healthy sleep, healthy and normal outlets for youthful energy
4. physically and mentally sound or healthy.
5. exercising or showing good judgment. E.g.: healthy scepticism, a healthy fear of rattlesnakes, the healthy attitude of French laws, healthy relations between labor and management
1. the vertical dimension of extension; distance from the base of something to the top.
2. the highest level or degree attainable. E.g.: at the height of her career
3. natural height of a person or animal in an upright position.
4. elevation especially above sea level or above the earth's surface.
1. consisting of elements that are not of the same kind or nature. E.g.: the population of the United States is vast and heterogeneous
2. originating outside the body.
[haɪ rɪsk]
1. not financially safe or secure.
1. greater than normal in degree or intensity or amount. E.g.: a high temperature, a high price, the high point of his career, high risks, has high hopes, the river is high, he has a high opinion of himself
2. (literal meanings) being at or having a relatively great or specific elevation or upward extension (sometimes used in combinations like `knee-high'). E.g.: a high mountain, high ceilings, high buildings, a high forehead, a high incline, a foot high
3. standing above others in quality or position. E.g.: people in high places, the high priest
4. used of sounds and voices; high in pitch or frequency.
5. happy and excited and energetic.
6. used of the smell of game beginning to taint.
7. slightly and pleasantly intoxicated from alcohol or a drug (especially marijuana).
1. of or relating to histology.
1. the aggregate of past events. E.g.: a critical time in the school's history
2. the continuum of events occurring in succession leading from the past to the present and even into the future. E.g.: all of human history
3. a record or narrative description of past events. E.g.: a history of France
4. the discipline that records and interprets past events involving human beings. E.g.: he teaches Medieval history, history takes the long view
5. all that is remembered of the past as preserved in writing; a body of knowledge. E.g.: the dawn of recorded history, from the beginning of history
1. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.
1. a health facility where patients receive treatment.
2. a medical institution where sick or injured people are given medical or surgical care.
1. a person who invites guests to a social event (such as a party in his or her own home) and who is responsible for them while they are there.
2. a vast multitude.
3. an animal or plant that nourishes and supports a parasite; the host does not benefit and is often harmed by the association.
4. a person who acts as host at formal occasions (makes an introductory speech and introduces other speakers).
5. archaic terms for army.
6. any organization that provides resources and facilities for a function or event. E.g.: Atlanta was chosen to be host for the Olympic Games
7. (medicine) recipient of transplanted tissue or organ from a donor.
8. the owner or manager of an inn.
9. a technical name for the bread used in the service of Mass or Holy Communion.
10. (computer science) a computer that provides client stations with access to files and printers as shared resources to a computer network.
1. characteristic of humanity. E.g.: human nature
2. relating to a person. E.g.: the experiment was conducted on 6 monkeys and 2 human subjects
3. having human form or attributes as opposed to those of animals or divine beings. E.g.: human beings, the human body, human kindness, human frailty
1. a human being.
2. any living or extinct member of the family Hominidae.
1. a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater).
1. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations.
2. a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena. E.g.: a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory
3. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence.
1. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different. E.g.: rows of identical houses, cars identical except for their license plates
2. being the exact same one; not any other:. E.g.: this is the identical room we stayed in before
3. (of twins) derived from a single egg or ovum. E.g.: identical twins are monovular
4. having properties with uniform values along all axes.
5. coinciding exactly when superimposed. E.g.: identical triangles
1. the act of designating or identifying something.
2. attribution to yourself (consciously or unconsciously) of the characteristics of another person (or group of persons).
3. evidence of identity; something that identifies a person or thing.
4. the condition of having your identity established. E.g.: the thief's identification was followed quickly by his arrest
5. the process of recognizing something or someone by remembering.
1. recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something.
2. give the name or identifying characteristics of; refer to by name or some other identifying characteristic property.
3. consider (oneself) as similar to somebody else.
4. conceive of as united or associated.
5. identify as in botany or biology, for example.
6. consider to be equal or the same.
identified, identifies, identifying
1. impairment of normal physiological function affecting part or all of an organism.
1. an iconic mental representation. E.g.: her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate
2. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface. E.g.: a movie is a series of images projected so rapidly that the eye integrates them
3. (Jungian psychology) a personal facade that one presents to the world. E.g.: a public image is as fragile as Humpty Dumpty
4. a standard or typical example. E.g.: he provided America with an image of the good father
5. language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense.
6. someone who closely resembles a famous person (especially an actor). E.g.: she's the very image of her mother
7. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture). E.g.: the emperor's tomb had his image carved in stone
1. the ability to form mental images of things or events.
2. (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body.
1. relating to the condition of immunity. E.g.: the immune system
2. secure against. E.g.: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda, immune from criminal prosecution
3. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection).
4. (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence. E.g.: immune to persuasion
1. of or relating to a substance that lowers the body's normal immune response and induces immunosuppression.
1. diminished in strength, quality, or utility. E.g.: impaired eyesight
2. mentally or physically unfit.
1. bring into intimate and incriminating connection. E.g.: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government
2. impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result.
implicated, implicates, implicating
1. lack of ability (especially mental ability) to do something.
2. lacking the power to perform.
1. (sometimes followed by `to') not meeting the requirements especially of a task. E.g.: inadequate training, the staff was inadequate, she was inadequate to the job
2. not sufficient to meet a need. E.g.: an inadequate income
1. the relative frequency of occurrence of something.
2. the striking of a light beam on a surface. E.g.: he measured the angle of incidence of the reflected light
1. have as a part, be made up out of. E.g.: The list includes the names of many famous writers
2. consider as part of something. E.g.: I include you in the list of culprits
3. add as part of something else; put in as part of a set, group, or category. E.g.: We must include this chemical element in the group
4. allow participation in or the right to be part of; permit to exercise the rights, functions, and responsibilities of.
included, includes, including
1. the state of being included.
2. the relation of comprising something. E.g.: he admired the inclusion of so many ideas in such a short work
3. any small intracellular body found within another (characteristic of certain diseases). E.g.: an inclusion in the cytoplasm of the cell
4. the act of including.
1. not complete or total; not completed. E.g.: an incomplete account of his life, political consequences of incomplete military success, an incomplete forward pass
2. lacking one or more of the four whorls of the complete flower--sepals or petals or stamens or pistils. E.g.: an incomplete flower
3. not yet finished. E.g.: his thesis is still incomplete
1. maintaining something at the most favorable temperature for its development.
2. (pathology) the phase in the development of an infection between the time a pathogen enters the body and the time the first symptoms appear.
3. sitting on eggs so as to hatch them by the warmth of the body.
1. a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number.
2. a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time.
3. a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.
4. an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed.
5. the finger next to the thumb.
indexes, indices
1. be a signal for or a symptom of. E.g.: These symptoms indicate a serious illness
2. indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively. E.g.: he indicated his opponents
3. to state or express briefly. E.g.: indicated his wishes in a letter
4. give evidence of. E.g.: The results indicate the need for more work
5. suggest the necessity of an intervention; in medicine. E.g.: Tetracycline is indicated in such cases
indicated, indicates, indicating
1. something that serves to indicate or suggest. E.g.: an indication of foul play, indications of strain
2. the act of indicating or pointing out by name.
3. (medicine) a reason to prescribe a drug or perform a procedure. E.g.: the presence of bacterial infection was an indication for the use of antibiotics
4. something (as a course of action) that is indicated as expedient or necessary. E.g.: there were indications that it was time to leave
5. a datum about some physical state that is presented to a user by a meter or similar instrument. E.g.: the barometer gave clear indications of an approaching storm
1. a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time.
2. a signal for attracting attention.
3. a device for showing the operating condition of some system.
4. (chemistry) a substance that changes color to indicate the presence of some ion or substance; can be used to indicate the completion of a chemical reaction or (in medicine) to test for a particular reaction.
1. having intervening factors or persons or influences. E.g.: reflection from the ceiling provided a soft indirect light, indirect evidence, an indirect cause
2. not direct in spatial dimension; not leading by a straight line or course to a destination. E.g.: sometimes taking an indirect path saves time, must take an indirect couse in sailing
3. descended from a common ancestor but through different lines. E.g.: an indirect descendant of the Stuarts
4. extended senses; not direct in manner or language or behavior or action. E.g.: making indirect but legitimate inquiries, an indirect insult, doubtless they had some indirect purpose in mind, though his methods are indirect they are not dishonest
5. not as a direct effect or consequence. E.g.: indirect benefits, an indirect advantage
1. being or characteristic of a single thing or person. E.g.: individual drops of rain, please mark the individual pages, they went their individual ways
2. separate and distinct from others of the same kind. E.g.: mark the individual pages
3. characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing. E.g.: an individual serving
4. concerning one person exclusively. E.g.: we all have individual cars
1. a human being.
2. a single organism.
1. cause to arise. E.g.: induce a crisis
2. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner. E.g.: The ads induced me to buy a VCR
3. cause to occur rapidly.
4. reason or establish by induction.
5. produce electric current by electrostatic or magnetic processes.
induced, induces, inducing
1. a formal entry into an organization or position or office. E.g.: he was ordered to report for induction into the army
2. an electrical phenomenon whereby an electromotive force (EMF) is generated in a closed circuit by a change in the flow of current.
3. reasoning from detailed facts to general principles.
4. the process whereby changes in the current flow in a circuit produce magnetism or an EMF.
5. stimulation that calls up (draws forth) a particular class of behaviors.
6. (physics) a property of an electric circuit by which an electromotive force is induced in it by a variation of current.
7. the act of bringing about something (especially at an early time). E.g.: the induction of an anesthetic state
8. an act that sets in motion some course of events.
1. the pathological state resulting from the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms.
2. (phonetics) the alteration of a speech sound under the influence of a neighboring sound.
3. (medicine) the invasion of the body by pathogenic microorganisms and their multiplication which can lead to tissue damage and disease.
4. an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted.
5. the communication of an attitude or emotional state among a number of people. E.g.: the infection of his enthusiasm for poetry
6. moral corruption or contamination. E.g.: ambitious men are led astray by an infection that is almost unavoidable
7. (international law) illegality that taints or contaminates a ship or cargo rendering it liable to seizure.
1. caused by infection or capable of causing infection.
2. easily spread. E.g.: fear is exceedlingly infectious; children catch it from their elders- Bertrand Russell
3. of or relating to infection. E.g.: infectious hospital, infectious disease
1. of or characteristic of low rank or importance.
2. of low or inferior quality.
3. inferior in rank or status.
4. written or printed below and to one side of another character.
5. having an orbit between the sun and the Earth's orbit. E.g.: Mercury and Venus are inferior planets
6. lower than a given reference point. E.g.: inferior alveolar artery
7. falling short of some prescribed norm.
1. a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat.
2. the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up. E.g.: he tried to calm those who were in a state of extreme inflammation
3. arousal to violent emotion.
4. the act of setting on fire or catching fire.
1. characterized or caused by inflammation. E.g.: an inflammatory process, an inflammatory response
2. arousing to action or rebellion.
1. a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water).
2. the process of extracting certain active properties (as a drug from a plant) by steeping or soaking (usually in water).
3. (medicine) the passive introduction of a substance (a fluid or drug or electrolyte) into a vein or between tissues (as by gravitational force).
4. the act of infusing or introducing a certain modifying element or quality. E.g.: the team's continued success is attributable to a steady infusion of new talent
1. to put down by force or authority.
2. limit the range or extent of. E.g.: Contact between the young was inhibited by strict social customs
inhibited, inhibiting, inhibits
1. (psychology) the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires.
2. the quality of being inhibited.
3. (physiology) the process whereby nerves can retard or prevent the functioning of an organ or part. E.g.: the inhibition of the heart by the vagus nerve
4. the action of prohibiting or inhibiting or forbidding (or an instance thereof). E.g.: a medical inhibition of alcoholic beverages
1. a substance that retards or stops an activity.
1. restrictive of action.
1. occurring at the beginning. E.g.: took the initial step toward reconciliation
1. at the beginning.
1. bring into being. E.g.: He initiated a new program
2. take the lead or initiative in; participate in the development of.
3. accept young people into society, usually with some rite. E.g.: African men are initiated when they reach puberty
4. bring up a topic for discussion.
5. prepare the way for.
initiated, initiates, initiating
1. a formal entry into an organization or position or office. E.g.: his initiation into the club
2. the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new. E.g.: she looked forward to her initiation as an adult
3. wisdom as evidenced by the possession of knowledge. E.g.: his dullness was due to lack of initiation
4. an act that sets in motion some course of events.
1. give an injection to. E.g.: We injected the glucose into the patient's vein
2. to introduce (a new aspect or element). E.g.: He injected new life into the performance
3. force or drive (a fluid or gas) into by piercing. E.g.: inject hydrogen into the balloon
4. take by injection. E.g.: inject heroin
5. feed intravenously.
6. to insert between other elements.
injected, injecting, injects
1. the forceful insertion of a substance under pressure.
2. any solution that is injected (as into the skin).
3. the act of putting a liquid into the body by means of a syringe.
1. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc..
2. an accident that results in physical damage or hurt.
3. a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat.
4. an act that injures someone.
1. put or introduce into something. E.g.: insert a picture into the text
2. introduce.
3. fit snugly into. E.g.: insert your ticket into the slot
4. insert casually.
inserted, inserting, inserts
1. a message (spoken or written) that is introduced or inserted. E.g.: with many insertions in the margins
2. the act of putting one thing into another.
1. an unstable order.
2. unreliability attributable to being unstable.
3. a state of disequilibrium (as may occur in cases of inner ear disease).
4. the quality or attribute of being unstable and irresolute.
1. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement. E.g.: insufficient funds
1. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells.
1. constituting the undiminished entirety; lacking nothing essential especially not damaged. E.g.: fought to keep the union intact
2. not impaired or diminished in any way. E.g.: emerged from the trial with his prestige intact, the blast left his hearint intact
3. (of a woman) having the hymen unbroken. E.g.: she was intact, virginal
4. (used of domestic animals) sexually competent.
5. undamaged in any way; whole. E.g.: the vase remained intact despite rough handling
1. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating).
2. an opening through which fluid is admitted to a tube or container.
1. the amount of energy transmitted (as by acoustic or electromagnetic radiation). E.g.: he adjusted the intensity of the sound
2. high level or degree; the property of being intense.
3. the magnitude of sound (usually in a specified direction).
4. chromatic purity: freedom from dilution with white and hence vividness of hue.
1. characterized by a high degree or intensity; often used as a combining form. E.g.: the questioning was intensive, intensive care, research-intensive, a labor-intensive industry
2. tending to give force or emphasis. E.g.: an intensive adverb
3. of agriculture; intended to increase productivity of a fixed area by expending more capital and labor. E.g.: intensive agriculture, intensive conditions
1. act together or towards others or with others. E.g.: He should interact more with his colleagues
interacted, interacting, interacts
1. a mutual or reciprocal action; interacting.
2. (physics) the transfer of energy between elementary particles or between an elementary particle and a field or between fields; mediated by gauge bosons.
1. come between so as to be hindrance or obstacle. E.g.: Your talking interferes with my work!
2. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force.
interfered, interferes, interfering
1. lying between two extremes in time or space or degree. E.g.: going from sitting to standing without intermediate pushes with the hands, intermediate stages in a process, intermediate stops on the route, an intermediate level
2. around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures. E.g.: intermediate capacity, a plane with intermediate range
1. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface. E.g.: internal organs, internal mechanism of a toy, internal party maneuvering
2. occurring within an institution or community.
3. inside the country. E.g.: the nation's internal politics
4. located inward.
5. innermost or essential. E.g.: the internal contradictions of the theory
1. make sense of; assign a meaning to. E.g.: How do you interpret his behavior?
2. give an interpretation or explanation to.
3. give an interpretation or rendition of.
4. create an image or likeness of.
5. restate (words) from one language into another language. E.g.: Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?
6. make sense of a language.
interpreted, interpreting, interprets
1. a mental representation of the meaning or significance of something.
2. the act of interpreting something as expressed in an artistic performance.
3. an explanation that results from interpreting something. E.g.: the report included his interpretation of the forensic evidence
4. an explanation of something that is not immediately obvious. E.g.: the edict was subject to many interpretations
1. a definite length of time marked off by two instants.
2. a set containing all points (or all real numbers) between two given endpoints.
3. the distance between things.
4. the difference in pitch between two notes.
1. the act of intervening (as to mediate a dispute).
2. a policy of intervening in the affairs of other countries.
3. (law) a proceeding that permits a person to enter into a lawsuit already in progress; admission of person not an original party to the suit so that person can protect some right or interest that is allegedly affected by the proceedings.
1. of or relating to or inside the intestines. E.g.: intestinal disease
1. located or occurring within a cell or cells. E.g.: intracellular fluid
1. within or by means of a vein. E.g.: an intravenous inflammation, intravenous feeding
1. belonging to a thing by its very nature. E.g.: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing- John Dewey
2. situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. E.g.: intrinsic muscles
1. the first section of a communication.
2. the act of beginning something new.
3. formally making a person known to another or to the public.
4. a basic or elementary instructional text.
5. a new proposal. E.g.: they resisted the introduction of impractical alternatives
6. the act of putting one thing into another.
7. the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new. E.g.: he regards the fork as a modern introduction
1. relating to a technique in which the body is entered by puncture or incision.
2. marked by a tendency to spread especially into healthy tissue. E.g.: invasive cancer cells
3. involving invasion or aggressive attack. E.g.: invasive war
4. gradually intrusive without right or permission. E.g.: invasive tourists
1. a scientist who devotes himself to doing research.
2. someone who investigates.
3. a police officer who investigates crimes.
1. connect closely and often incriminatingly.
2. engage as a participant. E.g.: Don't involve me in your family affairs!
3. have as a necessary feature or consequence; entail. E.g.: This decision involves many changes
4. require as useful, just, or proper.
5. contain as a part. E.g.: Dinner at Joe's always involves at least six courses
6. wrap. E.g.: The tower was involved in mist
7. occupy or engage the interest of. E.g.: His story completely involved me during the entire afternoon
8. make complex or intricate or complicated. E.g.: The situation was rather involved
involved, involves, involving
1. the act of sharing in the activities of a group.
2. a connection of inclusion or containment. E.g.: he escaped involvement in the accident, there was additional involvement of the liver and spleen
3. a sense of concern with and curiosity about someone or something.
4. a usually secretive or illicit sexual relationship.
5. the condition of sharing in common with others (as fellows or partners etc.).
1. place or set apart. E.g.: They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates
2. obtain in pure form. E.g.: The chemist managed to isolate the compound
3. set apart from others.
4. separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them.
isolated, isolates, isolating
1. a state of separation between persons or groups.
2. the act of isolating something; setting something apart from others.
3. a feeling of being disliked and alone.
4. preference for seclusion or isolation.
5. (psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which memory of an unacceptable act or impulse is separated from the emotion originally associated with it.
6. a country's withdrawal from internal politics. E.g.: he opposed a policy of American isolation
1. either of two bean-shaped excretory organs that filter wastes (especially urea) from the blood and excrete them and water in urine; urine passes out of the kidney through ureters to the bladder.
1. an enzyme that catalyzes the conversion of a proenzyme to an active enzyme.
1. apprehended with certainty. E.g.: a known quantity, the limits of the known world, a musician known throughout the world, a known criminal
1. assign a label to; designate with a label. E.g.: These students were labelled `learning disabled'
2. attach a tag or label to. E.g.: label these bottles
3. pronounce judgment on. E.g.: They labeled him unfit to work here
4. distinguish (as a compound or molecule) by introducing a labeled atom.
5. distinguish (an element or atom) by using a radioactive isotope or an isotope of unusual mass for tracing through chemical reactions.
labeled, labeling, labelled, labelling, labels
1. a workplace for the conduct of scientific research.
2. a region resembling a laboratory inasmuch as it offers opportunities for observation and practice and experimentation. E.g.: Pakistan is a laboratory for studying the use of American troops to co
1. situated at or extending to the side. E.g.: the lateral branches of a tree
2. lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body. E.g.: lateral lemniscus
1. single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance.
2. a relatively thin sheetlike expanse or region lying over or under another.
3. an abstract place usually conceived as having depth. E.g.: a simile has at least two layers of meaning
4. a hen that lays eggs.
5. thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells.
1. take somebody somewhere. E.g.: We lead him to our chief
2. result in.
3. tend to or result in. E.g.: This remark lead to further arguments among the guests
4. travel in front of; go in advance of others.
5. cause to undertake a certain action.
6. stretch out over a distance, space, time, or scope; run or extend between two points or beyond a certain point.
7. be in charge of.
8. be ahead of others; be the first.
9. be conducive to. E.g.: The use of computers in the classroom lead to better writing
10. lead, as in the performance of a composition.
11. pass or spend. E.g.: lead a good life
12. lead, extend, or afford access.
13. move ahead (of others) in time or space.
14. cause something to pass or lead somewhere.
15. preside over.
leading, leads, led
1. the superlative of `little' that can be used with mass nouns and is usually preceded by `the'; a quantifier meaning smallest in amount or extent or degree. E.g.: didn't care the least bit, he has the least talent of anyone
2. minimal in magnitude. E.g.: the least amount of fat allowed
3. having or being distinguished by diminutive size. E.g.: the least bittern
1. being or located on or directed toward the side of the body to the west when facing north. E.g.: my left hand, left center field, the left bank of a river is bank on your left side when you are facing downstream
2. not used up. E.g.: leftover meatloaf, she had a little money left over so she went to a movie, some odd dollars left
3. intended for the left hand. E.g.: I rarely lose a left-hand glove
4. of or belonging to the political or intellectual left.
1. the linear extent in space from one end to the other; the longest horizontal dimension of something that is fixed in place. E.g.: the length of the table was 5 feet
2. continuance in time. E.g.: he complained about the length of time required
3. the property of being the extent of something from beginning to end. E.g.: the editor limited the length of my article to 500 words
4. size of the gap between two places. E.g.: he determined the length of the shortest line segment joining the two points
5. a section of something that is long and narrow. E.g.: a length of timber, a length of tubing
1. any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part.
2. any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision.
1. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality. E.g.: a high level of care is required
2. a relative position or degree of value in a graded group.
3. a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process.
4. height above ground. E.g.: the water reached ankle level, the pictures were at the same level
5. indicator that establishes the horizontal when a bubble is centered in a tube of liquid.
6. a flat surface at right angles to a plumb line. E.g.: park the car on the level
7. structure consisting of a room or set of rooms comprising a single level of a multilevel building. E.g.: what level is the office on?
8. an abstract place usually conceived as having depth. E.g.: a good actor communicates on several levels
1. the probability of a specified outcome.
1. one of the jointed appendages of an animal used for locomotion or grasping: arm; leg; wing; flipper.
2. any of the main branches arising from the trunk or a bough of a tree.
3. (astronomy) the circumferential edge of the apparent disc of the sun or the moon or a planet.
4. either of the two halves of a bow from handle to tip. E.g.: the upper limb of the bow
5. the graduated arc that is attached to an instrument for measuring angles. E.g.: the limb of the sextant
6. any projection that is thought to resemble an arm.
1. place limits on (extent or access). E.g.: limit the time you can spend with your friends
2. restrict or confine. E.g.: I limit you to two visits to the pub a day
3. decide upon or fix definitely.
limited, limiting, limits
1. a principle that limits the extent of something.
2. the quality of being limited or restricted. E.g.: it is a good plan but it has serious limitations
3. the greatest amount of something that is possible or allowed. E.g.: it is growing rapidly with no limitation in sight
4. (law) a time period after which suits cannot be brought. E.g.: statute of limitations
5. an act of limiting or restricting (as by regulation).
1. small in range or scope. E.g.: limited war, a limited success, a limited circle of friends
2. subject to limits or subjected to limits.
3. including only a part.
4. mediocre.
5. not excessive.
6. having a specific function or scope.
7. not unlimited. E.g.: a limited list of choices
1. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree.
2. of or in or along or relating to a line; involving a single dimension. E.g.: a linear foot
3. of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input. E.g.: linear amplifier
4. of a leaf shape; long and narrow.
5. measured lengthwise.
1. an associative relation.
2. (genetics) traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes; all of the genes of a given chromosome are linked (where one goes they all go).
3. a mechanical system of rods or springs or pivots that transmits power or motion.
4. the act of linking things together.
1. weight to be borne or conveyed.
2. a quantity that can be processed or transported at one time. E.g.: the system broke down under excessive loads
3. goods carried by a large vehicle.
4. an amount of alcohol sufficient to intoxicate. E.g.: he got a load on and started a brawl
5. the power output of a generator or power plant.
6. an onerous or difficult concern. E.g.: that's a load off my mind
7. a deposit of valuable ore occurring within definite boundaries separating it from surrounding rocks.
8. the front part of a guided missile or rocket or torpedo that carries the nuclear or explosive charge or the chemical or biological agents.
9. electrical device to which electrical power is delivered.
1. confined or restricted to a particular location.
2. made local or oriented locally.
1. by a particular locality. E.g.: it was locally decided
2. to a restricted area of the body.
1. situated in a particular spot or position. E.g.: valuable centrally located urban land
1. the act of losing. E.g.: everyone expected him to win so his loss was a shock
2. something that is lost. E.g.: the car was a total loss, loss of livestock left the rancher bankrupt
3. the amount by which the cost of a business exceeds its revenue. E.g.: the company operated at a loss last year
4. gradual decline in amount or activity. E.g.: weight loss, a serious loss of business
5. the disadvantage that results from losing something. E.g.: his loss of credibility led to his resignation
6. military personnel lost by death or capture.
7. the experience of losing a loved one. E.g.: he sympathized on the loss of their grandfather
8. euphemistic expressions for death.
1. less than normal in degree or intensity or amount. E.g.: low prices, the reservoire is low
2. literal meanings; being at or having a relatively small elevation or upward extension. E.g.: low ceilings, low clouds, low hills, the sun is low, low furniture, a low bow
3. very low in volume. E.g.: a low murmur, the low-toned murmur of the surf
4. unrefined in character. E.g.: low comedy
5. used of sounds and voices; low in pitch or frequency.
6. of the most contemptible kind. E.g.: a low stunt to pull, a low-down sneak
7. low or inferior in station or quality. E.g.: a lowly parish priest
8. no longer sufficient. E.g.: supplies are low
9. subdued or brought low in condition or status. E.g.: brought low
10. low in spirits.
11. being the gear producing the lowest drive speed.
1. move something or somebody to a lower position.
2. set lower. E.g.: lower a rating, lower expectations
3. cause to drop or sink.
4. make lower or quieter.
5. look angry or sullen, wrinkle one's forehead, as if to signal disapproval.
lowered, lowering, lowers
1. either of two saclike respiratory organs in the chest of vertebrates; serves to remove carbon dioxide and provide oxygen to the blood.
1. an agranulocytic leukocyte that normally makes up a quarter of the white blood cell count but increases in the presence of infection.
1. a large phagocyte; some are fixed and other circulate in the blood stream.
1. of or relating to or caused by magnetism. E.g.: magnetic forces
2. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel. E.g.: the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic material
3. capable of being magnetized.
4. determined by earth's magnetic fields. E.g.: magnetic north, the needle of a magnetic compass points to the magnetic north pole
5. having the properties of a magnet; the ability to draw or pull. E.g.: the knife hung on a magnetic board
6. possessing an extraordinary ability to attract. E.g.: a magnetic personality
1. activity involved in maintaining something in good working order.
2. means of maintenance of a family or group.
3. court-ordered support paid by one spouse to another after they are separated.
4. the act of sustaining life by food or providing a means of subsistence.
1. of greater importance or stature or rank. E.g.: a major artist, a major role, major highways
2. greater in scope or effect. E.g.: a major contribution, a major improvement, a major break with tradition, a major misunderstanding
3. greater in number or size or amount. E.g.: a major portion (a majority) of the population, a major portion of the winnings
4. of the field of academic study in which one concentrates or specializes. E.g.: his major field was mathematics
5. of a scale or mode. E.g.: major scales, the key of D major
6. of greater seriousness or danger. E.g.: a major earthquake, a major hurricane, a major illness
7. of full legal age. E.g.: major children
8. of the elder of two boys with the same family name. E.g.: Jones major
1. the property resulting from being or relating to the greater in number of two parts; the main part. E.g.: the majority of his customers prefer it
2. (elections) more than half of the votes.
3. the age at which a person is considered competent to manage their own affairs.
1. being the sex (of plant or animal) that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that perform the fertilizing function in generation. E.g.: a male infant, a male holly tree
2. for or composed of men or boys. E.g.: the male lead
3. characteristic of a man. E.g.: a deep male voice
1. an animal that produces gametes (spermatozoa) that can fertilize female gametes (ova).
2. a person who belongs to the sex that cannot have babies.
3. the capital of Maldives in the center of the islands.
1. (medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death.
2. quality of being disposed to evil; intense ill will.
1. a clear appearance. E.g.: a manifestation of great emotion
2. a manifest indication of the existence or presence or nature of some person or thing. E.g.: a manifestation of disease
3. an appearance in bodily form (as of a disembodied spirit).
4. expression without words.
5. a public display of group feelings (usually of a political nature).
1. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary.
2. a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits.
3. the amount of collateral a customer deposits with a broker when borrowing from the broker to buy securities.
4. (finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold.
5. the blank space that surrounds the text on a page.
6. a strip near the boundary of an object. E.g.: he jotted a note on the margin of the page
1. strongly marked; easily noticeable. E.g.: walked with a marked limp
2. singled out for notice or especially for a dire fate. E.g.: a marked man
3. having or as if having an identifying mark or a mark as specified; often used in combination. E.g.: played with marked cards, a scar-marked face, well-marked roads
1. in a clearly noticeable manner. E.g.: sales of luxury cars dropped markedly
1. some conspicuous object used to distinguish or mark something. E.g.: the buoys were markers for the channel
2. a distinguishing symbol.
3. a writing implement for making a mark.
1. the property of a body that causes it to have weight in a gravitational field.
2. (often followed by `of') a large number or amount or extent.
3. an ill-structured collection of similar things (objects or people).
4. (Roman Catholic Church and Protestant Churches) the celebration of the Eucharist.
5. a body of matter without definite shape. E.g.: a huge ice mass
6. the common people generally. E.g.: separate the warriors from the mass
7. the property of something that is great in magnitude. E.g.: he received a mass of correspondence
8. a musical setting for a Mass.
