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New Academic Word List (NAWL)

This page describes the New Academic Word List (NAWL), giving information on what the NAWL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the NAWL.


To explore the list more fully, try the NAWL highlighter (on this site).


What is the NAWL?

The New Academic Word List (NAWL), developed by Dr. Charles Browne, Dr. Brent Culligan and Joseph Phillips in 2013, is a list of 963 words which frequently appear in academic texts, but which are not contained in the New General Service List (NGSL). The NAWL was developed based on a study of a 288 million word academic corpus, consisting of academic journals, non-fiction, student essays, academic discourse, and best selling academic textbooks. The NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage of words from that corpus (86% for the NGSL and 6% for the NAWL).


While the New Academic Word List (NAWL) is similar to the Academic Word List (AWL), there are several differences. One is that it is more up-to-date. It was designed as an extension of the New General Service List (NGSL), in the same way that the AWL was designed as an extension of the General Service List (GSL). However, while the AWL itself is relatively new (devised in 2000), the GSL it was based on dates from 1953, and is significantly outdated when compared to the NGSL, which, like the NAWL, was developed in 2013 (by the same three researchers).


A second difference is coverage. As noted above, the NGSL and NAWL in combination give 92% coverage for the corpus used. This contrasts with only 87% for the GSL and AWL for the same corpus.


A final difference is the presentation of the words. The NAWL includes only inflected forms or variant spellings of words, rather than whole word families, meaning that although it has more headwords than the AWL (963 compared to 570), it has fewer word forms overall (2604 compared to 3112). Many of these word forms are added for completeness (for the benefit of researchers) and are not intended for study (e.g. plurals such as approximatings and compensatings). Additionally, the words are presented as a single list, in contrast to the AWL which is presented in 10 sublists based on frequency.


References

Browne, C., Culligan, B. and Phillips, J. (2013) The New Academic Word List. Available at: http://www.newgeneralservicelist.org/nawl-new-academic-word-list/ (Access date 13/8/19).


New Academic Word List: Frequency

The list below contains all 963 headwords in the NAWL, along with related word forms, ordered by frequency. Standard frequency index (SFI), estimated frequency per million words (U) and dispersion (D) are all shown. The first two are related measures of frequency (higher SFI means higher U, and means the word is more frequent), while dispersion (D) shows how evenly the words are distributed among academic texts (scores closer to 1 mean the word is more equally distributed, and therefore likely to be encountered more regularly, while scores closer to 0 mean the word occurs in fewer different texts, and is therefore likely to be encountered less regularly).


Words contain hyperlinks to the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site (definitions open in an alert box on the same page).


NOTE: As this list is intended for study rather than research purposes, additional (generally rule-based, non-existent plurals) are removed. This reduces the number of words from 2604 to 2198. For a complete list, including those words (alphabetical only), please click here.


There is also a copy of the list in alphabetical order, and another copy according to dispersion.


