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New Academic Word List (NAWL)

This page describes the New Academic Word List (NAWL), giving information on what the NAWL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the NAWL.


To explore the list more fully, try the NAWL highlighter (on this site).


What is the NAWL?

The New Academic Word List (NAWL), developed by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joseph Phillips in 2013, is a list of 963 words which frequently appear in academic texts, but which are not contained in the New General Service List (NGSL). The NAWL was developed based on a study of a 288 million word academic corpus, consisting of academic journals, non-fiction, student essays, academic discourse, and best selling academic textbooks. The NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage of words from that corpus (86% for the NGSL and 6% for the NAWL).


While the New Academic Word List (NAWL) is similar to the Academic Word List (AWL), there are several differences. One is that it is more up-to-date. It was designed as an extension of the New General Service List (NGSL), in the same way that the AWL was designed as an extension of the General Service List (GSL). However, while the AWL itself is relatively new (devised in 2000), the GSL it was based on dates from 1953, and is significantly outdated when compared to the NGSL, which, like the NAWL, was developed in 2013 (by the same three researchers).


A second difference is coverage. As noted above, the NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage for the corpus used. This contrasts with only 87% for the GSL and AWL for the same corpus.


A final difference is the presentation of the words. The NAWL includes only inflected forms or variant spellings of words, rather than whole word families, meaning that although it has more headwords than the AWL (963 compared to 570), it has fewer word forms overall (2604 compared to 3112). Many of these word forms are added for completeness (for the benefit of researchers) and are not intended for study (e.g. plurals such as approximatings and compensatings). Additionally, the words are presented as a single list, in contrast to the AWL which is presented in 10 sublists based on frequency.


References

Browne, C., Culligan, B. and Phillips, J. (2013) The New Academic Word List. Available at: http://www.newgeneralservicelist.org/nawl-new-academic-word-list/ (Access date 13/8/19).


New Academic Word List: Dispersion

The list below contains all 963 headwords in the NAWL, along with related word forms, ordered by dispersion. Standard frequency index (SFI), estimated frequency per million words (U) and dispersion (D) are all shown. The first two are related measures of frequency (higher SFI means higher U, and means the word is more frequent), while dispersion (D) shows how evenly the words are distributed among academic texts (scores closer to 1 mean the word is more equally distributed, and therefore likely to be encountered more regularly, while scores closer to 0 mean the word occurs in fewer different texts, and is therefore likely to be encountered less regularly).


Words contain hyperlinks to the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site (definitions open in an alert box on the same page).


NOTE: As this list is intended for study rather than research purposes, additional (generally rule-based, non-existent plurals) are removed. This reduces the number of words from 2604 to 2198. For a complete list, including those words (alphabetical only), please click here.


There is also a copy of the list in alphabetical order, and another copy according to frequency.