9. a sequence of prayers constituting the Christian eucharistic rite.
1. a rectangular array of elements (or entries) set out by rows and columns.
2. an enclosure within which something originates or develops (from the Latin for womb).
3. the body substance in which tissue cells are embedded.
4. the formative tissue at the base of a nail.
5. mold used in the production of phonograph records, type, or other relief surface.
matrices, matrixes
1. the greatest or most complete or best possible. E.g.: maximal expansion
1. the largest possible quantity.
2. the greatest possible degree.
3. the point on a curve where the tangent changes from positive on the left to negative on the right.
maxima, maximums
1. an average of n numbers computed by adding some function of the numbers and dividing by some function of n.
1. the act or process of measuring. E.g.: the measurements were carefully done
2. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated. E.g.: they set the measure for all subsequent work
3. how much there is of something that you can quantify.
4. any maneuver made as part of progress toward a goal. E.g.: the situation called for strong measures
5. a statute in draft before it becomes law.
6. (prosody) the accent in a metrical foot of verse.
7. musical notation for a repeating pattern of musical beats.
8. measuring instrument having a sequence of marks at regular intervals; used as a reference in making measurements.
1. determine the measurements of something or somebody, take measurements of.
2. express as a number or measure or quantity.
3. have certain dimensions. E.g.: This table surfaces measures 20inches by 36 inches
4. place a value on; judge the worth of something.
measured, measures, measuring
1. the act or process of measuring. E.g.: the measurements were carefully done
1. using (or as if using) mechanisms or tools or devices. E.g.: a mechanical process, his smile was very mechanical, a mechanical toy
2. relating to or concerned with machinery or tools. E.g.: mechanical arts, mechanical design, mechanical skills
3. relating to or governed by or in accordance with mechanics. E.g.: a belief that the universe is a mechanical contrivance, the mechanical pressure of a strong wind
4. lacking thought or feeling.
1. the atomic process that occurs during a chemical reaction. E.g.: he determined unique mechanisms for the photochemical reactions
2. the technical aspects of doing something. E.g.: a mechanism of social control, mechanisms of communication
3. a natural object resembling a machine in structure or function. E.g.: the mechanism of the ear, the mechanism of infection
4. (philosophy) the philosophical theory that all phenomena can be explained in terms of physical or biological causes.
5. device consisting of a piece of machinery; has moving parts that perform some function.
1. relating to or constituting the middle value of an ordered set of values (or the average of the middle two in an even-numbered set). E.g.: the median value of 17, 20, and 36 is 20, the median income for the year was $15,000
2. dividing an animal into right and left halves.
3. relating to or situated in or extending toward the middle.
1. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences. E.g.: He mediated a settlement
2. occupy an intermediate or middle position or form a connecting link or stage between two others. E.g.: mediate between the old and the new
mediated, mediates, mediating
1. a negotiator who acts as a link between parties.
1. relating to the study or practice of medicine. E.g.: the medical profession, a medical student, medical school
2. requiring or amenable to treatment by medicine especially as opposed to surgery. E.g.: medical treatment, pheumonia is a medical disease
3. of or belonging to Aesculapius or the healing art.
1. (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease.
2. the act of treating with medicines or remedies.
1. the branches of medical science that deal with nonsurgical techniques.
2. (medicine) something that treats or prevents or alleviates the symptoms of disease.
3. the learned profession that is mastered by graduate training in a medical school and that is devoted to preventing or alleviating or curing diseases and injuries. E.g.: he studied medicine at Harvard
4. punishment for one's actions. E.g.: take your medicine
1. a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information.
2. the surrounding environment. E.g.: fish require an aqueous medium
3. an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication.
4. (bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms.
5. an intervening substance through which something is achieved. E.g.: the dissolving medium is called a solvent
6. a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter.
7. (biology) a substance in which specimens are preserved or displayed.
8. a state that is intermediate between extremes; a middle position. E.g.: a happy medium
9. someone who serves as an intermediary between the living and the dead. E.g.: he consulted several mediums
10. transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public.
11. an occupation for which you are especially well suited.
1. diabetes caused by a relative or absolute deficiency of insulin and characterized by polyuria. E.g.: when doctors say `diabetes' they usually mean `diabetes mellitus'
1. a thin pliable sheet of material.
2. a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals.
1. involving the mind or an intellectual process. E.g.: mental images of happy times, mental calculations, in a terrible mental state, mental suffering, free from mental defects
2. of or relating to the mind. E.g.: mental powers, mental development, mental hygiene
3. of or relating to the chin- or lip-like structure in insects and certain mollusks.
4. of or relating to the chin or median part of the lower jaw.
5. affected by a disorder of the mind. E.g.: a mental patient, mental illness
[met̬ə ənæləsɪs]
1. examination of data from a number of independent studies of the same subject in order to determine overall trends.
1. of or relating to metabolism. E.g.: metabolic rate
2. undergoing metamorphosis.
1. the marked and rapid transformation of a larva into an adult that occurs in some animals.
2. the organic processes (in a cell or organism) that are necessary for life.
1. a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps).
1. the movement of persons from one country or locality to another.
2. a group of people migrating together (especially in some given time period).
3. (chemistry) the nonrandom movement of an atom or radical from one place to another within a molecule.
4. the periodic passage of groups of animals (especially birds or fishes) from one region to another for feeding or breeding.
1. moderate in type or degree or effect or force; far from extreme. E.g.: a mild winter storm, a mild fever, fortunately the pain was mild, a mild rebuke, mild criticism
2. humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness.
3. mild and pleasant. E.g.: the climate was mild and conducive to life or growth
1. the least possible. E.g.: needed to enforce minimal standards, her grades were minimal, a minimal charge for the service
1. represent as less significant or important.
2. make small or insignificant.
minimised, minimises, minimising, minimize, minimized, minimizes, minimizing
1. of lesser importance or stature or rank. E.g.: a minor poet, had a minor part in the play, a minor official, many of these hardy adventurers were minor noblemen, minor back roads
2. lesser in scope or effect. E.g.: had minor differences, a minor disturbance
3. inferior in number or size or amount. E.g.: a minor share of the profits
4. of a scale or mode. E.g.: the minor keys, in B flat minor
5. not of legal age. E.g.: minor children
6. of lesser seriousness or danger. E.g.: suffered only minor injuries, some minor flooding, a minor tropical disturbance
7. of your secondary field of academic concentration or specialization (US university).
8. of the younger of two boys with the same family name. E.g.: Jones minor
9. warranting only temporal punishment.
10. limited in size or scope.
1. caused to combine or unite.
2. consisting of a haphazard assortment of different kinds (even to the point of incongruity). E.g.: a mixed program of baroque and contemporary music
3. involving or composed of different races. E.g.: a mixed neighborhood
1. a classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity or possibility or impossibility.
2. verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker.
3. a particular sense.
4. a method of therapy that involves physical or electrical therapeutic treatment.
1. a simplified description of a complex entity or process. E.g.: the computer program was based on a model of the circulatory and respiratory systems
2. a type of product. E.g.: his car was an old model
3. a person who poses for a photographer or painter or sculptor. E.g.: the president didn't have time to be a model so the artist worked from photos
4. representation of something (sometimes on a smaller scale).
5. something to be imitated. E.g.: a model of clarity, he is the very model of a modern major general
6. someone worthy of imitation. E.g.: every child needs a role model
7. a representative form or pattern.
8. a woman who wears clothes to display fashions.
9. the act of representing something (usually on a smaller scale).
1. being within reasonable or average limits; not excessive or extreme. E.g.: moderate prices, a moderate income, a moderate fine, moderate demands, a moderate estimate, a moderate eater, moderate success, a kitchen of moderate size
2. not extreme. E.g.: a moderate penalty
3. marked by avoidance of extravagance or extremes. E.g.: moderate in his demands
1. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree.
2. in a moderate manner. E.g.: he drinks moderately
1. marked by simplicity; having a humble opinion of yourself. E.g.: a modest apartment, too modest to wear his medals
2. not large but sufficient in size or amount. E.g.: a modest salary, modest inflation
3. free from pomp or affectation. E.g.: comfortable but modest cottages
4. not offensive to sexual mores in conduct or appearance.
5. low or inferior in station or quality. E.g.: a modest man of the people
6. humble in spirit or manner; suggesting retiring mildness or even cowed submissiveness.
7. limited in size or scope. E.g.: a newspaper with a modest circulation
8. free from ostentation or pretension.
1. the act of making something different (as e.g. the size of a garment).
2. slightly modified copy; not an exact copy. E.g.: a modification of last year's model
3. the grammatical relation that exists when a word qualifies the meaning of the phrase.
4. an event that occurs when something passes from one state or phase to another. E.g.: the neighborhood had undergone few modifications since his last visit years ago
1. make less severe or harsh or extreme. E.g.: please modify this letter to make it more polite
2. add a modifier to a constituent.
3. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation.
modified, modifies, modifying
1. relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules. E.g.: molecular structure, molecular oxygen, molecular weight is the sum of all the atoms in a molecul
2. relating to simple or elementary organization. E.g.: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception--G.A. Miller
1. (physics and chemistry) the simplest structural unit of an element or compound.
2. (nontechnical usage) a tiny piece of anything.
1. keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance.
monitored, monitoring, monitors
1. the act of observing something (and sometimes keeping a record of it). E.g.: the monitoring of enemy communications plays an important role in war times
1. forming or derived from a single clone.
1. one of the twelve divisions of the calendar year. E.g.: he paid the bill last month
2. a time unit of 30 days. E.g.: he was given a month to pay the bill
1. the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year.
2. the relative incidence of a particular disease.
3. the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you.
1. the branch of biology that deals with the structure of animals and plants.
2. studies of the rules for forming admissible words.
3. the admissible arrangement of sounds in words.
4. the branch of geology that studies the characteristics and configuration and evolution of rocks and land forms.
1. the quality or state of being mortal.
2. the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year.
1. any of numerous small rodents typically resembling diminutive rats having pointed snouts and small ears on elongated bodies with slender usually hairless tails.
2. a hand-operated electronic device that controls the coordinates of a cursor on your computer screen as you move it around on a pad; on the bottom of the mouse is a ball that rolls on the surface of the pad. E.g.: a mouse takes much more room than a trackball
mice, mouses
1. having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual. E.g.: multiple birth, multiple ownership, made multiple copies of the speech, his multiple achievements in public life, her multiple personalities
1. as follows.
1. the part of an organism that connects the head to the rest of the body. E.g.: he admired her long graceful neck
2. a narrow elongated projecting strip of land.
3. a cut of meat from the neck of an animal.
4. opening for the neck; the part of a garment near the neck opening.
1. the localized death of living cells (as from infection or the interruption of blood supply).
1. as of a conifer.
2. a slender pointer for indicating the reading on the scale of a measuring instrument.
3. a sharp pointed implement (usually steel).
4. a stylus that formerly made sound by following a groove in a phonograph record.
1. characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features. E.g.: a negative outlook on life, a colorless negative personality, a negative evaluation, a negative reaction to an advertising campaign
2. reckoned in a direction opposite to that regarded as positive.
3. having a negative electric charge. E.g.: electrons are negative
4. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial.
5. having the quality of something harmful or unpleasant. E.g.: ran a negative campaign, delinquents retarded by their negative outlook on life
6. not indicating the presence of microorganisms or disease or a specific condition. E.g.: the HIV test was negative
7. less than zero. E.g.: a negative number
8. designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions. E.g.: negative criticism
9. involving disadvantage or harm. E.g.: minus (or negative) factors
1. relating to or affecting the infant during the first month after birth. E.g.: neonatal care, the neonatal period
1. any bundle of nerve fibers running to various organs and tissues of the body.
2. the courage to carry on.
3. impudent aggressiveness.
1. an interconnected system of things or people. E.g.: he owned a network of shops, retirement meant dropping out of a whole network of people who had been part of my life
2. (broadcasting) a communication system consisting of a group of broadcasting stations that all transmit the same programs. E.g.: the networks compete to broadcast important sports events
3. an open fabric of string or rope or wire woven together at regular intervals.
4. a system of intersecting lines or channels. E.g.: a railroad network, a network of canals
5. (electronics) a system of interconnected electronic components or circuits.
1. of or relating to or used in or practicing neurology. E.g.: neurological evidence
1. a connecting point at which several lines come together.
2. any thickened enlargement.
3. (physics) the point of minimum displacement in a periodic system.
4. (astronomy) a point where an orbit crosses a plane.
5. the source of lymph and lymphocytes.
6. any bulge or swelling of an anatomical structure or part.
7. (computer science) any computer that is hooked up to a computer network.
1. conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal. E.g.: serve wine at normal room temperature, normal diplomatic relations, normal working hours, normal word order, normal curiosity, the normal course o
2. in accordance with scientific laws.
3. being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development. E.g.: a perfectly normal child, of normal intelligence, the most normal person I've ever met
4. forming a right angle.
1. to a notable extent. E.g.: notably in the social sciences, the professors teach too much
1. a part of the cell containing DNA and RNA and responsible for growth and reproduction.
2. the positively charged dense center of an atom.
3. a small group of indispensable persons or things.
4. (astronomy) the center of the head of a comet; consists of small solid particles of ice and frozen gas that vaporizes on approaching the sun to form the coma and tail.
5. any histologically identifiable mass of neural cell bodies in the brain or spinal cord.
1. the property possessed by a sum or total or indefinite quantity of units or individuals. E.g.: he had a number of chores to do, the number of parameters is small
2. a concept of quantity derived from zero and units. E.g.: every number has a unique position in the sequence
3. a short theatrical performance that is part of a longer program. E.g.: it was one of the best numbers he ever did
4. a numeral or string of numerals that is used for identification. E.g.: she refused to give them her Social Security number
5. the number is used in calling a particular telephone. E.g.: he has an unlisted number
6. a symbol used to represent a number.
7. one of a series published periodically.
8. a select company of people. E.g.: I hope to become one of their number before I die
9. the grammatical category for the forms of nouns and pronouns and verbs that are used depending on the number of entities involved (singular or dual or plural). E.g.: in English the subject and the verb must agree in number
10. an item of merchandise offered for sale. E.g.: she preferred the black nylon number, this sweater is an all-wool number
11. a clothing measurement. E.g.: a number 13 shoe
1. amounting to a large indefinite number. E.g.: numerous times, the family was numerous
1. more than average fatness.
1. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena. E.g.: an objective appraisal, objective evidence
2. serving as or indicating the object of a verb or of certain prepositions and used for certain other purposes. E.g.: objective case
3. emphasizing or expressing things as perceived without distortion of personal feelings or interpretation. E.g.: objective art
4. belonging to immediate experience of actual things or events. E.g.: there is no objective evidence of anything of the kind
1. the act of making and recording a measurement.
2. the act of observing; taking a patient look.
3. facts learned by observing. E.g.: he reported his observations to the mayor
4. the act of noticing or paying attention.
5. a remark expressing careful consideration.
1. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of.
2. make mention of. E.g.: She observed that his presentation took up too much time
3. observe with care or pay close attention to.
4. watch attentively. E.g.: Please observe the reaction of these two chemicals
5. show respect towards.
6. celebrate, as of holidays or rites.
7. follow with the eyes or the mind.
8. observe correctly or closely.