Headword    Related word forms    SFI    U    D   
repertoirerepertoires72.45217590.5923
obtainobtained, obtaining, obtains66.5194490.7531
distributiondistributions65.6653690.6863
parameterparameters64.3692730.6943
aspectaspects64.192620.9385
dynamicdynamics63.5062240.8548
impactimpacted, impacting, impacts63.4912230.9426
domaindomains63.4672220.8276
publishpublished, publishes, publishing62.8971950.9039
denotedenoted, denotes, denoting62.5711810.7035
authorityauthorities62.5021780.7929
semanticsemantics62.381730.699
parparred, parring, pars62.3391710.5925
ionions62.1791650.353
matrixmatrices, matrixes62.1661650.8347
linear62.1191630.7191
cognitive62.0681610.7067
graphgraphed, graphing, graphs61.8141520.784
correlationcorrelations61.7611500.861
linguistic61.7411490.8055
acidacids61.7191490.6212
induceinduced, induces, inducing61.6521460.6917
velocityvelocities61.6361460.5401
intervalintervals61.621450.6598
discoursediscoursed, discourses, discoursing61.5131420.725
finite61.4781410.6568
stimulusstimuli61.4421390.6749
vectorvectors61.4311390.5255
electronelectrons61.4131380.7375
receptorreceptors61.361370.5813
theoremtheorems61.3191350.564
algorithmalgorithms61.2521330.6218
fluidfluids61.2111320.7253
developmental61.1711310.7063
boundbounded, bounding, bounds61.1421300.9024
molecularmoleculars61.0191260.7418
transformationtransformations60.9811250.8695
spatial60.8861230.9265
coefficientcoefficients60.8341210.6528
translationtranslations60.6951170.8673
membranemembranes60.6751170.4695
neuronneurone, neurones, neurons60.6461160.5967
simulationsimulations60.6421160.723
lexical60.6171150.638
regimeregimes60.5281130.8192
variancevariances60.3431080.6696
moleculemolecules60.3051070.6894
markermarkers60.2341060.818
empirical60.1491030.8782
robotrobots60.0551010.6448
statistical601000.8734
vowelvowels59.968990.685
equilibrium59.952990.8522
intensityintensities59.938990.7825
regression59.918980.4909
diagnosis59.844960.6205
identificationidentifications59.821960.8097
nodenodes59.781950.7042
candidatecandidates59.726940.8945
partial59.709940.8777
correlatecorrelated, correlates, correlating59.679930.8085
mortality59.671930.8164
antibodyantibodies59.649920.4467
temporal59.611910.8431
particleparticles59.587910.6445
durationdurations59.577910.7303
behavioralbehavioural59.549900.7084
consumptionconsumptions59.545900.9168
bilingual59.488890.5905
sensitivitysensitivities59.471890.7936
similaritysimilarities59.459880.908
optimaloptimals59.411870.7806
explicit59.389870.8943
mutationmutations59.374870.6244
colonialcolonials59.37860.7868
phonological59.327860.7183
spectrumspectra, spectrums59.327860.7745
nucleusnuclei59.324860.7257
onset59.314850.6151
integrationintegrations59.263840.8926
dominant59.25840.9491
pathwaypathways59.216830.5128
coordinatecoordinated, coordinates, coordinating59.192830.7647
calculationcalculations59.182830.8207
precedepreceded, precedes, preceding59.163820.8294
subsetsubsets59.149820.7137
syntacticsyntactics59.143820.7046
orientationorientations59.133820.8098
propositionpropositioned, propositioning, propositions59.126820.7118
inequalityinequalities59.111810.7801
identical59.107810.8939
prevalence59.103810.6882
differentialdifferentials59.041800.9071
generalizegeneralise, generalised, generalises, generalising, generalized, generalizes, generalizing59.029800.8817
beambeamed, beaming, beams59.017800.585
pulsepulsed, pulses, pulsing59.014800.7764
normnorms59.005800.7154
traittraits58.974790.6899
predictionpredictions58.96790.8132
correspondencecorrespondences58.943780.7311
essentially58.934780.9491
syllablesyllabled, syllables58.821760.6978
chromosomechromosomes58.774750.5353
infectinfected, infecting, infects58.764750.5584
magneticmagnetics58.756750.3962
configurationconfigurations58.755750.7611
numericalnumericals58.742750.7445
namely58.728750.8714
intermediateintermediated, intermediates58.719740.9136
transmissiontransmissions58.718740.8186
dosedosed, doses, dosing58.711740.4055
occurrenceoccurrences58.698740.8593
maternal58.691740.7085
axis58.672740.6041
rational58.661730.8361
locusloci, locuses58.635730.6736
eliteelites58.631730.8796
approximationapproximations58.602720.6476