Headword    Related word forms    SFI    U    D   
interruptinterrupted, interrupting, interrupts51.719150.9885
manipulatemanipulated, manipulates, manipulating54.561290.983
puzzlepuzzled, puzzles, puzzling53.621230.9775
physically53.993250.9767
dictatedictated, dictates, dictating52.435180.9758
correctly55.621360.9737
backwardbackwards54.031250.9729
clueclues52.362170.9662
batbats, batted, batting52.83190.9644
definite55.167330.9637
nicheniches51.415140.9615
individually52.951200.9608
clarifyclarified, clarifies, clarifying54.827300.9596
exexes58.029640.959
manualmanuals55.259340.9584
terminologyterminologies54.32270.9573
subtlesubtler, subtlest54.148260.9566
slotslots, slotted, slotting50.941120.9548
accurately54.63290.9544
whereby53.717240.9542
ultimate55.098320.954
shortly53.155210.9536
separately55.903390.9533
interestingly54.84300.9526
manipulationmanipulations55.407350.9523
analogyanalogies55.392350.9522
clipclipped, clipping, clippings, clips48.39870.9518
profound53.723240.9517
sophisticatesophisticated, sophisticates54.672290.9514
textbooktextbooks53.886240.9504
lifetimelifetimes55.186330.9501
strictly56.653460.9498
scenarioscenarios57.103510.9494
dominant59.25840.9491
essentially58.934780.9491
exitexited, exiting, exits53.608230.949
tontons52.591180.9478
super49.916100.9474
invertinverted, inverting, inverts52.083160.9469
flexibilityflexibilities53.873240.9468
crudecruder, crudest52.289170.9454
impactimpacted, impacting, impacts63.4912230.9426
purely56.067400.9426
coherent54.801300.942
non57.257530.9415
enormously47.12350.9399
interactinteracted, interacting, interacts58.098650.9386
aspectaspects64.192620.9385
exploitexploited, exploiting, exploits56.397440.9369
primitiveprimitives55.994400.9364
historically53.895250.9363
naked48.73170.9359
pronouncepronounced, pronounces, pronouncing54.951310.9357
fundamentally52.651180.9356
tremendous49.48690.9356
valid57.729590.9334
standardizestandardise, standardised, standardises, standardising, standardized, standardizes, standardizing54.795300.9332
artificial56.221420.9313
spontaneous55.759380.9309
technically49.64690.9307
bulkbulked, bulking, bulks54.327270.9305
positively54.762300.9302
overlapoverlapped, overlapping, overlaps58.186660.9286
simplifysimplified, simplifies, simplifying56.255420.928
independently56.717470.9279
irrelevant53.103200.9268
spatial60.8861230.9265
multi44.38530.9263
vague51.407140.9263
assignmentassignments56.09410.9262
differentiatedifferentiated, differentiates, differentiating56.788480.9259
continuitycontinuities57.449560.9258
machinerymachineries52.466180.9255
mergemerged, merges, merging54.192260.9255
spanspanned, spanning, spans56.893490.9247
assemblyassemblies56.669460.9245
retrieveretrieved, retrieves, retrieving53.413220.924
disadvantagedisadvantaged, disadvantages, disadvantaging55.045320.9232
appleapples50.807120.923
utilizeutilise, utilised, utilises, utilising, utilized, utilizes, utilizing56.699470.9226
reproducereproduced, reproduces, reproducing56.302430.9223
formally54.634290.9221
essenceessences54.607290.9203
presumepresumed, presumes, presuming53.406220.9196
lumplumped, lumping, lumps47.7260.9195
interveneintervened, intervenes53.781240.9194
rewriterewrites, rewriting, rewritten, rewrote55.265340.9191
blankblanked, blanking, blanks50.569110.9188
importantly54.544280.9183
audio50.308110.9181
specimenspecimens56.813480.918
consumptionconsumptions59.545900.9168
cheatcheated, cheating, cheats46.02340.9163
diverse57.487560.9161
reconstructreconstructed, reconstructing, reconstructs54.215260.9161
straightforward55.931390.9156
semi44.49730.9148
intermediateintermediated, intermediates58.719740.9136
sufficiently57.734590.9132
accumulationaccumulations55.973400.9129
accumulateaccumulated, accumulates, accumulating55.566360.9127
compensatecompensated, compensates, compensating53.779240.9123
trans52.946200.9121
invasioninvasions53.966250.912
readily56.553450.9114
likewise55.462350.911
embedembedded, embedding, embeds57.724590.9091
validity57.181520.9088
chunkchunked, chunking, chunks50.02100.9086
locally56.502450.9086
neatneater, neatest46.53550.9081
similaritysimilarities59.459880.908
prominent56.743470.9076
freely53.817240.9075
differentialdifferentials59.041800.9071
indicatorindicators57.895620.9071
widespread56.802480.907
contradictcontradicted, contradicting, contradicts53.531230.9061
dyedyed, dyeing, dyes52.027160.9061
economically51.967160.9061
sexualitysexualities53.225210.9059
arrowarrowed, arrowing, arrows56.304430.9056
deliberately52.25170.9049
workshopworkshops54.948310.9045
curecured, cures, curing52.528180.9043
neutralneutrals56.985500.9043
logical57.032500.9042
publishpublished, publishes, publishing62.8971950.9039
plausible55.37340.9036
orientoriented, orienting, orients55.736370.9035
broadly54.209260.9034
conferenceconferences58.044640.9034
outletoutlets50.88120.9034
agricultureagricultures56.397440.9032