9. conform one's action or practice to.
observed, observes, observing
1. an event that happens.
2. an instance of something occurring. E.g.: a disease of frequent occurrence, the occurrence (or presence) of life on other planets
1. the beginning or early stages. E.g.: the onset of pneumonia
2. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons).
1. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied. E.g.: optimal concentration of a drug
1. using speech rather than writing. E.g.: an oral tradition, an oral agreement
2. of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth. E.g.: oral hygiene, an oral thermometer, an oral vaccine
3. of or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located. E.g.: the oral cavity, the oral mucous membrane, the oral surface of a starfish
4. a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated in the mouth; fixation at this stage is said to result in dependence, selfishness, and aggression.
1. a fully differentiated structural and functional unit in an animal that is specialized for some particular function.
2. a government agency or instrument devoted to the performance of some specific function. E.g.: The Census Bureau is an organ of the Commerce Department
3. (music) an electronic simulation of a pipe organ.
4. a periodical that is published by a special interest group. E.g.: the organ of the communist party
5. wind instrument whose sound is produced by means of pipes arranged in sets supplied with air from a bellows and controlled from a large complex musical keyboard.
6. a free-reed instrument in which air is forced through the reeds by bellows.
1. something that results.
2. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.
1. coincide partially or wholly. E.g.: Our vacations overlap
2. extend over and cover a part of. E.g.: The roofs of the houses overlap in this crowded city
overlapped, overlapping, overlaps
1. a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust.
1. a symptom of some physical hurt or disorder. E.g.: the patient developed severe pain and distension
2. emotional distress; a fundamental feeling that people try to avoid. E.g.: the pain of loneliness
3. a somatic sensation of acute discomfort. E.g.: as the intensity increased the sensation changed from tickle to pain
4. a bothersome annoying person. E.g.: that kid is a terrible pain
5. something or someone that causes trouble; a source of unhappiness.
1. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves.
2. any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance.
3. a quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterizes a statistical population and that can be estimated by calculations from sample data.
1. being or affecting only a part; not total. E.g.: a partial description of the suspect, partial collapse, a partial eclipse, a partial monopoly, partial immunity
2. showing favoritism.
3. (followed by `of' or `to') having a strong preference or liking for. E.g.: partial to horror movies
1. in part; in some degree; not wholly. E.g.: He was partially paralyzed
1. the origination and development of a disease.
1. of or relating to the practice of pathology. E.g.: pathological laboratory
2. caused by or evidencing a mentally disturbed condition. E.g.: a pathological liar, a pathological urge to succeed
3. caused by or altered by or manifesting disease or pathology. E.g.: pathological bodily processes
1. the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases.
2. any deviation from a healthy or normal condition.
1. a bundle of mylenated nerve fibers following a path through the brain.
2. a trodden path.
1. a person who requires medical care. E.g.: the number of emergency patients has grown rapidly
2. the semantic role of an entity that is not the agent but is directly involved in or affected by the happening denoted by the verb in the clause.
1. a perceptual structure. E.g.: a visual pattern must include not only objects but the spaces between them
2. a customary way of operation or behavior. E.g.: they changed their dietary pattern
3. a decorative or artistic work.
4. something regarded as a normative example.
5. a model considered worthy of imitation. E.g.: the American constitution has provided a pattern for many republics
6. something intended as a guide for making something else. E.g.: a pattern for a skirt
7. the path that is prescribed for an airplane that is preparing to land at an airport. E.g.: the traffic patterns around O'Hare are very crowded, they stayed in the pattern until the fog lifted
8. graphical representation (in polar or cartesian coordinates) of the spatial distribution of radiation from an antenna as a function of angle.
1. the most extreme possible amount or value. E.g.: voltage peak
2. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity.
3. the highest level or degree attainable. E.g.: the peak of perfection, summer was at its peak
4. the top point of a mountain or hill. E.g.: the view from the peak was magnificent
5. a V shape.
6. the highest point (of something). E.g.: at the peak of the pyramid
7. a brim that projects to the front to shade the eyes.
1. a proportion multiplied by 100.
2. assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group.
1. carry out or perform an action.
2. perform a function. E.g.: Who will perform the wedding?
3. give a performance (of something). E.g.: Horowitz is performing at Carnegie Hall tonight, We performed a popular Gilbert and Sullivan opera
4. get (something) done.
performed, performing, performs
1. a dramatic or musical entertainment. E.g.: they listened to ten different performances, the play ran for 100 performances, the frequent performances of the symphony testify to its popularity
2. the act of performing; of doing something successfully; using knowledge as distinguished from merely possessing it. E.g.: they criticised his performance as mayor, experience generally improves performance
3. the act of presenting a play or a piece of music or other entertainment. E.g.: we congratulated him on his performance at the rehearsal, an inspired performance of Mozart's C minor concerto
4. process or manner of functioning or operating. E.g.: they compared the cooking performance of each oven, the jet's performance conformed to high standards
5. any recognized accomplishment. E.g.: they admired his performance under stress, when Roger Maris powered four home runs in one game his performance merits awe
1. an amount of time. E.g.: a time period of 30 years, hastened the period of time of his recovery, Picasso's blue period
2. one of three periods of play in hockey games.
3. a stage in the history of a culture having a definable place in space and time. E.g.: a novel from the Victorian period
4. the interval taken to complete one cycle of a regularly repeating phenomenon.
5. the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause.
6. a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations. E.g.: in England they call a period a stop
7. a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed. E.g.: ganoid fishes swarmed during the earlier geological periods
8. the end or completion of something. E.g.: death put a period to his endeavors, a change soon put a period to my tranquility
1. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area. E.g.: Russia's peripheral provinces, peripheral suburbs
2. related to the key issue but not of central importance. E.g.: a peripheral interest, energy is far from a peripheral issue in the economy, peripheral issues
1. continue to exist.
2. be persistent, refuse to stop. E.g.: he persisted to call me every night, The child persisted and kept asking questions
3. stay behind.
persisted, persisting, persists
1. never-ceasing.
2. continually recurring to the mind.
3. retained; not shed. E.g.: persistent leaves remain attached past maturity, the persistent gills of fishes
1. (physical chemistry) a distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary. E.g.: the reaction occurs in the liquid phase of the system
2. any distinct time period in a sequence of events.
3. a particular point in the time of a cycle; measured from some arbitrary zero and expressed as an angle.
4. (astronomy) the particular appearance of a body's state of illumination (especially one of the recurring shapes of the part of Earth's moon that is illuminated by the sun). E.g.: the full phase of the moon
1. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning.
2. a remarkable development.
1. what an organism looks like as a consequence of its genotype; two organisms with the same phenotype can have different genotypes.
1. involving the body as distinguished from the mind or spirit. E.g.: physical exercise, physical suffering, was sloppy about everything but her physical appearance
2. relating to the sciences dealing with matter and energy; especially physics. E.g.: physical sciences, physical laws
3. having substance or material existence; perceptible to the senses. E.g.: a physical manifestation
4. according with material things or natural laws (other than those peculiar to living matter). E.g.: a reflex response to physical stimuli
5. characterized by energetic bodily activity. E.g.: a very physical dance performance
6. concerned with material things. E.g.: physical properties, the physical characteristics of the earth, the physical size of a computer
7. impelled by physical force especially against resistance. E.g.: a real cop would get physical
1. a licensed medical practitioner.
1. of or relating to the biological study of physiology. E.g.: physiological psychology, Pavlov's physiological theories
2. of or consistent with an organism's normal functioning. E.g.: physiological processes
1. an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug.
2. (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead.
1. colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.
2. a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone.
3. (physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nucl.
1. a sheet of metal or wood or glass or plastic.
2. (baseball) base consisting of a rubber slab where the batter stands; it must be touched by a base runner in order to score.
3. a full-page illustration (usually on slick paper).
4. dish on which food is served or from which food is eaten.
5. the quantity contained in a plate.
6. a rigid layer of the Earth's crust that is believed to drift slowly.
7. the thin under portion of the forequarter.
8. a main course served on a plate. E.g.: a vegetable plate, the blue plate special
9. any flat platelike body structure or part.
10. the positively charged electrode in a vacuum tube.
11. a flat sheet of metal or glass on which a photographic image can be recorded.
12. structural member consisting of a horizontal beam that provides bearing and anchorage.
13. a shallow receptacle for collection in church.
14. a metal sheathing of uniform thickness (such as the shield attached to an artillery piece to protect the gunners).
15. a dental appliance that artificially replaces missing teeth.
16. the position on a baseball team of the player who is stationed behind home plate and who catches the balls that the pitcher throws. E.g.: he plays behind the plate
1. (chemistry) the existence of different kinds of crystal of the same chemical compound.
2. (biology) the existence of two or more forms of individuals within the same animal species (independent of sex differences).
1. (`ill' is often used as a combining form) in a poor or improper or unsatisfactory manner; not well. E.g.: the team played poorly
1. the people who inhabit a territory or state. E.g.: the population seemed to be well fed and clothed
2. a group of organisms of the same species populating a given area. E.g.: they hired hunters to keep down the deer population
3. (statistics) the entire aggregation of items from which samples can be drawn. E.g.: it is an estimate of the mean of the population
4. the number of inhabitants (either the total number or the number of a particular race or class) in a given place (country or city etc.). E.g.: people come and go, but the population of this town has remained approximately constant for the past decade
5. the act of populating (causing to live in a place). E.g.: he deplored the population of colonies with convicted criminals
1. something determined in relation to something that includes it. E.g.: I read a portion of the manuscript
2. something less than the whole of a human artifact.
3. the result of parcelling out or sharing.
4. assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group.
5. your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you). E.g.: success that was her portion
6. an individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal. E.g.: his portion was larger than hers
1. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.. E.g.: a positive attitude, the reviews were all positive, a positive benefit, a positive demand
2. having a positive electric charge. E.g.: protons are positive
3. involving advantage or good. E.g.: a plus (or positive) factor
4. indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen. E.g.: a positive pregnancy test
5. formally laid down or imposed. E.g.: positive laws
6. impossible to deny or disprove. E.g.: proof positive
7. of or relating to positivism. E.g.: positive philosophy
8. greater than zero. E.g.: positive numbers
9. marked by excessive confidence. E.g.: the less he knows the more positive he gets
10. persuaded of; very sure. E.g.: I am positive he is lying
11. granting what has been desired or requested. E.g.: a positive answer
1. happening or done after a surgical operation. E.g.: postoperative complications, postoperative care
1. having the power to influence or convince. E.g.: potent arguments
2. having or wielding force or authority. E.g.: providing the ground soldier with increasingly potent weapons
3. having a strong physiological or chemical effect. E.g.: a potent toxin, potent liquor, a potent cup of tea
4. (of a male) able to copulate.
1. existing in possibility. E.g.: a potential problem
2. expected to become or be; in prospect. E.g.: potential clients
1. the inherent capacity for coming into being.
2. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.
1. engage in a rehearsal (of).
2. carry out or practice; as of jobs and professions.
3. learn by repetition.
practiced, practices, practicing, practised, practises, practising
1. someone who practices a learned profession.
1. be earlier in time; go back further. E.g.: Stone tools precede bronze tools
2. come before. E.g.: Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify
3. be the predecessor of. E.g.: Bill preceded John in the long line of Susan's husbands
4. move ahead (of others) in time or space.
5. furnish with a preface or introduction. E.g.: She always precedes her lectures with a joke
preceded, precedes, preceding
1. of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions.
1. make susceptible. E.g.: This illness predisposes you to gain weight
predisposed, predisposes, predisposing
1. most frequent or common.
2. having superior power and influence. E.g.: the predominant mood among policy-makers is optimism
1. much greater in number or influence. E.g.: the patients are predominantly indigenous
1. the state of being pregnant; the period from conception to birth when a woman carries a developing fetus in her uterus.
1. born after a gestation period of less than the normal time. E.g.: a premature infant
2. too soon or too hasty. E.g.: a premature judgment
3. uncommonly early or before the expected time. E.g.: illness led to his premature death
1. the activity of putting or setting in order in advance of some act or purpose. E.g.: preparations for the ceremony had begun
2. a substance prepared according to a formula.
3. the cognitive process of thinking about what you will do in the event of something happening.
4. the state of having been made ready or prepared for use or action (especially military action). E.g.: their preparation was more than adequate
5. (music) a note that produces a dissonant chord is first heard in a consonant chord. E.g.: the resolution of one dissonance is often the preparation for another disonance
6. activity leading to skilled behavior.
7. preparatory school work done outside school (especially at home).
8. the act of preparing something (as food) by the application of heat. E.g.: he left the preparation of meals to his wife
1. issue commands or orders for.
prescribed, prescribes, prescribing
1. directions prescribed beforehand; the action of prescribing authoritative rules or directions. E.g.: I tried to follow her prescription for success
2. a drug that is available only with written instructions from a doctor or dentist to a pharmacist. E.g.: he told the doctor that he had been taking his prescription regularly
3. written instructions for an optician on the lenses for a given person.
4. written instructions from a physician or dentist to a druggist concerning the form and dosage of a drug to be issued to a given patient.
1. temporal sense; intermediate between past and future; now existing or happening or in consideration. E.g.: the present leader, articles for present use, the present topic, the present system, present observations
2. spatial sense; being or existing in a specified place. E.g.: the murderer is present in this room, present at the wedding, present at the creation
1. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience.
2. bring forward and present to the mind. E.g.: We presented the arguments to him, We cannot represent this knowledge to our formal reason
3. perform (a play), especially on a stage.
4. hand over formally.
5. introduce.
6. give, especially as a reward.
7. give as a present; make a gift of.
8. deliver (a speech, oration, or idea). E.g.: The commencement speaker presented a forceful speech that impressed the students
9. cause to come to know personally.
10. represent in a painting, drawing, sculpture, or verbally.
11. present somebody with something, usually to accuse or criticize.
12. formally present a debutante, a representative of a country, etc..
13. recognize with a gesture prescribed by a miltary regulation; assume a prescribed position.
presented, presenting, presents
1. the activity of formally presenting something (as a prize or reward). E.g.: she gave the trophy but he made the presentation
2. the act of making something publicly available; presenting news or other information by broadcasting or printing it. E.g.: he prepared his presentation carefully in advance
3. a show or display; the act of presenting something to sight or view. E.g.: the presentation of new data
4. the act of presenting a proposal.
5. a visual representation of something.
6. formally making a person known to another or to the public.
7. (obstetrics) position of the fetus in the uterus relative to the birth canal. E.g.: Cesarean sections are sometimes the result of abnormal presentations
1. the force applied to a unit area of surface; measured in pascals (SI unit) or in dynes (cgs unit). E.g.: the compressed gas exerts an increased pressure
2. a force that compels. E.g.: the public brought pressure to bear on the government
3. the act of pressing; the exertion of pressure. E.g.: he used pressure to stop the bleeding
4. the state of urgently demanding notice or attention.
5. the somatic sensation of pressure. E.g.: the sensitivity of his skin to pressure and temperature was normal
6. an oppressive condition of physical or mental or social or economic distress.
1. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread. E.g.: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future
2. (epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population.
3. a superiority in numbers or amount.
1. encountered generally especially at the present time. E.g.: the most prevalent religion in our area
1. keep from happening or arising; have the effect of preventing.