thesistheses58.6720.814
sinsinned, sinning, sins58.585720.4986
classificationclassifications58.542710.8165
thresholdthresholds58.516710.8934
syndromesyndromes58.505710.5942
comparativecomparatives58.502710.8377
activateactivated, activates, activating58.462700.6435
adolescentadolescents58.461700.7521
vocabularyvocabularies58.444700.7244
encodeencoded, encodes, encoding58.441700.7687
utteranceutterances58.441700.7525
facilitatefacilitated, facilitates, facilitating58.438700.7929
incidenceincidences58.423700.7332
induction58.419690.7343
trajectorytrajectories58.416690.7451
manuscriptmanuscripts58.407690.4776
commonly58.322680.8139
grammatical58.317680.7841
accuracy58.315680.8824
adaptationadaptations58.308680.7642
amplitudeamplitudes58.308680.7109
cortexcortexes, cortices58.305680.5937
minimalminimals58.279670.8687
systematic58.275670.9032
horizontalhorizontals58.267670.7553
projectionprojections58.258670.8299
synthesissyntheses58.258670.6046
diameterdiameters58.256670.6894
conecones58.244670.7777
dependence58.237670.8486
organismorganisms58.219660.7014
emergence58.201660.8073
overlapoverlapped, overlapping, overlaps58.186660.9286
substitutionsubstitutions58.144650.8594
explicitly58.124650.8953
evident58.121650.8839
conceptual58.113650.8692
detection58.103650.8549
interactinteracted, interacting, interacts58.098650.9386
neuralneurals58.082640.7287
chronic58.07640.5295
integralintegrals58.063640.6659
enzymeenzymes58.051640.4758
conferenceconferences58.044640.9034
conceptionconceptions58.038640.8575
exexes58.029640.959
ideologyideologies58.025630.7745
spermsperms58.012630.5381
quantitative58.011630.8616
spherespheres57.993630.7324
instabilityinstabilities57.974630.7541
mediatemediated, mediates, mediating57.953620.665
specificationspecifications57.947620.7823
classifyclassified, classifies, classifying57.937620.8752
physicianphysicians57.936620.8864
computationcomputations57.915620.7482
oralorals57.91620.5883
mid57.909620.7867
indicatorindicators57.895620.9071
variantvariants57.888610.8436
evolutionary57.866610.8318
feedbackfeedbacks57.858610.7859
collectivecollectives57.824610.8232
arbitrary57.817600.8984
fractionfractions57.805600.8399
estimationestimations57.802600.6642
nonlinear57.795600.5734
compactcompacted, compacting, compacts57.786600.8097
deviationdeviations57.786600.7201
diagramdiagrammed, diagramming, diagrams57.785600.8157
tropical57.782600.8469
morphologymorphologies57.76600.8268
thereby57.75600.8491
syntax57.747600.8531
defectdefected, defecting, defects57.744590.8383
separationseparations57.743590.8895
convergenceconvergences57.738590.7781
sufficiently57.734590.9132
valid57.729590.9334
interfaceinterfaced, interfaces, interfacing57.726590.7525
radiation57.725590.7802
embedembedded, embedding, embeds57.724590.9091
verticalverticals57.724590.8186
acute57.723590.556
utilityutilities57.696590.7546
complementcomplemented, complementing, complements57.666580.8728
leafleafed, leafing, leafs57.651580.8036
verbal57.644580.8435
aggregateaggregated, aggregates, aggregating57.643580.8103
equalityequalities57.621580.8609
corpus57.611580.8295
organorgans57.603580.584
gradientgradients57.599580.8521
methodologymethodologies57.595570.8641
entityentities57.57570.8949
tumortumors, tumour, tumours57.567570.5756
fiberfibers, fibre, fibres57.559570.682
paradigmparadigms57.547570.8911
psychologypsychologies57.534570.4573
infinite57.52560.7727
diverse57.487560.9161
diagnosticdiagnostics57.486560.7474
continuitycontinuities57.449560.9258
variabilityvariabilities57.431550.8445
outer57.423550.8056
notationnotations57.412550.7211
probeprobed, probes, probing57.391550.848
migrationmigrations57.39550.8938
mathematical57.388550.876
likelihood57.367550.8373
comparable57.333540.8811
magnitudemagnitudes57.307540.4386
arrayarrays57.299540.7561
inclusion57.292540.791
emissionemissions57.265530.8481
inferenceinferences57.261530.894
non57.257530.9415
consciousnessconsciousnesses57.241530.773
simultaneously57.234530.8856
disturbancedisturbances57.225530.7012
hierarchyhierarchies57.217530.8814
rotationrotations57.191520.6532
periodicperiodics57.181520.7965
validity57.181520.9088