systematic58.275670.9032
synthetic52.608180.9031
autonomy57.139520.9029
sometime46.79150.9026
boundbounded, bounding, bounds61.1421300.9024
stripestriped, stripes, striping49.18880.9011
partially56.781480.9002
micro48.50570.8998
practitionerpractitioners56.391440.8998
lifestylelifestyles52.098160.8994
critically51.896150.8988
nonetheless53.026200.8985
arbitrary57.817600.8984
invadeinvaded, invades, invading50.843120.8984
thumbthumbed, thumbing, thumbs48.03660.8984
predominantly54.591290.8983
subjective55.573360.8974
ecological56.43440.8968
dilutediluted, dilutes, diluting52.011160.8967
inevitably53.959250.8965
whichever45.48940.8961
informal56.448440.8955
explicitly58.124650.8953
rubrubbed, rubbing, rubbings, rubs45.94540.8953
productive55.682370.8951
actively53.924250.895
entityentities57.57570.8949
maximizemaximise, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximized, maximizes, maximizing55.557360.8946
candidatecandidates59.726940.8945
explicit59.389870.8943
dissolvedissolved, dissolves, dissolving53.089200.8942
inferenceinferences57.261530.894
identical59.107810.8939
migrationmigrations57.39550.8938
thresholdthresholds58.516710.8934
reliability55.75380.8932
expertiseexpertises53.944250.8926
integrationintegrations59.263840.8926
paradigmparadigms57.547570.8911
protocolprotocols56.421440.8911
consensus56.259420.8908
clevercleverer, cleverest47.0350.8907
meaningful54.942310.8906
memorizememorise, memorised, memorises, memorising, memorized, memorizes, memorizing45.82840.8905
skipskipped, skipping, skips47.90760.8904
powderpowdered, powdering, powders48.59270.8903
generalizationgeneralisation, generalisations, generalizations56.546450.8901
separationseparations57.743590.8895
innate51.607140.8893
circulatecirculated, circulates, circulating53.573230.8887
overviewoverviews56.836480.8886
graspgrasped, grasping, grasps54.345270.8878
alienaliens52.156160.8875
executionexecutions55.13330.8875
anti51.771150.8873
physicianphysicians57.936620.8864
barrelbarreled, barreling, barrelled, barrelling, barrels47.73560.8861
competent51.528140.8858
simultaneously57.234530.8856
realistic53.836240.8851
resembleresembled, resembles, resembling55.63370.885
bundlebundled, bundles, bundling53.882240.8848
sensible50.508110.8846
stabilizestabilise, stabilised, stabilises, stabilising, stabilized, stabilizes, stabilizing53.738240.8843
shallowshallower, shallowest, shallows52.691190.8842
rejectionrejections55.563360.8841
evident58.121650.8839
bubblebubbled, bubbles, bubbling52.573180.8832
dominance55.714370.8831
campuscampuses47.05350.883
interfereinterfered, interferes, interfering53.514220.8829
problematic56.034400.8827
nicely47.72560.8826
reactive52.33170.8825
accuracy58.315680.8824
intensive54.231260.8824
containercontainers51.495140.8823
bizarre47.21650.8821
harvestharvested, harvesting, harvests56.205420.8819
progressive56.413440.8819
generalizegeneralise, generalised, generalises, generalising, generalized, generalizes, generalizing59.029800.8817
traditionally54.283270.8817
hierarchyhierarchies57.217530.8814
preliminarypreliminaries56.779480.8812
comparable57.333540.8811
halfway44.84830.8811
adjacent56.556450.8801
wheat55.29340.8799
confineconfined, confines, confining55.83380.8796
eliteelites58.631730.8796
correctioncorrections56.022400.8795
transparencytransparencies50.636120.8791
gridgrids54.826300.8788
subsubbed, subbing, subs50.634120.8787
empirical60.1491030.8782
optimum52.828190.8778
partial59.709940.8777
destinationdestinations50.462110.877
longitudinal56.996500.877
migratemigrated, migrates, migrating52.697190.8767
mathematical57.388550.876
dischargedischarged, discharges, discharging56.443440.8758
classifyclassified, classifies, classifying57.937620.8752
grossgrossed, grosser, grosses, grossest, grossing53.493220.8746
articulatearticulated, articulates, articulating55.439350.8741
nestnested, nesting, nests54.507280.8741
continentcontinents53.458220.874
ethicsethic55.981400.8739
insertinserted, inserting, inserts55.717370.8738
transmittransmits, transmitted, transmitting55.651370.8736
statistical601000.8734
contourcontoured, contouring, contours55.132330.8732
unstable56.275420.8732
complementcomplemented, complementing, complements57.666580.8728
horizonhorizons53.834240.8727
constrainconstrained, constraining, constrains56.789480.8726
controversycontroversies55.305340.8725
elaborateelaborated, elaborates, elaborating55.732370.8719
driftdrifted, drifting, drifts54.515280.8718
availability56.633460.8715
namely58.728750.8714
dilemmadilemmas54.174260.8712
stackstacked, stacking, stacks54.519280.8698
transformationtransformations60.9811250.8695
conceptual58.113650.8692
criteria49.64290.8689
conservationconservations56.79480.8688
admissionadmissions54.844310.8687
minimalminimals58.279670.8687
punchpunched, punches, punching45.32530.8684
reinforcereinforced, reinforces, reinforcing56.494450.8678