2. prevent from doing something or being in a certain state. E.g.: We must prevent the cancer from spreading
prevented, preventing, prevents
1. the act of preventing. E.g.: money was allocated to study the cause and prevention of influenza
1. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondhand. E.g.: primary goals, a primary effect, primary sources, a primary interest
2. not derived from or reducible to something else; basic. E.g.: a primary instinct
3. most important element. E.g.: policemen were primary targets
4. of or being the essential or basic part.
5. of primary importance.
1. earlier in time.
1. (of a drug) used to reduce inflammation.
1. a measure of how likely it is that some event will occur. E.g.: what is the probability of rain?
2. the quality of being probable.
1. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. E.g.: the procedure of obtaining a driver's license
2. a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work.
3. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
4. a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings.
1. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. E.g.: it was a process of trial and error
2. a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states. E.g.: events now in process, the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls
3. (psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents. E.g.: the process of thinking
4. a writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant's attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant.
5. a mental process that you are not directly aware of. E.g.: the process of denial
6. a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant. E.g.: a bony process
1. preparing or putting through a prescribed procedure. E.g.: the processing of newly arrived immigrants, the processing of ore to obtain minerals
1. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics. E.g.: a biochemical profile of blood, a psychological profile of serial killers
2. a side view representation of an object (especially a human face).
3. biographical sketch.
4. degree of exposure to public notice. E.g.: he prefers a low profile
5. a vertical section of the Earth's crust showing the different horizons or layers.
1. a prediction about how something (as the weather) will develop.
2. a prediction of the course of a disease.
1. of or relating to prediction; having value for making predictions.
1. develop in a positive way. E.g.: He progressed well in school
2. move forward, also in the metaphorical sense.
3. form or accumulate steadily.
progressed, progresses, progressing
1. a series with a definite pattern of advance.
2. a movement forward.
3. the act of moving forward toward a goal.
1. favoring or promoting progress. E.g.: progressive schools
2. favoring or promoting reform (often by government action).
3. (of taxes) adjusted so that the rate increases as the amount increases.
4. gradually advancing in extent.
5. advancing in severity. E.g.: progressive paralysis
1. growth by the rapid multiplication of parts.
2. a rapid increase in number (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons). E.g.: the proliferation of nuclear weapons
1. relatively long in duration; tediously protracted. E.g.: a prolonged and bitter struggle
2. drawn out or made longer spatially. E.g.: a prolonged black line across the page
3. (of illness) developing slowly or of long duration.
1. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention. E.g.: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book
2. conspicuous in position or importance. E.g.: a prominent citizen
1. contribute to the progress or growth of.
2. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position. E.g.: I got promoted after many years of hard work
3. make publicity for; try to sell (a product).
4. be changed for a superior chess or checker piece.
5. change a pawn for a king by advancing it to the eighth row, or change a checker piece for a more valuable piece by moving it the row closest to your opponent.
promoted, promotes, promoting
1. the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole.
2. magnitude or extent. E.g.: a building of vast proportions
3. balance among the parts of something.
4. harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design).
1. concerned with or related to the future. E.g.: prospective earnings, a prospective mother, the statute is solely prospective in operation
2. anticipated for the near future. E.g.: the prospective students, his prospective bride
1. any enzyme that catalyzes the splitting of proteins into smaller peptide fractions and amino acids by a process known as proteolysis.
1. intended or adapted to afford protection of some kind. E.g.: a protective covering, the use of protective masks and equipment, protective coatings, kept the drunken sailor in protective custody, animals with protective coloring, protective tariffs
2. showing a care.
3. (usually followed by `of') solicitously caring or mindful. E.g.: protective of his reputation
1. any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk a.
1. situated nearest to point of attachment or origin. E.g.: the proximal end of a bone
1. mental or emotional as opposed to physical in nature. E.g.: give psychological support, psychological warfare
2. of or relating to or determined by psychology. E.g.: psychological theories
1. relating to or affecting the lungs. E.g.: pulmonary disease
1. (electronics) a sharp transient wave in the normal electrical state (or a series of such transients).
2. the rhythmic contraction and expansion of the arteries with each beat of the heart.
3. the rate at which the heart beats; usually measured to obtain a quick evaluation of a person's health.
4. edible seeds of various pod-bearing plants (peas or beans or lentils etc.).
1. an essential and distinguishing attribute of something or someone. E.g.: the quality of mercy is not strained--Shakespeare
2. a degree or grade of excellence or worth. E.g.: the quality of students has risen
3. a characteristic property that defines the apparent individual nature of something. E.g.: each town has a quality all its own
4. (music) the distinctive property of a complex sound (a voice or noise or musical sound).
5. high social status. E.g.: a man of quality
1. expressible as a quantity or relating to or susceptible of measurement. E.g.: export wheat without quantitative limitations, quantitative analysis determines the amounts and proportions of the chemical constituents of a substance or mixture
2. relating to the measurement of quantity. E.g.: quantitative studies
3. (of verse) having a metric system based on relative duration of syllables.
1. arrange in random order.
randomised, randomises, randomising, randomize, randomized, randomizes, randomizing
1. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control. E.g.: the range of a supersonic jet
2. the limits within which something can be effective. E.g.: range of motion
3. a large tract of grassy open land on which livestock can graze. E.g.: they used to drive the cattle across the open range every spring, he dreamed of a home on the range
4. a series of hills or mountains. E.g.: the valley was between two ranges of hills, the plains lay just beyond the mountain range
5. a place for shooting (firing or driving) projectiles of various kinds. E.g.: the army maintains a missile range in the desert, any good golf club will have a range where you can practice
6. the limits of the values a function can take. E.g.: the range of this function is the interval from 0 to 1
7. a variety of different things or activities. E.g.: he answered a range of questions, he was impressed by the range and diversity of the collection
8. the limit of capability.
9. a kitchen appliance used for cooking food.
1. change or be different within limits. E.g.: Estimates for the losses in the earthquake range as high as $2 billion, The instruments ranged from tuba to cymbals, My students range from very bright to dull
2. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment.
3. have a range; be capable of projecting over a certain distance, as of a gun. E.g.: This gun ranges over two miles
4. range or extend over; occupy a certain area.
5. lay out in a line.
6. feed as in a meadow or pasture.
7. let eat. E.g.: range the animals in the prairie
8. assign a rank or rating to.
ranged, ranges, ranging
1. any of various long-tailed rodents similar to but larger than a mouse.
2. someone who works (or provides workers) during a strike.
3. a person who is deemed to be despicable or contemptible. E.g.: kill the rat
4. one who reveals confidential information in return for money.
5. a pad (usually made of hair) worn as part of a woman's coiffure.
1. amount of a charge or payment relative to some basis. E.g.: a 10-minute phone call at that rate would cost $5
2. a magnitude or frequency relative to a time unit. E.g.: they traveled at a rate of 55 miles per hour, the rate of change was faster than expected
3. the relative speed of progress or change. E.g.: he works at a great rate, the pace of events accelerated
1. the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient).
1. a response that reveals a person's feelings or attitude. E.g.: he was pleased by the audience's reaction to his performance, John feared his mother's reaction when she saw the broken lamp
2. a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent. E.g.: a bad reaction to the medicine
3. (chemistry) a process in which one or more substances are changed into others. E.g.: there was a chemical reaction of the lime with the ground water
4. an idea evoked by some experience. E.g.: his reaction to the news was to start planning what to do
5. doing something in opposition to another way of doing it that you don't like. E.g.: his style of painting was a reaction against cubism
6. extreme conservatism in political or social matters. E.g.: the forces of reaction carried the election
7. (mechanics) the equal and opposite force that is produced when any force is applied to a body. E.g.: every action has an equal and opposite reaction
1. participating readily in reactions. E.g.: sodium is a reactive metal, free radicals are very reactive
2. tending to react to a stimulus. E.g.: the skin of the geriatric is less reactive than that of younger persons- Louis Tuft
1. a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response.
2. an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation.
1. a person who gets something.
2. the semantic role of the animate entity that is passively involved in the happening denoted by the verb in the clause.
1. show approval or appreciation of.
2. grant credentials to.
3. detect with the senses.
4. express greetings upon meeting someone.
5. express obligation, thanks, or gratitude for.
6. be fully aware or cognizant of.
7. perceive to be the same.
8. accept (someone) to be what is claimed or accept his power and authority.
recognised, recognises, recognising, recognize, recognized, recognizes, recognizing
1. make a record of; set down in permanent form.
2. register electronically. E.g.: They recorded her singing
3. indicate a certain reading; of gauges and instruments.
4. be aware of.
5. be or provide a memorial to a person or an event.
recorded, recording, records
1. return to an original state. E.g.: the recovery of the forest after the fire was surprisingly rapid
2. gradual healing (through rest) after sickness or injury.
3. the act of regaining or saving something lost (or in danger of becoming lost).
1. happening again (especially at regular intervals).
1. recurring again and again.
1. cut down on; make a reduction in. E.g.: reduce your daily fat intake
2. make less complex. E.g.: reduce a problem to a single question
3. bring to humbler or weaker state or condition. E.g.: He reduced the population to slavery
4. simplify the form of a mathematical equation of expression by substituting one term for another.
5. lower in grade or rank or force somebody into an undignified situation. E.g.: She reduced her niece to a servant
6. be the essential element.
7. reduce in size; reduce physically.
8. lessen and make more modest. E.g.: reduce one's standard of living
9. make smaller. E.g.: reduce an image
10. to remove oxygen from a compound, or cause to react with hydrogen or form a hydride, or to undergo an increase in the number of electrons.
11. narrow or limit. E.g.: reduce the influx of foreigners
12. put down by force or intimidation.
13. undergo meiosis. E.g.: The cells reduce
14. reposition (a broken bone after surgery) back to its normal site.
15. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements.
16. be cooked until very little liquid is left. E.g.: The sauce should reduce to one cup
17. cook until very little liquid is left. E.g.: The cook reduced the sauce by boiling it for a long time
18. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture.
19. take off weight.
reduced, reduces, reducing
1. the act of decreasing or reducing something.
2. any process in which electrons are added to an atom or ion (as by removing oxygen or adding hydrogen); always occurs accompanied by oxidation of the reducing agent.
3. the act of reducing complexity.
1. a remark that calls attention to something or someone. E.g.: the speaker made several references to his wife
2. a short note recognizing a source of information or of a quoted passage.
3. an indicator that orients you generally. E.g.: it is used as a reference for comparing the heating and the electrical energy involved
4. a book to which you can refer for authoritative facts. E.g.: he contributed articles to the basic reference work on that topic
5. a formal recommendation by a former employer to a potential future employer describing the person's qualifications and dependability. E.g.: requests for character references are all to often answered evasively
6. the most direct or specific meaning of a word or expression; the class of objects that an expression refers to.
7. the act of referring or consulting. E.g.: reference to an encyclopedia produced the answer
8. a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to. E.g.: he carried an armful of references back to his desk
9. the relation between a word or phrase and the object or idea it refers to. E.g.: he argued that reference is a consequence of conditioned reflexes
1. a recommendation to consult the (professional) person referred to. E.g.: this patient is a referral from Dr. Bones
2. the act of referring (as forwarding an applicant for employment or referring a matter to an appropriate agency).
1. manifest or bring back. E.g.: This action reflects his true beliefs
2. to throw or bend back or reflect (from a surface). E.g.: A mirror in the sun can reflect light into a person's eyes, Sound is reflected well in this auditorium
3. reflect deeply on a subject.
4. be bright by reflecting or casting light. E.g.: Drive carefully--the wet road reflects
5. give evidence of a certain behavior. E.g.: His lack of interest in the project reflects badly on him
6. give evidence of the quality of. E.g.: The mess in his dorm room reflects on the student
reflected, reflecting, reflects
1. (medicine) a systematic plan for therapy (often including diet).
1. the extended spatial location of something. E.g.: the farming regions of France, regions of outer space
2. a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve. E.g.: in the abdominal region
3. a large indefinite location on the surface of the Earth. E.g.: penguins inhabit the polar regions
4. the approximate amount of something (usually used prepositionally as in `in the region of'). E.g.: it was going to take in the region of two or three months to finish the job
5. a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about. E.g.: here we enter the region of opinion
1. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of. E.g.: regulate the temperature
2. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations. E.g.: We cannot regulate the way people dress, This town likes to regulate
3. shape or influence; give direction to.
4. check the emission of (sound).
regulated, regulates, regulating
1. an authoritative rule.
2. a principle or condition that customarily governs behavior. E.g.: short haircuts were the regulation
3. the state of being controlled or governed.
4. (embryology) the ability of an early embryo to continue normal development after its structure has been somehow damaged or altered.
5. the act of bringing to uniformity; making regular.
6. the act of controlling or directing according to rule. E.g.: fiscal regulations are in the hands of politicians
1. restricting according to rules or principles. E.g.: a regulatory gene
1. a failure to maintain a higher state.
1. make a logical or causal connection. E.g.: I cannot relate these events at all
2. have to do with or be relevant to.
3. give an account of. E.g.: The witness related the events
4. be in a relationship with. E.g.: How are these two observations related?
5. have or establish a relationship to. E.g.: She relates well to her peers
related, relates, relating
1. being connected or associated. E.g.: painting and the related arts, school-related activities, related to micelle formation is the...ability of detergent actives to congregate at oil-water interfaces
2. connected by kinship, common origin, or marriage.
3. similar or related in quality or character. E.g.: the amateur is closely related to the collector
4. having close kinship and appropriateness.
1. a relation between people; (`relationship' is often used where `relation' would serve, as in `the relationship between inflation and unemployment', but the preferred usage of `relationship' is for human relations or states of relatedness).
2. a state of connectedness between people (especially an emotional connection). E.g.: he didn't want his wife to know of the relationship
3. a state involving mutual dealings between people or parties or countries.
4. state of relatedness or connection by blood or marriage or adoption.
1. merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film). E.g.: a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra
2. the act of liberating someone or something.
3. a process that liberates or discharges something. E.g.: there was a sudden release of oxygen, the release of iodine from the thyroid gland
4. an announcement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation.
5. the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart).
6. euphemistic expressions for death.
7. a legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation.
8. activity that releases or expresses creative energy or emotion.
9. the act of allowing a fluid to escape.
10. a formal written statement of relinquishment.
11. (music) the act or manner of terminating a musical phrase or tone.
1. the relation of something to the matter at hand.
1. worthy of reliance or trust. E.g.: a reliable source of information
2. conforming to fact and therefore worthy of belief. E.g.: reliable information
3. worthy of being depended on. E.g.: a reliable source of information
1. the act of removing. E.g.: he had surgery for the removal of a malignancy
2. dismissal from office.
1. of or relating to the kidneys.
1. the act of putting something in working order again.
2. a formal way of referring to the condition of something. E.g.: the building was in good repair
3. a frequently visited place.
1. an event that repeats. E.g.: the events today were a repeat of yesterday's
1. to say, state, or perform again.
2. make or do or perform again.
3. happen or occur again.
4. to say again or imitate.
5. do over.
6. repeat an earlier theme of a composition.
repeated, repeating, repeats
1. an event in which one thing is substituted for another. E.g.: the replacement of lost blood by a transfusion of donor blood
2. the act of furnishing an equivalent person or thing in the place of another.
3. someone who takes the place of another person.
4. a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another.