archaeology57.178520.409
atomatoms57.173520.6215
modificationmodifications57.163520.8229
partitionpartitioned, partitioning, partitions57.154520.7249
initiateinitiated, initiates, initiating57.151520.7849
autonomy57.139520.9029
inhibitinhibited, inhibiting, inhibits57.126520.5614
consonantconsonants57.118510.7047
biologybiologies57.114510.8118
scenarioscenarios57.103510.9494
conditionalconditionals57.096510.7908
contrary57.084510.8472
discrete57.08510.7083
classroomclassrooms57.072510.6934
morphological57.069510.6219
laterallaterals57.063510.7084
injectioninjections57.053510.7087
effectiveness57.05510.7654
insectinsects57.042510.8573
logical57.032500.9042
calculus57.014500.6738
longitudinal56.996500.877
usage56.996500.8052
neutralneutrals56.985500.9043
clientclients56.96500.8043
marginal56.96500.7715
characterizationcharacterisation, characterisations, characterizations56.957500.6323
ethical56.936490.7985
superiorsuperiors56.934490.8178
approximateapproximated, approximates, approximating56.929490.7195
composercomposers56.92490.5106
singular56.917490.743
convergeconverged, converges, converging56.913490.8025
fetalfoetal56.908490.6596
comprehension56.904490.7918
implicit56.895490.8496
spanspanned, spanning, spans56.893490.9247
oxygen56.89490.7492
formulationformulations56.885490.8244
dialectdialects56.884490.7714
colonycolonies56.871490.8483
immune56.868490.5585
looplooped, looping, loops56.846480.7402
algebraalgebras56.842480.6641
derivativederivatives56.84480.7859
appendixappendices, appendixes56.838480.8392
overviewoverviews56.836480.8886
diffusiondiffusions56.827480.8001
specimenspecimens56.813480.918
assertasserted, asserting, asserts56.805480.8349
widespread56.802480.907
competencecompetences56.8480.8107
residualresiduals56.798480.7373
fusionfusions56.797480.7116
conservationconservations56.79480.8688
constrainconstrained, constraining, constrains56.789480.8726
differentiatedifferentiated, differentiates, differentiating56.788480.9259
virtuevirtues56.788480.7631
amino56.785480.5223
partially56.781480.9002
preliminarypreliminaries56.779480.8812
philosophical56.777480.7458
pre56.759470.6127
transactiontransactions56.757470.6227
prominent56.743470.9076
indigenous56.734470.7638
renderrendered, rendering, renders56.724470.7904
independently56.717470.9279
symbolic56.714470.8553
utilizeutilise, utilised, utilises, utilising, utilized, utilizes, utilizing56.699470.9226
physiological56.681470.7126
indirect56.678470.8538
assemblyassemblies56.669460.9245
calcium56.669460.6556
strictly56.653460.9498
psychiatricpsychiatrics56.65460.6415
unityunities56.65460.8057
critiquecritiqued, critiques, critiquing56.647460.8113
differentiationdifferentiations56.646460.7765
closureclosures56.642460.7376
minimizeminimise, minimised, minimises, minimising, minimized, minimizes, minimizing56.638460.8573
selective56.637460.7322
availability56.633460.8715
depictdepicted, depicting, depicts56.61460.788
cuecued, cueing, cues56.6460.7658
parental56.59460.7139
ritualrituals56.577450.7428
fertility56.559450.8649
adjacent56.556450.8801
inhibitioninhibitions56.553450.6631
observerobservers56.553450.78
readily56.553450.9114
questionnairequestionnaires56.55450.7999
generalizationgeneralisation, generalisations, generalizations56.546450.8901
qualitative56.538450.8642
tensetensed, tenses, tensing56.531450.6318
locally56.502450.9086
transcriptiontranscriptions56.502450.5803
nutrientnutrients56.497450.5156
reinforcereinforced, reinforces, reinforcing56.494450.8678
simulatesimulated, simulates, simulating56.493450.8666
statistically56.493450.8655
densedenser, densest56.491450.8381
ecologyecologies56.49450.8148
nullnulled, nulling, nulls56.472440.8094
terminalterminals56.457440.8095
informal56.448440.8955
dischargedischarged, discharges, discharging56.443440.8758
adaptive56.439440.8593
ecological56.43440.8968
protocolprotocols56.421440.8911
progressive56.413440.8819
aestheticaesthetics, esthetic, esthetics56.408440.8161
agricultureagricultures56.397440.9032
exploitexploited, exploiting, exploits56.397440.9369
practitionerpractitioners56.391440.8998
occupationoccupations56.383430.8261