translationtranslations60.6951170.8673
semestersemesters46.32440.8668
simulatesimulated, simulates, simulating56.493450.8666
rhythmrhythms55.118320.8657
statistically56.493450.8655
fertility56.559450.8649
linguistics56.015400.8646
afterwardafterwards51.275130.8644
legitimatelegitimated, legitimates, legitimating54.705300.8643
qualitative56.538450.8642
methodologymethodologies57.595570.8641
realmrealms54.899310.8641
cattle56.069400.8624
quantitative58.011630.8616
correlationcorrelations61.7611500.861
degradedegraded, degrades, degrading51.515140.861
equalityequalities57.621580.8609
valvevalved, valves55.504360.8606
substitutionsubstitutions58.144650.8594
adaptive56.439440.8593
occurrenceoccurrences58.698740.8593
credibility49.993100.8591
statistics48.05860.8586
threadthreaded, threading, threads52.077160.8579
conceptionconceptions58.038640.8575
insectinsects57.042510.8573
minimizeminimise, minimised, minimises, minimising, minimized, minimizes, minimizing56.638460.8573
layoutlayouts51.506140.8571
trivial53.767240.8554
symbolic56.714470.8553
detection58.103650.8549
dynamicdynamics63.5062240.8548
ghostghosted, ghosting, ghosts49.34290.8548
bangbanged, banging, bangs44.7730.8544
tech42.59120.8544
indirect56.678470.8538
chemistry53.225210.8533
justificationjustifications55.19330.8533
syntax57.747600.8531
equilibrium59.952990.8522
gradientgradients57.599580.8521
implicit56.895490.8496
thereby57.75600.8491
supposedly50.778120.849
unifyunified, unifies, unifying54.965310.8489
dependence58.237670.8486
colonycolonies56.871490.8483
emissionemissions57.265530.8481
probeprobed, probes, probing57.391550.848
paradoxparadoxes52.818190.8478
contradictioncontradictions56.053400.8476
elementary53.881240.8476
punishpunished, punishes, punishing51.174130.8473
contrary57.084510.8472
tropical57.782600.8469
dimensional54.502280.8454
absorbabsorbed, absorbing, absorbs55.197330.845
variabilityvariabilities57.431550.8445
theoristtheorists54.58290.8438
biologistbiologists49.56590.8437
variantvariants57.888610.8436
replacementreplacements55.554360.8435
verbal57.644580.8435
whoever45.73340.8434
incredible44.86130.8433
temporal59.611910.8431
mechanical56.076410.843
preypreyed, preying, preys52.389170.8427
industrializationindustrialisation50.403110.8423
subtractsubtracted, subtracting, subtracts50.296110.8419
circulation55.629370.8416
flipflipped, flipping, flips48.00260.8409
conscious55.656370.8406
necessitynecessities55.614360.8406
fractionfractions57.805600.8399
staticstatics55.96390.8396
appendixappendices, appendixes56.838480.8392
absorption55.479350.8391
fatiguefatigued, fatigues, fatiguing53.04200.8387
defectdefected, defecting, defects57.744590.8383
densedenser, densest56.491450.8381
comparativecomparatives58.502710.8377
likelihood57.367550.8373
rational58.661730.8361
politically53.986250.8357
coordination54.455280.8351
assertasserted, asserting, asserts56.805480.8349
commoditycommodities53.805240.8349
matrixmatrices, matrixes62.1661650.8347
gutguts, gutted, gutting50.773120.8346
composite53.91250.8342
conceiveconceived, conceives, conceiving55.644370.8336
forumfora, forums51.173130.8336
obscureobscured, obscures, obscuring53.555230.8336
portrayportrayed, portraying, portrays53.275210.8334
onwards51.795150.8331
undermineundermined, undermines, undermining55.052320.8327
evolutionary57.866610.8318
tempttempted, tempting, tempts50.881120.8315
allocateallocated, allocates, allocating54.143260.8308
bulletbullets45.32630.8308
eraseerased, erases, erasing48.67770.8308
projectionprojections58.258670.8299
limblimbed, limbs53.429220.8297
corpus57.611580.8295
precedepreceded, precedes, preceding59.163820.8294
domaindomains63.4672220.8276
goodness51.122130.8276
morphologymorphologies57.76600.8268
occupationoccupations56.383430.8261
tribetribes51.989160.826
disabilitydisabilities56.073400.8255
painful50.411110.8248
formulationformulations56.885490.8244
collectivecollectives57.824610.8232
facultyfaculties53.282210.8232
modificationmodifications57.163520.8229
contradictory52.518180.8217
media50.882120.8215
thermalthermals55.466350.8211
leisure52.396170.8209
calculationcalculations59.182830.8207
breakdownbreakdowns54.084260.82
regimeregimes60.5281130.8192
elasticityelasticities52.537180.8189
transmissiontransmissions58.718740.8186
verticalverticals57.724590.8186
constitutionconstitutions55.072320.818
markermarkers60.2341060.818
superiorsuperiors56.934490.8178
nominal55.727370.8176
mobility55.412350.8175
ancestorancestors53.712240.8173
eliminationeliminations53.61230.8172
executeexecuted, executes, executing54.26270.8167
classificationclassifications58.542710.8165
mortality59.671930.8164
precipitation50.865120.8163
aestheticaesthetics, esthetic, esthetics56.408440.8161
influential54.616290.8161
draindrained, draining, drains50.892120.8159
diagramdiagrammed, diagramming, diagrams57.785600.8157