5. filling again by supplying what has been used up.
6. a person who follows next in order.
1. the act of making copies.
2. (genetics) the process whereby DNA makes a copy of itself before cell division.
3. a quick reply to a question or remark (especially a witty or critical one).
4. (law) a pleading made by a plaintiff in reply to the defendant's plea or answer.
5. the persistence of a sound after its source has stopped.
6. copy that is not the original; something that has been copied.
7. the repetition of an experiment in order to test the validity of its conclusion. E.g.: scientists will not believe an experimental result until they have seen at least one replication
1. to give an account or representation of in words.
2. announce as the result of an investigation, or announce something to the proper authorities. E.g.: Dozens of incidents of wife beatings are reported daily in this city, The team reported significant advances in their research
3. announce one's presence. E.g.: I report to work every day at 9 o'clock
4. make known to the authorities. E.g.: One student reported the other to the principal
5. be responsible for reporting the details of, as in journalism. E.g.: Snow reported on China in the 1950's, The cub reporter covered New York City
6. complain about; make a charge against. E.g.: I reported her to the superviser
reported, reporting, reports
1. systematic investigation to establish facts.
2. a search for knowledge. E.g.: their pottery deserves more research than it has received
1. surgical removal of part of a structure or organ.
1. relating to or indicating a remainder. E.g.: residual quantity
1. the action of opposing something that you disapprove or disagree with. E.g.: he encountered a general feeling of resistance from many citizens
2. any mechanical force that tends to retard or oppose motion.
3. a material's opposition to the flow of electric current; measured in ohms.
4. the military action of resisting the enemy's advance. E.g.: the enemy offered little resistance
5. (medicine) the condition in which an organism can resist disease.
6. a secret group organized to overthrow a government or occupation force.
7. the degree of unresponsiveness of a disease-causing microorganism to antibiotics or other drugs (as in penicillin-resistant bacteria).
8. (psychiatry) an unwillingness to bring repressed feelings into conscious awareness.
9. an electrical device that resists the flow of electrical current.
10. group action in opposition to those in power.
1. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection).
2. incapable of being affected. E.g.: resistant to persuasion
3. disposed to or engaged in defiance of established authority.
4. incapable of absorbing or mixing with. E.g.: plastic highly resistant to steam and water
1. a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote.
2. the ability of a microscope or telescope to measure the angular separation of images that are close together.
3. the trait of being resolute; firmness of purpose. E.g.: it was his unshakeable resolution to finish the work
4. finding a solution to a problem.
5. something settled or resolved; the outcome of decision making. E.g.: they never did achieve a final resolution of their differences
6. analysis into clear-cut components.
7. (computer science) the number of pixels per square inch on a computer-generated display; the greater the resolution, the better the picture.
8. the subsidence of swelling or others signs of inflammation (especially in a lung).
9. (music) a dissonant chord is followed by a consonant chord.
10. a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem.
11. a decision to do something or to behave in a certain manner. E.g.: he always wrote down his New Year's resolutions
1. an excited state of a stable particle causing a sharp maximum in the probability of absorption of electromagnetic radiation.
2. a vibration of large amplitude produced by a relatively small vibration near the same frequency of vibration as the natural frequency of the resonating system.
3. having the character of a loud deep sound; the quality of being resonant.
4. relation of mutual understanding or trust and agreement between people.
5. the quality imparted to voiced speech sounds by the action of the resonating chambers of the throat and mouth and nasal cavities.
1. in the order given. E.g.: the brothers were called Felix and Max, respectively
1. pertaining to respiration. E.g.: respiratory assistance
1. a result. E.g.: this situation developed in response to events in Africa
2. a bodily process occurring due to the effect of some foregoing stimulus or agent. E.g.: his responses have slowed with age
3. a statement (either spoken or written) that is made in reply to a question or request or criticism or accusation.
4. the manner in which something is greeted.
5. a phrase recited or sung by the congregation following a versicle by the priest or minister.
6. the speech act of continuing a conversational exchange.
1. subject to restriction or subjected to restriction. E.g.: of restricted importance
2. restricted in meaning; (as e.g. `man' in `a tall man').
3. curbed or regulated.
4. the lowest level of official classification for documents.
1. a new appraisal or evaluation.
2. an essay or article that gives a critical evaluation (as of a book or play).
3. a subsequent examination of a patient for the purpose of monitoring earlier treatment.
4. (accounting) a service (less exhaustive than an audit) that provides some assurance to interested parties as to the reliability of financial data.
5. a variety show with topical sketches and songs and dancing and comedians.
6. a periodical that publishes critical essays on current affairs or literature or art.
7. a summary at the end that repeats the substance of a longer discussion.
8. (law) a judicial reexamination of the proceedings of a court (especially by an appellate court).
9. practice intended to polish performance or refresh the memory.
10. a formal or official examination. E.g.: the platoon stood ready for review
1. look at again; examine again. E.g.: let's review your situation
2. appraise critically. E.g.: She reviews books for the New York Times
3. hold a review (of troops).
4. refresh one's memory. E.g.: I reviewed the material before the test
5. look back upon (a period of time, sequence of events, etc.); remember. E.g.: she reviewed her achievements with pride
reviewed, reviewing, reviews
1. a source of danger; a possibility of incurring loss or misfortune.
2. a venture undertaken without regard to possible loss or injury. E.g.: he saw the rewards but not the risks of crime
3. the probability of becoming infected given that exposure to an infectious agent has occurred.
4. the probability of being exposed to an infectious agent.
1. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. E.g.: play its role
2. an actor's portrayal of someone in a play.
3. what something is used for.
4. normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting. E.g.: what is your role on the team?
1. occurring at fixed times or predictable intervals. E.g.: made her routine trip to the store
2. found in the ordinary course of events. E.g.: it was a routine day
1. according to routine or established practice. E.g.: he routinely parked in a no-parking zone
1. the state of being certain that adverse effects will not be caused by some agent under defined conditions. E.g.: insure the safety of the children, the reciprocal of safety is risk
2. a safe place. E.g.: He ran to safety
3. a device designed to prevent injury.
4. (baseball) the successful act of striking a baseball in such a way that the batter reaches base safely.
5. contraceptive device consisting of a thin rubber or latex sheath worn over the penis during intercourse.
6. a score in American football; a player is tackled behind his own goal line.
1. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water.
1. a small part of something intended as representative of the whole.
2. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population.
3. all or part of a natural object that is collected and preserved as an example of its class.
1. (statistics) the selection of a suitable sample for study.
2. items selected at random from a population and used to test hypotheses about the population.
3. measurement at regular intervals of the amplitude of a varying waveform (in order to convert it to digital form).
1. an ordered reference standard. E.g.: judging on a scale of 1 to 10
2. relative magnitude. E.g.: they entertained on a grand scale
3. the ratio between the size of something and a representation of it. E.g.: the scale of the map, the scale of the model
4. an indicator having a graduated sequence of marks.
5. a specialized leaf or bract that protects a bud or catkin.
6. a thin flake of dead epidermis shed from the surface of the skin.
7. (music) a series of notes differing in pitch according to a specific scheme (usually within an octave).
8. a measuring instrument for weighing; shows amount of mass.
9. a metal sheathing of uniform thickness (such as the shield attached to an artillery piece to protect the gunners).
10. a flattened rigid plate forming part of the body covering of many animals.
1. the act of scanning; systematic examination of a prescribed region. E.g.: he made a thorough scan of the beach with his binoculars
2. an image produced by scanning. E.g.: he analysed the brain scan, you could see the tumor in the CAT scan
1. examine minutely or intensely. E.g.: the surgeon scanned the X-ray
2. examine hastily. E.g.: She scanned the newspaper headlines while waiting for the taxi
3. make a wide, sweeping search of. E.g.: The beams scanned the night sky
4. conform to a metrical pattern.
5. move a light beam over; in electronics, to reproduce an image.
6. read metrically. E.g.: scan verses
7. obtain data from magnetic tapes.
scanned, scanning, scans
1. the process of translating photographs into a digital form that can be recognized by a computer.
2. the act of systematically moving a finely focused beam of light or electrons over a surface in order to produce an image of it for analysis or transmission.
1. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance). E.g.: what was your score on your homework?
2. a written form of a musical composition; parts for different instruments appear on separate staves on large pages. E.g.: he studied the score of the sonata
3. a number that expresses the accomplishment of a team or an individual in a game or contest. E.g.: the score was 7 to 0
4. a set of twenty members. E.g.: a score were sent out but only one returned
5. grounds. E.g.: he tried to blame the victim but his success on that score was doubtful
6. the facts about an actual situation. E.g.: he didn't know the score
7. an amount due (as at a restaurant or bar). E.g.: add it to my score and I'll settle later
8. a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally).
9. a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation. E.g.: settling a score
10. the act of scoring in a game or sport. E.g.: the winning score came with less than a minute left to play
11. a seduction culminating in sexual intercourse. E.g.: calling his seduction of the girl a `score' was a typical example of male slang
1. test or examine for the presence of disease or infection. E.g.: screen the blood for the HIV virus
2. examine methodically. E.g.: screen the suitcases
3. examine in order to test suitability. E.g.: screen these samples, screen the job applicants
4. project onto a screen for viewing. E.g.: screen a film
5. prevent from entering.
6. separate with a riddle, as grain from chaff.
7. protect, hide, or conceal from danger or harm.
screened, screening, screens
1. the display of a motion picture.
2. fabric of metal or plastic mesh.
3. the act of concealing the existence of something by obstructing the view of it.
4. testing objects or persons in order to identify those with particular characteristics.
1. of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate. E.g.: the stone will be hauled to a secondary crusher, a secondary source, a secondary issue, secondary streams
2. inferior in rank or status.
3. depending on or incidental to what is original or primary. E.g.: a secondary infection
4. not of major importance. E.g.: played a secondary role in world events
5. belonging to a lower class or rank.
1. the organic process of synthesizing and releasing some substance.
2. a functionally specialized substance (especially one that is not a waste) released from a gland or cell.
1. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object. E.g.: finished the final segment of the road
2. one of the parts into which something naturally divides. E.g.: a segment of an orange
1. pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives. E.g.: She selected a pair of shoes from among the dozen the salesgirl had shown her
selected, selecting, selects
1. the act of choosing or selecting.
2. an assortment of things from which a choice can be made. E.g.: the store carried a large selection of shoes
3. the person or thing chosen or selected.
4. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment.
5. a passage selected from a larger work.
1. tending to select; characterized by careful choice. E.g.: an exceptionally quick and selective reader- John Mason Brown
2. characterized by very careful or fastidious selection. E.g.: the school was very selective in its admissions
1. responsive to physical stimuli. E.g.: a mimosa's leaves are sensitive to touch, a sensitive voltmeter, sensitive skin, sensitive to light
2. having acute mental or emotional sensibility. E.g.: sensitive to the local community and its needs
3. able to feel or perceive.
4. hurting.
5. used officially of classified information or matters affecting national security.
1. (physiology) responsiveness to external stimuli. E.g.: sensitivity to pain
2. the ability to respond to physical stimuli or to register small physical amounts or differences. E.g.: a galvanometer of extreme sensitivity
3. sensitivity to emotional feelings (of self and others).
4. susceptibility to a pathogen.
5. the ability to respond to affective changes in your interpersonal environment.
1. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern. E.g.: the sequence of names was alphabetical, he invented a technique to determine the sequence of base pairs in DNA
2. a following of one thing after another in time. E.g.: the doctor saw a sequence of patients
3. film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie.
4. the action of following in order. E.g.: he played the trumps in sequence
5. several repetitions of a melodic phrase in different keys.
1. similar things placed in order or happening one after another. E.g.: they were investigating a series of bank robberies
2. a serialized set of programs. E.g.: a comedy series, the Masterworks concert series
3. a periodical that appears at scheduled times.
4. (sports) several contests played successively by the same teams. E.g.: the visiting team swept the series
5. a group of postage stamps having a common theme or a group of coins or currency selected as a group for study or collection. E.g.: the Post Office issued a series commemorating famous American entertainers, his coin collection included the complete series of
6. (mathematics) the sum of a finite or infinite sequence of expressions.
7. (electronics) connection of components in such a manner that current flows first through one and then through the other. E.g.: the voltage divider consisted of a series of fixed resistors
1. watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen.
1. used of the degree of something undesirable e.g. pain or weather.
2. something hard to endure.
3. excessive sternness. E.g.: severity of character
1. activities associated with sexual intercourse. E.g.: they had sex in the back seat
2. either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided. E.g.: the war between the sexes
3. all of the feelings resulting from the urge to gratify sexual impulses. E.g.: he wanted a better sex life, the film contained no sex or violence
4. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles. E.g.: she didn't want to know the sex of the foetus
1. an event in which something is displaced without rotation.
2. a qualitative change.
3. the time period during which you are at work.
4. the act of changing one thing or position for another.
5. the act of moving from one place to another. E.g.: his constant shifting disrupted the class
6. (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other.
7. a group of workers who work for a specific period of time.
8. a woman's sleeveless undergarment.
9. a loose-fitting dress hanging straight from the shoulders without a waist.
1. relating to or extending over a limited period. E.g.: a short-term lease, short-term credit
1. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience. E.g.: She shows her dogs frequently
2. establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. E.g.: The mathematician showed the validity of the conjecture
3. provide evidence for. E.g.: The blood test showed that he was the father
4. make visible or noticeable. E.g.: She showed her talent for cooking
5. show in, or as in, a picture.
6. give expression to. E.g.: She showed her disappointment
7. indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively. E.g.: I showed the customer the glove section
8. make clear and visible.
9. be or become visible or noticeable. E.g.: His good upbringing really shows, The dirty side will show
10. indicate a certain reading; of gauges and instruments. E.g.: The thermometer showed thirteen degrees below zero
11. give evidence of, as of records. E.g.: The diary shows his distress that evening
12. show (someone) to their seats, as in theaters or auditoriums. E.g.: The usher showed us to our seats
13. finish third or better in a horse or dog race. E.g.: he bet $2 on number six to show
showed, showing, shown, shows
1. any communication that encodes a message. E.g.: signals from the boat suddenly stopped
2. any incitement to action. E.g.: he awaited the signal to start, the victory was a signal for wild celebration
3. an electric quantity (voltage or current or field strength) whose modulation represents coded information about the source from which it comes.
1. the quality of being significant. E.g.: do not underestimate the significance of nuclear power
2. a meaning that is not expressly stated but can be inferred. E.g.: the significance of his remark became clear only later
3. the message that is intended or expressed or signified. E.g.: the significance of a red traffic light
1. important in effect or meaning. E.g.: a significant change in tax laws, a significant change in the Constitution, a significant contribution, significant details, statistically significant
2. fairly large.
3. too closely correlated to be attributed to chance and therefore indicating a systematic relation. E.g.: the interaction effect is significant at the .01 level, no significant difference was found
4. rich in significance or implication.
1. the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located). E.g.: a good site for the school
2. physical position in relation to the surroundings. E.g.: the sites are determined by highly specific sequences of nucleotides
3. a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web. E.g.: the Israeli web site was damaged by hostile hackers
1. a silvery soft waxy metallic element of the alkali metal group; occurs abundantly in natural compounds (especially in salt water); burns with a yellow flame and reacts violently in water; occurs in sea water and in the mineral halite (rock salt).