equivalenceequivalences56.343430.6414
pragmaticpragmatics56.341430.7758
productivity56.319430.784
arrowarrowed, arrowing, arrows56.304430.9056
reproducereproduced, reproduces, reproducing56.302430.9223
commentarycommentaries56.292430.7984
residueresidues56.279420.5943
unstable56.275420.8732
consensus56.259420.8908
simplifysimplified, simplifies, simplifying56.255420.928
radiusradii56.236420.4862
artificial56.221420.9313
harvestharvested, harvesting, harvests56.205420.8819
suicidesuicides56.197420.7663
pi56.158410.7709
monkeymonkeyed, monkeying, monkeys56.124410.802
habitathabitats56.092410.8092
assignmentassignments56.09410.9262
replicatereplicated, replicates, replicating56.085410.7752
mechanical56.076410.843
disabilitydisabilities56.073400.8255
cattle56.069400.8624
purely56.067400.9426
contradictioncontradictions56.053400.8476
scatterscattered, scattering, scatterings, scatters56.047400.7371
problematic56.034400.8827
correctioncorrections56.022400.8795
linguistics56.015400.8646
hormonehormones56.006400.4216
primitiveprimitives55.994400.9364
ethicsethic55.981400.8739
accumulationaccumulations55.973400.9129
staticstatics55.96390.8396
consentconsented, consenting, consents55.934390.7227
substratesubstrates55.933390.6316
straightforward55.931390.9156
discriminationdiscriminations55.907390.7152
separately55.903390.9533
randomizerandomise, randomised, randomises, randomising, randomized, randomizes, randomizing55.884390.7047
sensory55.852380.6045
confineconfined, confines, confining55.83380.8796
mineralminerals55.789380.6518
peripheralperipherals55.789380.6894
spontaneous55.759380.9309
reliability55.75380.8932
clonecloned, clones, cloning55.741380.5713
orientoriented, orienting, orients55.736370.9035
elaborateelaborated, elaborates, elaborating55.732370.8719
nominal55.727370.8176
insertinserted, inserting, inserts55.717370.8738
reproductionreproductions55.716370.7821
dominance55.714370.8831
allocationallocations55.697370.8014
lunglungs55.688370.5664
productive55.682370.8951
decaydecayed, decaying, decays55.661370.8148
conscious55.656370.8406
thicknessthicknesses55.655370.7007
transmittransmits, transmitted, transmitting55.651370.8736
conceiveconceived, conceives, conceiving55.644370.8336
offspring55.636370.7907
resembleresembled, resembles, resembling55.63370.885
circulation55.629370.8416
correctly55.621360.9737
necessitynecessities55.614360.8406
metaphormetaphors55.593360.6544
tracttracts55.59360.5586
liverlivers55.577360.476
subjective55.573360.8974
accumulateaccumulated, accumulates, accumulating55.566360.9127
rejectionrejections55.563360.8841
maximizemaximise, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximized, maximizes, maximizing55.557360.8946
replacementreplacements55.554360.8435
amongst55.515360.8133
complicationcomplications55.513360.6856
pluralplurals55.504360.6676
valvevalved, valves55.504360.8606
absorption55.479350.8391
monetary55.471350.6737
thermalthermals55.466350.8211
likewise55.462350.911
tolerancetolerances55.447350.7936
articulatearticulated, articulates, articulating55.439350.8741
donordonors55.438350.7892
fluxfluxed, fluxes, fluxing55.415350.7009
mobility55.412350.8175
manipulationmanipulations55.407350.9523
elevateelevated, elevates, elevating55.405350.7747
nationalism55.394350.7238
analogyanalogies55.392350.9522
adverse55.387350.6694
nitrogennitrogens55.37340.8022
plausible55.37340.9036
veinveined, veining, veins55.365340.5648
controversycontroversies55.305340.8725
wheat55.29340.8799
rewriterewrites, rewriting, rewritten, rewrote55.265340.9191
manualmanuals55.259340.9584
strategic55.243330.8145
peasantpeasants55.231330.7515
absorbabsorbed, absorbing, absorbs55.197330.845
sketchsketched, sketches, sketching55.193330.8131
justificationjustifications55.19330.8533
lifetimelifetimes55.186330.9501
binarybinaries55.168330.665
definite55.167330.9637
contourcontoured, contouring, contours55.132330.8732
executionexecutions55.13330.8875
rhythmrhythms55.118320.8657
ultimate55.098320.954
dictionarydictionaries55.096320.7628
constitutionconstitutions55.072320.818
acceleration55.071320.4301
undermineundermined, undermines, undermining55.052320.8327