hawkhawked, hawking, hawks42.93720.8154
conserveconserved, conserves, conserving54.358270.8149
decaydecayed, decaying, decays55.661370.8148
ecologyecologies56.49450.8148
strategic55.243330.8145
wisdom52.306170.8144
thesistheses58.6720.814
commonly58.322680.8139
amongst55.515360.8133
predictionpredictions58.96790.8132
sketchsketched, sketches, sketching55.193330.8131
epidemicepidemics53.131210.813
undergraduateundergraduates51.633150.813
juniorjuniors49.17980.8123
pardonpardoned, pardoning, pardons45.04730.8123
facetfaceted, faceting, facets50.286110.8122
rationality53.385220.8121
biologybiologies57.114510.8118
critiquecritiqued, critiques, critiquing56.647460.8113
competencecompetences56.8480.8107
triangletriangles54.284270.8107
scholarshipscholarships54.601290.8106
toxic51.236130.8106
aggregateaggregated, aggregates, aggregating57.643580.8103
potassium52.332170.8101
orientationorientations59.133820.8098
compactcompacted, compacting, compacts57.786600.8097
crystalcrystals54.546280.8097
identificationidentifications59.821960.8097
terminalterminals56.457440.8095
nullnulled, nulling, nulls56.472440.8094
habitathabitats56.092410.8092
correlatecorrelated, correlates, correlating59.679930.8085
accelerateaccelerated, accelerates, accelerating54.671290.808
sneezesneezed, sneezes, sneezing40.81510.8074
emergence58.201660.8073
trickytrickier, trickiest43.89620.807
unityunities56.65460.8057
carriercarriers54.47280.8056
outer57.423550.8056
linguistic61.7411490.8055
dissertationdissertations54.116260.8053
usage56.996500.8052
socially54.632290.8045
goatgoats51.538140.8044
bodily51.446140.8043
clientclients56.96500.8043
leafleafed, leafing, leafs57.651580.8036
convergeconverged, converges, converging56.913490.8025
clickclicked, clicking, clicks49.00480.8023
susceptible54.112260.8023
nitrogennitrogens55.37340.8022
quizquizzed, quizzes, quizzing47.68160.8021
monkeymonkeyed, monkeying, monkeys56.124410.802
allocationallocations55.697370.8014
mythmyths55.034320.8013
motifmotifs54.158260.8002
progressionprogressions54.61290.8002
diffusiondiffusions56.827480.8001
domination51.657150.8
corruptioncorruptions53.582230.7999
questionnairequestionnaires56.55450.7999
clay52.029160.7998
athleticathletics43.6220.7993
impulseimpulses54.585290.7986
photographicphotographics47.80860.7986
ethical56.936490.7985
commentarycommentaries56.292430.7984
leverlevered, levering, levers46.50840.7971
periodicperiodics57.181520.7965
noblenobler, nobles, noblest52.34170.796
accentaccented, accenting, accents54.904310.7943
sensitivitysensitivities59.471890.7936
tolerancetolerances55.447350.7936
authorityauthorities62.5021780.7929
facilitatefacilitated, facilitates, facilitating58.438700.7929
tutortutored, tutoring, tutors49.932100.7927
rehabilitation52.856190.7923
altitudealtitudes50.681120.7922
comprehension56.904490.7918
inclusion57.292540.791
conditionalconditionals57.096510.7908
offspring55.636370.7907
renderrendered, rendering, renders56.724470.7904
slashslashed, slashes, slashing44.46530.7901
donordonors55.438350.7892
nastynastier, nastiest43.17220.7889
communistcommunists53.467220.7881
vegetation54.315270.7881
depictdepicted, depicting, depicts56.61460.788
dioxidedioxides51.598140.7879
affirmaffirmed, affirming, affirms51.347140.7872
clinicclinics54.145260.7871
colonialcolonials59.37860.7868
mid57.909620.7867
reservoirreservoirs51.49140.7865
derivativederivatives56.84480.7859
feedbackfeedbacks57.858610.7859
underneath46.21340.7854
sodium54.597290.785
initiateinitiated, initiates, initiating57.151520.7849
elevationelevations53.792240.7844
grammatical58.317680.7841
graphgraphed, graphing, graphs61.8141520.784
productivity56.319430.784
epidemiology53.092200.7838
sensationsensations52.51180.7831
intensityintensities59.938990.7825
specificationspecifications57.947620.7823
reproductionreproductions55.716370.7821
injectinjected, injecting, injects54.077260.7819
optimaloptimals59.411870.7806
resistant54.502280.7806
molemoles46.89350.7805
radiation57.725590.7802
inequalityinequalities59.111810.7801
observerobservers56.553450.78
confoundconfounded, confounding, confounds51.531140.7793
foundsfounded, founding50.854120.7791
diarydiaries52.865190.7785
finfins49.87100.7784
convergenceconvergences57.738590.7781
conecones58.244670.7777
cheercheered, cheering, cheers43.8120.777
directivedirectives52.227170.7768
unintelligible43.51220.7767
differentiationdifferentiations56.646460.7765
pulsepulsed, pulses, pulsing59.014800.7764
randomly54.956310.7764
unemployed51.242130.7764
lablabs50.397110.776
pragmaticpragmatics56.341430.7758
punishmentpunishments54.498280.7758
replicatereplicated, replicates, replicating56.085410.7752
elevateelevated, elevates, elevating55.405350.7747
complycomplied, complies, complying51.017130.7746
legendlegends51.016130.7746
ideologyideologies58.025630.7745
spectrumspectra, spectrums59.327860.7745
airplaneaeroplane, aeroplanes, airplanes46.59650.7743