1. of definite shape and volume; firm; neither liquid nor gaseous. E.g.: ice is water in the solid state
2. of good substantial quality. E.g.: solid comfort, a solid base hit
3. entirely of one substance with no holes inside. E.g.: solid silver, a solid block of wood
4. of one substance or character throughout. E.g.: solid gold, a solid color, carved out of solid rock
5. uninterrupted in space; having no gaps or breaks. E.g.: a solid line across the page, solid sheets of water
6. providing abundant nourishment. E.g.: good solid food
7. of good quality and condition; solidly built. E.g.: a solid foundation
8. having high moral qualities. E.g.: a solid citizen
9. not soft or yielding to pressure. E.g.: solid ground
10. having three dimensions. E.g.: a solid object
11. incapable of being seen through. E.g.: solid blackness
12. entirely of a single color throughout. E.g.: a solid fabric
13. acting together as a single undiversified whole. E.g.: a solid voting bloc
1. (sometimes followed by `to') applying to or characterized by or distinguishing something particular or special or unique. E.g.: rules with specific application, demands specific to the job, a specific and detailed account of the accident
2. stated explicitly or in detail. E.g.: needed a specific amount
3. relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species. E.g.: specific characters
4. being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides. E.g.: quinine is highly specific for malaria, a specific remedy, a specific stain is one having a specific affin
1. the quality of being specific rather than general. E.g.: add a desirable note of specificity to the discussion, the specificity of the symptoms of the disease
2. the quality of being specific to a particular organism. E.g.: host specificity of a parasite
1. an example regarded as typical of its class.
2. a bit of tissue or blood or urine that is taken for diagnostic purposes. E.g.: they collected a urine specimen for urinalysis
1. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave.
2. broad range of related values or qualities or ideas or activities.
spectra, spectrums
1. happening or arising without apparent external cause. E.g.: spontaneous laughter, spontaneous combustion, a spontaneous abortion
2. said or done without having been planned or written in advance.
3. produced without being planted or without human labor.
1. support or hold steady and make steadfast, with or as if with a brace.
2. become stable or more stable.
3. make stable and keep from fluctuating or put into an equilibrium.
stabilised, stabilises, stabilising, stabilize, stabilized, stabilizes, stabilizing
1. resistant to change of position or condition. E.g.: a stable ladder, a stable peace, a stable relationship, stable prices
2. firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation. E.g.: the economy is stable
3. not taking part readily in chemical change.
4. maintaining equilibrium.
5. showing little if any change.
1. any distinct time period in a sequence of events. E.g.: we are in a transitional stage in which many former ideas must be revised or rejected
2. a specific identifiable position in a continuum or series or especially in a process. E.g.: at what stage are the social sciences?
3. a large platform on which people can stand and can be seen by an audience. E.g.: he clambered up onto the stage and got the actors to help him into the box
4. the theater as a profession (usually `the stage'). E.g.: an early movie simply showed a long kiss by two actors of the contemporary stage
5. any scene regarded as a setting for exhibiting or doing something. E.g.: All the world's a stage--Shakespeare, it set the stage for peaceful negotiations
6. a large coach-and-four formerly used to carry passengers and mail on regular routes between towns. E.g.: we went out of town together by stage about ten or twelve miles
7. a section or portion of a journey or course. E.g.: then we embarked on the second stage of our Caribbean cruise
8. a small platform on a microscope where the specimen is mounted for examination.
1. conforming to or constituting a standard of measurement or value; or of the usual or regularized or accepted kind. E.g.: windows of standard width, standard sizes, the standard fixtures, standard brands, standard operating procedure
2. commonly used or supplied. E.g.: standard procedure, standard car equipment
3. established or widely recognized as a model of authority or excellence. E.g.: a standard reference work
4. conforming to the established language usage of educated native speakers. E.g.: standard English (American), received standard English is sometimes called the King's English (British)
5. regularly and widely used or sold. E.g.: a standard size
1. the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society. E.g.: he had the status of a minor, the novel attained the status of a classic
2. a state at a particular time. E.g.: the current status of the arms negotiations
1. (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed. E.g.: thematic vowels are part of the stem
2. a slender or elongated structure that supports a plant or fungus or a plant part or plant organ.
3. cylinder forming a long narrow part of something.
4. the tube of a tobacco pipe.
5. front part of a vessel or aircraft.
6. a turn made in skiing; the back of one ski is forced outward and the other ski is brought parallel to it.
1. any of several fat-soluble organic compounds having as a basis 17 carbon atoms in four rings; many have important physiological effects.
2. any hormone affecting the development and growth of sex organs.
1. act as a stimulant. E.g.: The book stimulated her imagination, This play stimulates
2. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner.
3. stir the feelings, emotions, or peace of.
4. cause to be alert and energetic. E.g.: Coffee and tea stimulate me, This herbal infusion doesn't stimulate
5. cause to occur rapidly.
6. stir feelings in. E.g.: stimulate my appetite
7. provide the needed stimulus for.
stimulated, stimulates, stimulating
1. the act of arousing an organism to action.
2. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action.
3. (physiology) the effect of a stimulus (on nerves or organs etc.).
4. mutual sexual stimulation prior to sexual intercourse.
1. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action.
1. (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces.
2. difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension. E.g.: she endured the stresses and strains of life
3. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence.
4. (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress. E.g.: his responsibilities were a constant strain, the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him
5. a special variety of domesticated animals within a species. E.g.: he created a new strain of sheep
6. (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups. E.g.: a new strain of microorganisms
7. a lineage or race of people.
8. injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain.
9. pervading note of an utterance.
10. an effortful attempt to attain a goal.
11. an intense or violent exertion.
12. the act of singing.
1. an elaborate and systematic plan of action.
2. the branch of military science dealing with military command and the planning and conduct of a war.
1. the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch). E.g.: he put the stress on the wrong syllable
2. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense. E.g.: stress is a vasoconstrictor
3. (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body. E.g.: the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area
4. special emphasis attached to something. E.g.: the stress was more on accuracy than on speed
5. difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension. E.g.: she endured the stresses and strains of life, he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger- R.J.Samuelson
1. (sports) the act of swinging or striking at a ball with a club or racket or bat or cue or hand. E.g.: it took two strokes to get out of the bunker
2. the maximum movement available to a pivoted or reciprocating piece by a cam.
3. a sudden loss of consciousness resulting when the rupture or occlusion of a blood vessel leads to oxygen lack in the brain.
4. a light touch.
5. a light touch with the hands.
6. the oarsman nearest the stern of the shell who sets the pace for the rest of the crew.
7. a punctuation mark (/) used to separate related items of information.
8. a mark made by a writing implement (as in cursive writing).
9. any one of the repeated movements of the limbs and body used for locomotion in swimming or rowing.
10. a single complete movement.
1. relating to or caused by structure, especially political or economic structure. E.g.: structural unemployment in a technological society
2. relating to or having or characterized by structure. E.g.: structural engineer, structural errors, structural simplicity
3. affecting or involved in structure or construction. E.g.: the structural details of a house such as beams and joists and rafters; not ornamental elements, structural damage
4. concerned with systematic structure in a particular field of study.
5. pertaining to geological structure. E.g.: structural effects of folding and faulting of the earth's surface
6. relating to or concerned with the morphology of plants and animals.
1. a distinct and often subordinate group within a group.
2. (mathematics) a subset (that is not empty) of a mathematical group.
1. not exempt from tax. E.g.: the gift will be subject to taxation
2. possibly accepting or permitting. E.g.: the time is fixed by the director and players and therefore subject to much variation
3. being under the power or sovereignty of another or others. E.g.: subject peoples
1. the subject matter of a conversation or discussion. E.g.: he didn't want to discuss that subject
2. some situation or event that is thought about. E.g.: he had been thinking about the subject for several years
3. a branch of knowledge. E.g.: teachers should be well trained in their subject
4. something (a person or object or scene) selected by an artist or photographer for graphic representation. E.g.: a moving picture of a train is more dramatic than a still picture of the same subject
5. a person who is subjected to experimental or other observational procedures; someone who is an object of investigation. E.g.: the subjects for this investigation were selected randomly
6. a person who owes allegiance to that nation. E.g.: a monarch has a duty to his subjects
7. (grammar) one of the two main constituents of a sentence; the grammatical constituent about which something is predicated.
8. (logic) the first term of a proposition.
1. happening at a time subsequent to a reference time. E.g.: he apologized subsequently
1. a set whose members are members of another set; a set contained within another set.
1. to a great extent or degree. E.g.: painting the room white made it seem considerably (or substantially) larger, the price went up substantially
2. in a strong substantial way. E.g.: the house was substantially built
1. the substance acted upon by an enzyme or ferment.
2. any stratum lying underneath another.
1. a special type included in another more general type.
1. be a summary of.
2. give a summary (of).
summarised, summarises, summarising, summarize, summarized, summarizes, summarizing
1. a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form. E.g.: he gave a summary of the conclusions
1. of high or superior quality or performance. E.g.: superior wisdom derived from experience, superior math students
2. of or characteristic of high rank or importance. E.g.: a superior officer
3. (sometimes followed by `to') not subject to or influenced by. E.g.: overcome by a superior opponent, trust magnates who felt themselves superior to law
4. written or printed above and to one side of another character.
5. having an orbit farther from the sun than the Earth's orbit. E.g.: Mars and Jupiter are the closest in of the superior planets
6. having a higher rank. E.g.: superior officer
7. (often followed by `to') above being affected or influenced by. E.g.: he is superior to fear, an ignited firework proceeds superior to circumstances until its blazing vitality fades
1. a quantity added (e.g. to make up for a deficiency).
2. the act of supplementing.
1. give moral or psychological support, aid, or courage to. E.g.: She supported him during the illness
2. support materially or financially. E.g.: he does not support his natural children, The scholarship supported me when I was in college
3. be behind; approve of.
4. be the physical support of; carry the weight of. E.g.: He supported me with one hand while I balanced on the beam
5. establish or strengthen as with new evidence or facts. E.g.: The evidence supports the defendant
6. adopt as a belief.
7. support with evidence or authority or make more certain or confirm.
8. argue or speak in defense of. E.g.: She supported the motion to strike
9. play a subordinate role to (another performer). E.g.: Olivier supported Gielgud beautifully in the second act
10. be a regular customer or client of.
11. put up with something or somebody unpleasant.
supported, supporting, supports
1. furnishing support or assistance. E.g.: a supportive family network, his family was supportive of his attempts to be a writer
1. to put down by force or authority. E.g.: suppress a nascent uprising
2. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one's authority.
3. control and refrain from showing; of emotions.
4. keep under control; keep in check. E.g.: suppress a smile
5. put out of one's consciousness.
suppressed, suppresses, suppressing
1. (botany) the failure to develop of some part or organ of a plant.
2. the act of withholding or withdrawing some book or writing from publication or circulation. E.g.: a suppression of the newspaper
3. forceful prevention; putting down by power or authority. E.g.: the suppression of heresy
4. (psychology) the conscious exclusion of unacceptable thoughts or desires.
1. the outer boundary of an artifact or a material layer constituting or resembling such a boundary. E.g.: there is a special cleaner for these surfaces, the cloth had a pattern of red dots on a white surface
2. the extended two-dimensional outer boundary of a three-dimensional object. E.g.: they skimmed over the surface of the water, a brush small enough to clean every dental surface, the sun has no distinct surface
3. the outermost level of the land or sea. E.g.: earthquakes originate far below the surface, three quarters of the Earth's surface is covered by water
4. a superficial aspect as opposed to the real nature of something. E.g.: it was not what it appeared to be on the surface
5. information that has become public. E.g.: the facts had been brought to the surface
6. a device that provides reactive force when in motion relative to the surrounding air; can lift or control a plane in flight.
1. a physician who specializes in surgery.
1. the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures. E.g.: he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School
2. a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted. E.g.: he read the warning in the doctor's surgery
3. a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations.
4. a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body. E.g.: he died while undergoing surgery
1. of or relating to or involving or used in surgery. E.g.: surgical instruments, surgical intervention
2. relating to or requiring or amenable to treatment by surgery especially as opposed to medicine. E.g.: a surgical appendix, a surgical procedure
3. performed with great precision. E.g.: a surgical air strike
1. close observation of a person or group (usually by the police).
1. a detailed critical inspection.
2. short descriptive summary (of events).
3. the act of looking or seeing or observing. E.g.: his survey of the battlefield was limited
1. a state of surviving; remaining alive.
2. a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment.
3. something that survives.
1. the state of being susceptible; easily affected.
1. (often followed by `of' or `to') yielding readily to or capable of. E.g.: susceptible to colds, susceptible of proof
2. easily impressed emotionally.
1. maintained at length without interruption or weakening. E.g.: sustained flight
2. (of an electric arc) continuous.
1. (medicine) any sensation or change in bodily function that is experienced by a patient and is associated with a particular disease.
2. anything that accompanies X and is regarded as an indication of X's existence.
1. characteristic or indicative of e.g. a disease. E.g.: a rash symptomatic of scarlet fever, symptomatic of insanity, a rise in crime symptomatic of social breakdown
2. relating to or according to or affecting a symptom or symptoms. E.g.: symptomatic relief, symptomatic treatment, a symptomatic classification of diseases
1. a complex of concurrent things. E.g.: every word has a syndrome of meanings
2. a pattern of symptoms indicative of some disease.
1. the process of producing a chemical compound (usually by the union of simpler chemical compounds).
2. the combination of ideas into a complex whole.
3. reasoning from the general to the particular (or from cause to effect).
1. characterized by order and planning. E.g.: the investigation was very systematic, a systematic administrator
2. not haphazard.
1. affecting an entire system. E.g.: a systemic poison
1. a set of data arranged in rows and columns. E.g.: see table 1
2. a piece of furniture having a smooth flat top that is usually supported by one or more vertical legs. E.g.: it was a sturdy table
3. a piece of furniture with tableware for a meal laid out on it. E.g.: I reserved a table at my favorite restaurant
4. flat tableland with steep edges.
5. a company of people assembled at a table for a meal or game. E.g.: he entertained the whole table with his witty remarks
6. food or meals in general. E.g.: she sets a fine table
1. a reference point to shoot at.
2. a person who is the aim of an attack (especially a victim of ridicule or exploitation) by some hostile person or influence. E.g.: the target of a manhunt
3. the location of the target that is to be hit.
4. sports equipment consisting of an object set up for a marksman or archer to aim at.
5. the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable).
1. intend (something) to move towards a certain goal.
targeted, targeting, targets, targetted, targetting
1. any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted.
2. a specific piece of work required to be done as a duty or for a specific fee. E.g.: the endless task of classifying the sampl
1. a practical method or art applied to some particular task.
2. skillfulness in the command of fundamentals deriving from practice and familiarity.
1. not eternal. E.g.: temporal matters of but fleeting moment- F.D.Roosevelt
2. of or relating to or limited by time. E.g.: temporal processing, temporal dimensions, temporal and spacial boundaries, music is a temporal art
3. of or relating to the temples (the sides of the skull behind the orbit). E.g.: temporal bone
4. of the material world. E.g.: temporal possessions of the church
5. concerned with secular rather than sacred matters. E.g.: lords temporal and spiritual
6. of this earth or world. E.g.: temporal joys, our temporal existence
1. any standardized procedure for measuring sensitivity or memory or intelligence or aptitude or personality etc. E.g.: the test was standardized on a large sample of students
2. the act of testing something.