disadvantagedisadvantaged, disadvantages, disadvantaging55.045320.9232
mythmyths55.034320.8013
strandstranded, stranding, strands55.015320.6294
unifyunified, unifies, unifying54.965310.8489
randomly54.956310.7764
philosopherphilosophers54.954310.7254
pronouncepronounced, pronounces, pronouncing54.951310.9357
workshopworkshops54.948310.9045
objectionobjections54.944310.7648
meaningful54.942310.8906
wavelengthwavelengths54.94310.556
diagnosediagnosed, diagnoses, diagnosing54.925310.6806
accentaccented, accenting, accents54.904310.7943
realmrealms54.899310.8641
replicationreplications54.871310.6611
basinbasins54.858310.7141
admissionadmissions54.844310.8687
interestingly54.84300.9526
clarifyclarified, clarifies, clarifying54.827300.9596
gridgrids54.826300.8788
curriculumcurricula, curriculums54.807300.6332
displacementdisplacements54.804300.528
coherent54.801300.942
standardizestandardise, standardised, standardises, standardising, standardized, standardizes, standardizing54.795300.9332
civilizationcivilisation, civilisations, civilizations54.785300.7609
positively54.762300.9302
bacterial54.733300.4646
deficiencydeficiencies54.723300.5722
legitimatelegitimated, legitimates, legitimating54.705300.8643
sophisticatesophisticated, sophisticates54.672290.9514
accelerateaccelerated, accelerates, accelerating54.671290.808
exponentialexponentials54.668290.7166
formally54.634290.9221
socially54.632290.8045
accurately54.63290.9544
influential54.616290.8161
progressionprogressions54.61290.8002
essenceessences54.607290.9203
cylindercylinders54.606290.6817
scholarshipscholarships54.601290.8106
sodium54.597290.785
predominantly54.591290.8983
impulseimpulses54.585290.7986
oscillationoscillations54.585290.6903
theoristtheorists54.58290.8438
manipulatemanipulated, manipulates, manipulating54.561290.983
alliancealliances54.553290.6838
crystalcrystals54.546280.8097
importantly54.544280.9183
stackstacked, stacking, stacks54.519280.8698
driftdrifted, drifting, drifts54.515280.8718
nestnested, nesting, nests54.507280.8741
fossilfossils54.503280.7621
dimensional54.502280.8454
resistant54.502280.7806
punishmentpunishments54.498280.7758
rhetoric54.488280.7555
artifactartefact, artefacts, artifacts54.477280.7619
carriercarriers54.47280.8056
surgical54.461280.5849
coordination54.455280.8351
turbulent54.437280.654
quantum54.436280.7487
sedimentsedimented, sedimenting, sediments54.403280.6311
rayrays54.371270.7117
conserveconserved, conserves, conserving54.358270.8149
primerprimers54.348270.6952
graspgrasped, grasping, grasps54.345270.8878
bulkbulked, bulking, bulks54.327270.9305
terminologyterminologies54.32270.9573
vegetation54.315270.7881
triangletriangles54.284270.8107
traditionally54.283270.8817
executeexecuted, executes, executing54.26270.8167
intensive54.231260.8824
reconstructreconstructed, reconstructing, reconstructs54.215260.9161
broadly54.209260.9034
metabolism54.205260.5108
revolutionaryrevolutionaries54.203260.7307
mergemerged, merges, merging54.192260.9255
dilemmadilemmas54.174260.8712
motifmotifs54.158260.8002
motivemotives54.153260.7111
subtlesubtler, subtlest54.148260.9566
clinicclinics54.145260.7871
allocateallocated, allocates, allocating54.143260.8308
hydrogen54.123260.6883
dissertationdissertations54.116260.8053
susceptible54.112260.8023
architectarchitects54.109260.6427
coronary54.101260.5953
breakdownbreakdowns54.084260.82
injectinjected, injecting, injects54.077260.7819
economisteconomists54.069260.6486
momentummomenta, momentums54.043250.4174
polar54.032250.706
backwardbackwards54.031250.9729
multiplymultiplied, multiplies, multiplying54.019250.7067
morality54.008250.758
communicative54.003250.6916
physically53.993250.9767
rainfall53.988250.7648
politically53.986250.8357
invasioninvasions53.966250.912
inevitably53.959250.8965
capitalism53.954250.6964
expertiseexpertises53.944250.8926
inferiorinferiors53.928250.772
actively53.924250.895
quotationquotations53.914250.453
composite53.91250.8342
historically53.895250.9363
textbooktextbooks53.886240.9504
bundlebundled, bundles, bundling53.882240.8848
elementary53.881240.8476
capitalistcapitalists53.876240.7731
flexibilityflexibilities53.873240.9468