terribly43.52520.7742
fabricfabrics51.498140.7739
instinctinstincts49.31990.7739
capitalistcapitalists53.876240.7731
consciousnessconsciousnesses57.241530.773
infinite57.52560.7727
conduction50.328110.7722
inferiorinferiors53.928250.772
sustainablesustainables52.488180.7717
marginal56.96500.7715
dialectdialects56.884490.7714
incredibly43.12820.7714
snakesnaked, snakes, snaking49.47190.7712
pi56.158410.7709
fleshfleshed, fleshes, fleshing49.4290.7707
aluminumaluminium49.867100.7693
encodeencoded, encodes, encoding58.441700.7687
posterposters47.88560.7683
stancestanced, stances, stancing53.756240.7683
spraysprayed, spraying, sprays48.81980.7682
specialtyspecialities, speciality, specialties47.20250.7667
suicidesuicides56.197420.7663
cuecued, cueing, cues56.6460.7658
upwardupwards53.504220.7658
effectiveness57.05510.7654
objectionobjections54.944310.7648
rainfall53.988250.7648
coordinatecoordinated, coordinates, coordinating59.192830.7647
adaptationadaptations58.308680.7642
indigenous56.734470.7638
denominatordenominators49.2380.7634
virtuevirtues56.788480.7631
dictionarydictionaries55.096320.7628
fossilfossils54.503280.7621
artifactartefact, artefacts, artifacts54.477280.7619
chloridechlorides50.526110.7616
configurationconfigurations58.755750.7611
civilizationcivilisation, civilisations, civilizations54.785300.7609
messengermessengers49.57690.7606
literliters, litre, litres47.43360.7597
cyclic52.389170.7585
viable53.435220.7582
morality54.008250.758
monopolymonopolies52.128160.7579
inclineinclined, inclines, inclining52.424170.7578
marblemarbled, marbles49.802100.7575
arrayarrays57.299540.7561
bargainbargained, bargaining, bargains52.994200.7559
rhetoric54.488280.7555
mentormentored, mentoring, mentors47.73160.7554
horizontalhorizontals58.267670.7553
reciperecipes46.64650.7547
utilityutilities57.696590.7546
irrigation52.903200.7543
instabilityinstabilities57.974630.7541
genetically52.314170.7537
obtainobtained, obtaining, obtains66.5194490.7531
physics53.44220.7527
interfaceinterfaced, interfaces, interfacing57.726590.7525
utteranceutterances58.441700.7525
adolescentadolescents58.461700.7521
peasantpeasants55.231330.7515
bracketbracketed, brackets, bracketted52.56180.7494
oxygen56.89490.7492
quantum54.436280.7487
computationcomputations57.915620.7482
diagnosticdiagnostics57.486560.7474
philosophical56.777480.7458
cordcords53.838240.7452
trajectorytrajectories58.416690.7451
numericalnumericals58.742750.7445
slabslabs49.10180.7437
singular56.917490.743
ritualrituals56.577450.7428
molecularmoleculars61.0191260.7418
looplooped, looping, loops56.846480.7402
closureclosures56.642460.7376
electronelectrons61.4131380.7375
residualresiduals56.798480.7373
scatterscattered, scattering, scatterings, scatters56.047400.7371
induction58.419690.7343
headquarterheadquartered, headquartering, headquarters47.35750.734
artistic53.283210.7334
incidenceincidences58.423700.7332
initiationinitiations53.836240.7325
spherespheres57.993630.7324
selective56.637460.7322
correspondencecorrespondences58.943780.7311
parenthesisparentheses52.347170.7307
revolutionaryrevolutionaries54.203260.7307
durationdurations59.577910.7303
postgraduatepostgraduates45.28730.7296
neuralneurals58.082640.7287
enforcement52.394170.7283
parcelparceled, parceling, parcelled, parcelling, parcels47.92160.7278
hedgehedged, hedges, hedging48.82380.7263
polepoled, poles, poling53.63230.7263
plugplugged, plugging, plugs48.75580.7262
nucleusnuclei59.324860.7257
prejudiceprejudiced, prejudices, prejudicing51.8150.7257
philosopherphilosophers54.954310.7254
fluidfluids61.2111320.7253
discoursediscoursed, discourses, discoursing61.5131420.725
gaugegage, gaged, gages, gaging, gauged, gauges, gauging50.665120.725
partitionpartitioned, partitioning, partitions57.154520.7249
industrializeindustrialise, industrialised, industrialises, industrialising, industrialized, industrializes, industrializing49.28480.7247
vocabularyvocabularies58.444700.7244
lecturerlecturers47.91760.7238
nationalism55.394350.7238
simulationsimulations60.6421160.723
consentconsented, consenting, consents55.934390.7227
ridiculous44.41530.7216
notationnotations57.412550.7211
deviationdeviations57.786600.7201
realism52.282170.7199
approximateapproximated, approximates, approximating56.929490.7195
linear62.1191630.7191
novicenovices47.12350.7186
phonological59.327860.7183
transcribetranscribed, transcribes, transcribing52.012160.7182
exponentialexponentials54.668290.7166
gramgrams49.85100.7159
normnorms59.005800.7154
discriminationdiscriminations55.907390.7152
genetics53.705230.7146
biodiversity50.153100.7142
basinbasins54.858310.7141
parental56.59460.7139
republicrepublics51.139130.7138
subsetsubsets59.149820.7137
aerosolaerosols43.70820.7136
upliftuplifted, uplifting, uplifts48.00660.7132
physiological56.681470.7126
stereotypestereotyped, stereotypes, stereotyping53.371220.7121