3. the act of undergoing testing. E.g.: he survived the great test of battle
4. trying something to find out about it.
5. a set of questions or exercises evaluating skill or knowledge. E.g.: when the test was stolen the professor had to make a new set of questions
6. a hard outer covering as of some amoebas and sea urchins.
1. put to the test, as for its quality, or give experimental use to.
2. test or examine for the presence of disease or infection.
3. examine someone's knowledge of something. E.g.: The teacher tests us every week
4. show a certain characteristic when tested. E.g.: He tested positive for HIV
5. achieve a certain score or rating on a test. E.g.: She tested high on the LSAT and was admitted to all the good law schools
6. determine the presence or properties of (a substance).
7. undergo a test. E.g.: She doesn't test well
tested, testing, tests
1. the act of subjecting to experimental test in order to determine how well something works. E.g.: they agreed to end the testing of atomic weapons
2. an examination of the characteristics of something. E.g.: there are laboratories for commercial testing, it involved testing thousands of children for smallpox
3. the act of giving students or candidates a test (as by questions) to determine what they know or have learned.
1. tending to cure or restore to health. E.g.: a therapeutic agent, therapeutic diets
2. relating to or involved in therapy. E.g.: therapeutic approach to criminality
1. (medicine) the act of caring for someone (as by medication or remedial training etc.). E.g.: heat therapy gave the best relief
1. from that time on. E.g.: thereafter he never called again
1. by that means or because of that. E.g.: He knocked over the red wine, thereby ruining the table cloth
1. the starting point for a new state or experience. E.g.: on the threshold of manhood
2. the smallest detectable sensation.
3. the entrance (the space in a wall) through which you enter or leave a room or building; the space that a door can close.
4. the sill of a door; a horizontal piece of wood or stone that forms the bottom of a doorway and offer support when passing through a doorway.
5. a region marking a boundary.
1. the time when something happens.
1. a part of an organism consisting of an aggregate of cells having a similar structure and function.
2. a soft thin (usually translucent) paper.
1. the power or capacity of an organism to tolerate unfavorable environmental conditions.
2. a disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior.
3. the act of tolerating something.
4. willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others.
5. a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits.
1. put up with something or somebody unpleasant. E.g.: he learned to tolerate the heat
2. recognize and respect (rights and beliefs of others). E.g.: We must tolerate the religions of others
3. have a tolerance for a poison or strong drug or pathogen. E.g.: The patient does not tolerate the anti-inflammatory drugs we gave him
4. allow the presence of or allow (an activity) without opposing or prohibiting. E.g.: We cannot tolerate smoking in the hospital
tolerated, tolerates, tolerating
1. (medicine) obtaining pictures of the interior of the body.
1. the degree to which something is poisonous.
2. grave harmfulness or deadliness.
1. an extended area of land.
2. a system of body parts that together serve some particular purpose.
3. a brief treatise on a subject of interest; published in the form of a booklet.
4. a bundle of mylenated nerve fibers following a path through the brain.
1. something written, especially copied from one medium to another, as a typewritten version of dictation.
2. (genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA; the process whereby a base sequence of messenger RNA is synthesized on a template of complementary DNA.
3. a sound or television recording (e.g., from a broadcast to a tape recording).
4. the act of arranging and adapting a piece of music.
5. the act of making a record (especially an audio record).
1. subject to a mathematical transformation.
2. change or alter in form, appearance, or nature. E.g.: This experience transformed her completely, She transformed the clay into a beautiful sculpture
3. change in outward structure or looks. E.g.: He transformed into a monster
4. change from one form or medium into another.
5. convert (one form of energy) to another. E.g.: transform energy to light
6. change (a bacterial cell) into a genetically distinct cell by the introduction of DNA from another cell of the same or closely related species.
7. increase or decrease (an alternating current or voltage).
transformed, transforming, transforms
1. a qualitative change.
2. (mathematics) a function that changes the position or direction of the axes of a coordinate system.
3. a rule describing the conversion of one syntactic structure into another related syntactic structure.
4. (genetics) modification of a cell or bacterium by the uptake and incorporation of exogenous DNA.
5. the act of changing in form or shape or appearance.
1. of a mental act; causing effects outside the mind.
2. enduring a very short time. E.g.: youth's transient beauty
1. the act of sending a message; causing a message to be transmitted.
2. communication by means of transmitted signals.
3. the fraction of radiant energy that passes through a substance.
4. an incident in which an infectious disease is transmitted.
5. the gears that transmit power from an automobile engine via the driveshaft to the live axle.
1. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc..
2. an emotional wound or shock often having long-lasting effects.
1. interact in a certain way.
2. subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. E.g.: treat the water so it can be drunk, treat the lawn with chemicals , treat an oil spill
3. provide treatment for. E.g.: The doctor treated my broken leg, The patient must be treated right away or she will die
4. deal with verbally or in some form of artistic expression. E.g.: The new book treats the history of China
5. provide with a gift or entertainment. E.g.: Grandmother always treated us to the circus, I like to treat myself to a day at a spa when I am depressed
6. provide with choice or abundant food or drink. E.g.: Don't worry about the expensive wine--I'm treating, She treated her houseguests with good food every night
7. engage in negotiations in order to reach an agreement. E.g.: they had to treat with the King
8. regard or consider in a specific way. E.g.: I treated his advances as a joke
treated, treating, treats
1. care by procedures or applications that are intended to relieve illness or injury.
2. the management of someone or something. E.g.: the treatment of water sewage, the right to equal treatment in the criminal justice system
3. a manner of dealing with something artistically. E.g.: his treatment of space borrows from Italian architecture
4. an extended communication (often interactive) dealing with some particular topic. E.g.: his treatment of the race question is badly biased
1. a general direction in which something tends to move. E.g.: the trend of the stock market
2. general line of orientation. E.g.: the northeastern trend of the coast
3. a general tendency to change (as of opinion). E.g.: not openly liberal but that is the trend of the book
4. the popular taste at a given time. E.g.: he followed current trends
1. (law) legal proceedings consisting of the judicial examination of issues by a competent tribunal. E.g.: most of these complaints are settled before they go to trial
2. the act of testing something. E.g.: in the experimental trials the amount of carbon was measured separately, he called each flip of the coin a new trial
3. (sports) a preliminary competition to determine qualifications. E.g.: the trials for the semifinals began yesterday
4. (law) the determination of a person's innocence or guilt by due process of law. E.g.: he had a fair trial and the jury found him guilty
5. trying something to find out about it. E.g.: a sample for ten days free trial, a trial of progesterone failed to relieve the pain
6. an annoying or frustrating or catastrophic event. E.g.: his mother-in-law's visits were a great trial for him
7. the act of undergoing testing. E.g.: candidates must compete in a trial of skill
1. put in motion or move to act. E.g.: trigger a reaction
2. release or pull the trigger on.
triggered, triggering, triggers
1. conduit consisting of a long hollow object (usually cylindrical) used to hold and conduct objects or liquids or gases.
2. electronic device consisting of a system of electrodes arranged in an evacuated glass or metal envelope.
3. a hollow cylindrical shape.
4. (anatomy) any hollow cylindrical body structure.
5. electric underground railway.
1. a subdivision of a particular kind of thing. E.g.: what type of sculpture do you prefer?
2. a person of a specified kind (usually with many eccentricities). E.g.: the capable type
3. (biology) the taxonomic group whose characteristics are used to define the next higher taxon.
4. printed characters. E.g.: small type is hard to read
5. a small metal block bearing a raised character on one end; produces a printed character when inked and pressed on paper. E.g.: he dropped a case of type, so they made him pick them up
6. all of the tokens of the same symbol. E.g.: the word `element' contains five different types of character
1. in a typical manner. E.g.: Tom was typically hostile
1. very high frequency sound; used in ultrasonography.
2. using the reflections of high-frequency sound waves to construct an image of a body organ (a sonogram); commonly used to observe fetal growth or study bodily organs.
1. poorly stated or described.
2. not clear to the mind. E.g.: the law itself was unclear on that point, the reason for their actions is unclear to this day
3. not easily deciphered.
1. (of mental or physical states or experiences) experience or feel. E.g.: undergo a strange sensation, The chemical undergoes a sudden change
2. go or live through.
3. accept or undergo, often unwillingly.
undergoes, undergoing, undergone, underwent
1. be or form the base for.
2. lie underneath.
underlay, underlying
1. any division of quantity accepted as a standard of measurement or exchange. E.g.: the dollar is the United States unit of currency, a unit of wheat is a bushel, change per unit volume
2. an individual or group or structure or other entity regarded as a structural or functional constituent of a whole. E.g.: the reduced the number of units and installations, the word is a basic linguistic unit
3. an organization regarded as part of a larger social group. E.g.: the coach said the offensive unit did a good job, after the battle the soldier had trouble rejoining his unit
4. a single undivided whole. E.g.: an idea is not a unit that can be moved from one brain to another
5. a single undivided natural thing occurring in the composition of something else. E.g.: units of nucleic acids
6. an assemblage of parts that is regarded as a single entity. E.g.: the team is a unit
1. not known. E.g.: an unknown amount, an unknown island, an unknown writer, an unknown source
2. being or having an unknown or unnamed source. E.g.: a poem by an unknown author
3. not known to exist.
4. not famous or acclaimed.
5. not known before. E.g.: don't let anyone unknown into the house
1. not given medical care or treatment. E.g.: an untreated disease, the untreated wounded lay on makeshift cots
2. not subjected to chemical or physical treatment. E.g.: an untreated fabric
3. (of a specimen for study under a microscope) not treated with a reagent or dye.
1. higher in place or position. E.g.: the upper bunk, in the upper center of the picture, the upper stories
2. the topmost one of two.
3. superior in rank or accomplishment. E.g.: the upper half of the class
1. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating).
2. a process of taking up or using up or consuming. E.g.: they developed paper napkins with greater uptake of liquids
1. of or relating to the function or production or secretion of urine.
2. of or relating to the urinary system of the body.
1. liquid excretory product. E.g.: there was blood in his urine
1. put into service; make work or employ (something) for a particular purpose or for its inherent or natural purpose.
utilised, utilises, utilising, utilize, utilized, utilizes, utilizing
1. a numerical quantity measured or assigned or computed. E.g.: the value assigned was 16 milliseconds
2. the quality (positive or negative) that renders something desirable or valuable. E.g.: the Shakespearean Shylock is of dubious value in the modern world
3. the amount (of money or goods or services) that is considered to be a fair equivalent for something else. E.g.: he tried to estimate the value of the produce at normal prices
4. relative darkness or lightness of a color. E.g.: I establish the colors and principal values by organizing the painting into three values--dark, medium...and light-Joe Hing Lowe
5. (music) the relative duration of a musical note.
6. an ideal accepted by some individual or group. E.g.: he has old-fashioned values
1. the quality of being subject to variation.
2. a quality of variability and lack of uniformity.
1. liable to or capable of change. E.g.: rainfall in the tropics is notoriously variable, variable winds, variable expenses
2. marked by diversity or difference. E.g.: nature is infinitely variable
3. (used of a device) designed so that a property (as e.g. light) can be varied. E.g.: a variable capacitor, variable filters in front of the mercury xenon lights
1. an event that departs from expectations.
2. (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups.
3. a variable quantity that is random.
4. something a little different from others of the same type. E.g.: an emery wheel is a modern variant of the grindstone
1. an instance of change; the rate or magnitude of change.
2. an activity that varies from a norm or standard. E.g.: any variation in his routine was immediately reported
3. a repetition of a musical theme in which it is modified or embellished.
4. something a little different from others of the same type.
5. an artifact that deviates from a norm or standard. E.g.: he patented a variation on the sandal
6. the angle (at a particular location) between magnetic north and true north.
7. (astronomy) any perturbation of the mean motion or orbit of a planet or satellite (especially a perturbation of the earth's moon).
8. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration.
9. (ballet) a solo dance or dance figure.
10. the act of changing or altering something slightly but noticeably from the norm or standard. E.g.: who is responsible for these variations in taxation?
1. make or become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics or essence.
2. be at variance with; be out of line with.
3. be subject to change in accordance with a variable. E.g.: Prices vary, His moods vary depending on the weather
4. make something more diverse and varied.
varied, varies, varying
1. of or relating to or having vessels that conduct and circulate fluids. E.g.: vascular constriction, a vascular bundle
1. a blood vessel that carries blood from the capillaries toward the heart; all veins except the pulmonary carry unaerated blood.
2. a distinctive style or manner. E.g.: he continued in this vein for several minutes
3. any of the vascular bundles or ribs that form the branching framework of conducting and supporting tissues in a leaf or other plant organ.
4. a layer of ore between layers of rock.
5. one of the horny ribs that stiffen and support the wing of an insect.
1. of or contained in or performing the function of the veins. E.g.: venous inflammation, venous blood as contrasted with arterial blood, venous circulation
1. of or relating to a ventricle (of the heart or brain).
1. a tube in which a body fluid circulates.
2. a craft designed for water transportation.
3. an object used as a container (especially for liquids).
1. any of a group of organic substances essential in small quantities to normal metabolism.
1. the amount of 3-dimensional space occupied by an object. E.g.: the gas expanded to twice its original volume
2. the property of something that is great in magnitude. E.g.: the volume of exports
3. physical objects consisting of a number of pages bound together.
4. a publication that is one of a set of several similar publications. E.g.: the third volume was missing, he asked for the 1989 volume of the Annual Review
5. a relative amount. E.g.: mix one volume of the solution with ten volumes of water
6. the magnitude of sound (usually in a specified direction). E.g.: the kids played their music at full volume
1. the vertical force exerted by a mass as a result of gravity.
2. sports equipment used in calisthenic exercises and weightlifting; a weight that is not attached to anything and is raised and lowered by use of the hands and arms.
3. the relative importance granted to something. E.g.: his opinion carries great weight
4. an artifact that is heavy.
5. an oppressive feeling of heavy force. E.g.: bowed down by the weight of responsibility
6. a system of units used to express the weight of something.
7. a unit used to measure weight. E.g.: he placed two weights in the scale pan
8. (statistics) a coefficient assigned to elements of a frequency distribution in order to represent their relative importance.
1. grow worse. E.g.: Conditions in the slum worsened
2. make worse.
worsened, worsening, worsens
1. any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision.
2. a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat.
3. a figurative injury (to your feelings or pride). E.g.: he feared that mentioning it might reopen the wound, deep in her breast lives the silent wound, The right reader of a good poem can tell the moment it strikes him that he has taken an immortal wound--t
4. the act of inflicting a wound.
1. production of a certain amount.
2. an amount of a product.
3. the income arising from land or other property.
4. the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time).
1. be the cause or source of.
2. end resistance, especially under pressure or force. E.g.: The door yielded to repeated blows with a battering ram
3. give or supply. E.g.: This year's crop yielded 1,000 bushels of corn
4. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another.
5. give in, as to influence or pressure.
6. move in order to make room for someone for something.
7. bring about.
8. be willing to concede.
9. be fatally overwhelmed.
10. bring in.
11. be flexible under stress of physical force.
12. cease opposition; stop fighting.
13. consent reluctantly.
yielded, yielding, yields



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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 06 November 2022.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

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