cordcords53.838240.7452
initiationinitiations53.836240.7325
realistic53.836240.8851
horizonhorizons53.834240.8727
consultationconsultations53.832240.5672
rulerrulers53.831240.679
freely53.817240.9075
rotaterotated, rotates, rotating53.812240.6495
commoditycommodities53.805240.8349
elevationelevations53.792240.7844
interveneintervened, intervenes53.781240.9194
compensatecompensated, compensates, compensating53.779240.9123
atomic53.775240.6684
trivial53.767240.8554
stancestanced, stances, stancing53.756240.7683
stabilizestabilise, stabilised, stabilises, stabilising, stabilized, stabilizes, stabilizing53.738240.8843
profound53.723240.9517
whereby53.717240.9542
ancestorancestors53.712240.8173
genetics53.705230.7146
protonprotons53.672230.6647
phosphatephosphates53.639230.4663
gravitygravities53.636230.6488
polepoled, poles, poling53.63230.7263
puzzlepuzzled, puzzles, puzzling53.621230.9775
respiratory53.617230.4175
eliminationeliminations53.61230.8172
exitexited, exiting, exits53.608230.949
corruptioncorruptions53.582230.7999
circulatecirculated, circulates, circulating53.573230.8887
obscureobscured, obscures, obscuring53.555230.8336
contradictcontradicted, contradicting, contradicts53.531230.9061
interfereinterfered, interferes, interfering53.514220.8829
traumatraumas53.505220.6544
upwardupwards53.504220.7658
grossgrossed, grosser, grosses, grossest, grossing53.493220.8746
opticalopticals53.472220.66
communistcommunists53.467220.7881
continentcontinents53.458220.874
physics53.44220.7527
viable53.435220.7582
limblimbed, limbs53.429220.8297
retrieveretrieved, retrieves, retrieving53.413220.924
presumepresumed, presumes, presuming53.406220.9196
rationality53.385220.8121
stereotypestereotyped, stereotypes, stereotyping53.371220.7121
slavery53.344220.5699
artistic53.283210.7334
anthropologyanthropologies53.282210.3948
facultyfaculties53.282210.8232
antibioticantibiotics53.276210.5182
portrayportrayed, portraying, portrays53.275210.8334
chemistry53.225210.8533
sexualitysexualities53.225210.9059
axiomaxioms53.221210.5937
pestpests53.215210.5434
fracturefractured, fractures, fracturing53.209210.6649
transplanttransplanted, transplanting, transplants53.206210.6095
goods53.194210.5826
shortly53.155210.9536
epidemicepidemics53.131210.813
inversioninversions53.107200.6426
irrelevant53.103200.9268
mechanicmechanics53.094200.7082
epidemiology53.092200.7838
dissolvedissolved, dissolves, dissolving53.089200.8942
fatiguefatigued, fatigues, fatiguing53.04200.8387
nonetheless53.026200.8985
bargainbargained, bargaining, bargains52.994200.7559
infectious52.98200.6024
individually52.951200.9608
psychologistpsychologists52.95200.524
trans52.946200.9121
irrigation52.903200.7543
diarydiaries52.865190.7785
treatytreaties52.86190.7117
rehabilitation52.856190.7923
illusionillusions52.847190.7033
batbats, batted, batting52.83190.9644
optimum52.828190.8778
feverfevered, fevers52.821190.6019
paradoxparadoxes52.818190.8478
kidneykidneys52.784190.4214
predatorpredators52.749190.7087
migratemigrated, migrates, migrating52.697190.8767
infinityinfinities52.696190.4949
shallowshallower, shallowest, shallows52.691190.8842
fundamentally52.651180.9356
synthetic52.608180.9031
solar52.604180.338
hepatitis52.6180.5255
tontons52.591180.9478
bubblebubbled, bubbles, bubbling52.573180.8832
bracketbracketed, brackets, bracketted52.56180.7494
elasticityelasticities52.537180.8189
curecured, cures, curing52.528180.9043
contradictory52.518180.8217
sensationsensations52.51180.7831
sustainablesustainables52.488180.7717
elasticelastics52.487180.6915
machinerymachineries52.466180.9255
dictatedictated, dictates, dictating52.435180.9758
vitaminvitamins52.428170.4207
inclineinclined, inclines, inclining52.424170.7578
leisure52.396170.8209
enforcement52.394170.7283
cyclic52.389170.7585
preypreyed, preying, preys52.389170.8427
clueclues52.362170.9662
frictionfrictions52.36170.6119
parenthesisparentheses52.347170.7307
noblenobler, nobles, noblest52.34170.796
potassium52.332170.8101
reactive52.33170.8825
genetically52.314170.7537
bacteria52.311170.5557
wisdom52.306170.8144
crudecruder, crudest52.289170.9454