propositionpropositioned, propositioning, propositions59.126820.7118
rayrays54.371270.7117
treatytreaties52.86190.7117
fusionfusions56.797480.7116
motivemotives54.153260.7111
amplitudeamplitudes58.308680.7109
injectioninjections57.053510.7087
predatorpredators52.749190.7087
maternal58.691740.7085
behavioralbehavioural59.549900.7084
laterallaterals57.063510.7084
discrete57.08510.7083
mechanicmechanics53.094200.7082
weaveweaved, weaves, weaving, wove, woven50.467110.7078
cognitive62.0681610.7067
multiplymultiplied, multiplies, multiplying54.019250.7067
developmental61.1711310.7063
polar54.032250.706
dampdamped, dampest, damping, damps51.978160.7052
consonantconsonants57.118510.7047
randomizerandomise, randomised, randomises, randomising, randomized, randomizes, randomizing55.884390.7047
syntacticsyntactics59.143820.7046
nodenodes59.781950.7042
processorprocessors51.123130.7037
denotedenoted, denotes, denoting62.5711810.7035
illusionillusions52.847190.7033
organismorganisms58.219660.7014
disturbancedisturbances57.225530.7012
fluxfluxed, fluxes, fluxing55.415350.7009
thicknessthicknesses55.655370.7007
semanticsemantics62.381730.699
swellswelled, swelling, swells, swollen50.746120.6989
syllablesyllabled, syllables58.821760.6978
capitalism53.954250.6964
primerprimers54.348270.6952
parameterparameters64.3692730.6943
missilemissiles45.96740.6937
classroomclassrooms57.072510.6934
reactorreactors46.16140.6918
induceinduced, induces, inducing61.6521460.6917
communicative54.003250.6916
elasticelastics52.487180.6915
oscillationoscillations54.585290.6903
traittraits58.974790.6899
diameterdiameters58.256670.6894
moleculemolecules60.3051070.6894
peripheralperipherals55.789380.6894
hydrogen54.123260.6883
prevalence59.103810.6882
connotationconnotations49.55890.687
distributiondistributions65.6653690.6863
complicationcomplications55.513360.6856
vowelvowels59.968990.685
alliancealliances54.553290.6838
censorcensored, censoring, censors48.28170.6834
deceivedeceived, deceives, deceiving46.55950.6828
interviewerinterviewers50.812120.6827
fiberfibers, fibre, fibres57.559570.682
plannerplanners50.802120.6819
cylindercylinders54.606290.6817
diagnosediagnosed, diagnoses, diagnosing54.925310.6806
neo43.10620.6806
homework44.38530.6791
applause42.34320.679
rulerrulers53.831240.679
swapswapped, swapping, swaps46.67450.6789
stimulusstimuli61.4421390.6749
calculus57.014500.6738
monetary55.471350.6737
locusloci, locuses58.635730.6736
seminarseminars50.37110.6727
scrollscrolled, scrolling, scrolls43.46520.6697
variancevariances60.3431080.6696
adverse55.387350.6694
atomic53.775240.6684
pluralplurals55.504360.6676
integralintegrals58.063640.6659
binarybinaries55.168330.665
mediatemediated, mediates, mediating57.953620.665
fracturefractured, fractures, fracturing53.209210.6649
protonprotons53.672230.6647
estimationestimations57.802600.6642
algebraalgebras56.842480.6641
acidic48.03560.6632
inhibitioninhibitions56.553450.6631
surgeonsurgeons49.32890.6627
surplussurpluses52.24170.6613
replicationreplications54.871310.6611
emperoremperors50.699120.6607
opticalopticals53.472220.66
intervalintervals61.621450.6598
fetalfoetal56.908490.6596
finite61.4781410.6568
calcium56.669460.6556
metaphormetaphors55.593360.6544
traumatraumas53.505220.6544
turbulent54.437280.654
rotationrotations57.191520.6532
coefficientcoefficients60.8341210.6528
mineralminerals55.789380.6518
rotaterotated, rotates, rotating53.812240.6495
gravitygravities53.636230.6488
economisteconomists54.069260.6486
splicespliced, splices, splicing50.174100.6478
approximationapproximations58.602720.6476
jazzjazzed, jazzes, jazzing51.263130.6465
handouthandouts42.8520.6464
auditaudited, auditing, audits51.017130.6452
robotrobots60.0551010.6448
particleparticles59.587910.6445
activateactivated, activates, activating58.462700.6435
footnotefootnoted, footnotes51.484140.6435
architectarchitects54.109260.6427
inversioninversions53.107200.6426
psychiatricpsychiatrics56.65460.6415
equivalenceequivalences56.343430.6414
indifference48.7270.6389
lexical60.6171150.638
curriculumcurricula, curriculums54.807300.6332
calculatorcalculators41.84120.6326
characterizationcharacterisation, characterisations, characterizations56.957500.6323
tensetensed, tenses, tensing56.531450.6318
substratesubstrates55.933390.6316
sedimentsedimented, sedimenting, sediments54.403280.6311
strandstranded, stranding, strands55.015320.6294
deadlinedeadlines44.80830.6281
solublesolubles51.627150.6279
mutationmutations59.374870.6244
mercury47.36650.6236
transactiontransactions56.757470.6227
morphological57.069510.6219
algorithmalgorithms61.2521330.6218
atomatoms57.173520.6215
acidacids61.7191490.6212
emitemits, emitted, emitting51.536140.6208
diagnosis59.844960.6205
oxidizeoxidise, oxidised, oxidises, oxidising, oxidized, oxidizes, oxidizing47.40250.6202
portrayalportrayals48.26570.6195
solventsolvents49.17780.6174
onset59.314850.6151
antiquityantiquities51.252130.6143
pre56.759470.6127
frictionfrictions52.36170.6119
shuttleshuttled, shuttles, shuttling43.76720.6116
millimetermillimeters, millimetre, millimetres44.91630.6104
transplanttransplanted, transplanting, transplants53.206210.6095
swordswords47.83260.6093
portfolioportfolios52.133160.6059
solutesolutes48.37770.6049
synthesissyntheses58.258670.6046
sensory55.852380.6045
axis58.672740.6041
phenomenal47.32250.6039
infectious52.98200.6024
feverfevered, fevers52.821190.6019
bleedbled, bleeding, bleeds51.17130.6012
bonusbonuses46.04740.5973
neuronneurone, neurones, neurons60.6461160.5967
coronary54.101260.5953
residueresidues56.279420.5943
syndromesyndromes58.505710.5942
axiomaxioms53.221210.5937
cortexcortexes, cortices58.305680.5937
parparred, parring, pars62.3391710.5925
repertoirerepertoires72.45217590.5923
hiphipped, hips51.859150.5908
bilingual59.488890.5905
cinemacinemas48.81180.5888
oralorals57.91620.5883
beambeamed, beaming, beams59.017800.585
surgical54.461280.5849
organorgans57.603580.584
pesticidepesticides49.73290.5833
stadiumstadiums40.6710.5831
goods53.194210.5826
syllabussyllabi, syllabuses46.54350.5816
receptorreceptors61.361370.5813
fringefringed, fringes, fringing49.59890.5806
transcriptiontranscriptions56.502450.5803
helixhelices, helixes51.735150.5782
tumortumors, tumour, tumours57.567570.5756
nonlinear57.795600.5734
abdominalabdominals50.888120.5733
deficiencydeficiencies54.723300.5722
clonecloned, clones, cloning55.741380.5713
slavery53.344220.5699
watershed47.66260.5699
chess43.56420.5698
consultationconsultations53.832240.5672
fungusfungi51.493140.5668
artworkartworks45.2230.5665
lunglungs55.688370.5664
veinveined, veining, veins55.365340.5648
theoremtheorems61.3191350.564
chemotherapy52.248170.5637
deflectiondeflections46.57350.563
roperoped, ropes, roping47.08250.5624
inhibitinhibited, inhibiting, inhibits57.126520.5614
connectorconnectors43.19620.5605
plantationplantations51.848150.5598
tracttracts55.59360.5586
immune56.868490.5585
infectinfected, infecting, infects58.764750.5584
acute57.723590.556
wavelengthwavelengths54.94310.556
bacteria52.311170.5557
sniffsniffed, sniffing, sniffs40.69410.5553
yeast51.228130.5551
radarradars45.87240.554
commacommas47.23650.5475
kilometerkilometers, kilometre, kilometres49.13780.546
bucketbuckets46.68950.5456
globalizationglobalisation52.189170.544
multinationalmultinationals47.30650.5437
pestpests53.215210.5434
velocityvelocities61.6361460.5401
spermsperms58.012630.5381
chromosomechromosomes58.774750.5353
socializesocialise, socialised, socialises, socialising, socialized, socializes, socializing47.16350.5325
deltadeltas49.53490.5298
chronic58.07640.5295
displacementdisplacements54.804300.528
capillarycapillaries52.236170.5262
hepatitis52.6180.5255
vectorvectors61.4311390.5255
psychologistpsychologists52.95200.524
amino56.785480.5223
dissectiondissections48.31870.5207
antibioticantibiotics53.276210.5182
nutrientnutrients56.497450.5156
pathwaypathways59.216830.5128
metabolism54.205260.5108
composercomposers56.92490.5106
herbicideherbicides46.05740.5087
precipitateprecipitated, precipitates, precipitating50.42110.5078
liable49.828100.5039
sinsinned, sinning, sins58.585720.4986
infinityinfinities52.696190.4949
congruent47.98260.4938
regression59.918980.4909
radiusradii56.236420.4862
volition44.33330.4814
scripturescriptures45.81940.479
manuscriptmanuscripts58.407690.4776
liverlivers55.577360.476
enzymeenzymes58.051640.4758
factorialfactorials46.51140.4714
membranemembranes60.6751170.4695
auctionauctioned, auctioning, auctions47.75260.4671
secretesecreted, secretes, secreting51.868150.4664
phosphatephosphates53.639230.4663
bacterial54.733300.4646
psychologypsychologies57.534570.4573
marrow49.33990.4538
quotationquotations53.914250.453
overheadoverheads51.165130.4496
antibodyantibodies59.649920.4467
magnitudemagnitudes57.307540.4386
acceleration55.071320.4301
urine51.297130.426
hormonehormones56.006400.4216
kidneykidneys52.784190.4214
vitaminvitamins52.428170.4207
respiratory53.617230.4175
momentummomenta, momentums54.043250.4174
incumbentincumbents50.169100.4165
noisynoisier, noisiest47.35850.4145
archaeology57.178520.409
demonstratordemonstrators42.2620.4078
dosedosed, doses, dosing58.711740.4055
magneticmagnetics58.756750.3962
anthropologyanthropologies53.282210.3948
mallmalls41.24410.3659
ionions62.1791650.353
solar52.604180.338
minusminuses50.361110.3364
entrantentrants42.9820.3343
rackracked, racking, racks42.42320.2702
descriptordescriptors46.49540.2602
circa43.48820.2579
descendentdescendents38.9210.2082
sponsorshipsponsorships43.28620.2042


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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 26 August 2019.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.



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