realism52.282170.7199
deliberately52.25170.9049
chemotherapy52.248170.5637
surplussurpluses52.24170.6613
capillarycapillaries52.236170.5262
directivedirectives52.227170.7768
globalizationglobalisation52.189170.544
alienaliens52.156160.8875
portfolioportfolios52.133160.6059
monopolymonopolies52.128160.7579
lifestylelifestyles52.098160.8994
invertinverted, inverting, inverts52.083160.9469
threadthreaded, threading, threads52.077160.8579
clay52.029160.7998
dyedyed, dyeing, dyes52.027160.9061
transcribetranscribed, transcribes, transcribing52.012160.7182
dilutediluted, dilutes, diluting52.011160.8967
tribetribes51.989160.826
dampdamped, dampest, damping, damps51.978160.7052
economically51.967160.9061
critically51.896150.8988
secretesecreted, secretes, secreting51.868150.4664
hiphipped, hips51.859150.5908
plantationplantations51.848150.5598
prejudiceprejudiced, prejudices, prejudicing51.8150.7257
onwards51.795150.8331
anti51.771150.8873
helixhelices, helixes51.735150.5782
interruptinterrupted, interrupting, interrupts51.719150.9885
domination51.657150.8
undergraduateundergraduates51.633150.813
solublesolubles51.627150.6279
innate51.607140.8893
dioxidedioxides51.598140.7879
goatgoats51.538140.8044
emitemits, emitted, emitting51.536140.6208
confoundconfounded, confounding, confounds51.531140.7793
competent51.528140.8858
degradedegraded, degrades, degrading51.515140.861
layoutlayouts51.506140.8571
fabricfabrics51.498140.7739
containercontainers51.495140.8823
fungusfungi51.493140.5668
reservoirreservoirs51.49140.7865
footnotefootnoted, footnotes51.484140.6435
bodily51.446140.8043
nicheniches51.415140.9615
vague51.407140.9263
affirmaffirmed, affirming, affirms51.347140.7872
urine51.297130.426
afterwardafterwards51.275130.8644
jazzjazzed, jazzes, jazzing51.263130.6465
antiquityantiquities51.252130.6143
unemployed51.242130.7764
toxic51.236130.8106
yeast51.228130.5551
punishpunished, punishes, punishing51.174130.8473
forumfora, forums51.173130.8336
bleedbled, bleeding, bleeds51.17130.6012
overheadoverheads51.165130.4496
republicrepublics51.139130.7138
processorprocessors51.123130.7037
goodness51.122130.8276
auditaudited, auditing, audits51.017130.6452
complycomplied, complies, complying51.017130.7746
legendlegends51.016130.7746
slotslots, slotted, slotting50.941120.9548
draindrained, draining, drains50.892120.8159
abdominalabdominals50.888120.5733
media50.882120.8215
tempttempted, tempting, tempts50.881120.8315
outletoutlets50.88120.9034
precipitation50.865120.8163
foundsfounded, founding50.854120.7791
invadeinvaded, invades, invading50.843120.8984
interviewerinterviewers50.812120.6827
appleapples50.807120.923
plannerplanners50.802120.6819
supposedly50.778120.849
gutguts, gutted, gutting50.773120.8346
swellswelled, swelling, swells, swollen50.746120.6989
emperoremperors50.699120.6607
altitudealtitudes50.681120.7922
gaugegage, gaged, gages, gaging, gauged, gauges, gauging50.665120.725
transparencytransparencies50.636120.8791
subsubbed, subbing, subs50.634120.8787
blankblanked, blanking, blanks50.569110.9188
chloridechlorides50.526110.7616
sensible50.508110.8846
weaveweaved, weaves, weaving, wove, woven50.467110.7078
destinationdestinations50.462110.877
precipitateprecipitated, precipitates, precipitating50.42110.5078
painful50.411110.8248
industrializationindustrialisation50.403110.8423
lablabs50.397110.776
seminarseminars50.37110.6727
minusminuses50.361110.3364
conduction50.328110.7722
audio50.308110.9181
subtractsubtracted, subtracting, subtracts50.296110.8419
facetfaceted, faceting, facets50.286110.8122
splicespliced, splices, splicing50.174100.6478
incumbentincumbents50.169100.4165
biodiversity50.153100.7142
chunkchunked, chunking, chunks50.02100.9086
credibility49.993100.8591
tutortutored, tutoring, tutors49.932100.7927
super49.916100.9474
finfins49.87100.7784
aluminumaluminium49.867100.7693
gramgrams49.85100.7159
liable49.828100.5039
marblemarbled, marbles49.802100.7575
pesticidepesticides49.73290.5833
technically49.64690.9307
criteria49.64290.8689
fringefringed, fringes, fringing49.59890.5806
messengermessengers49.57690.7606
biologistbiologists49.56590.8437
connotationconnotations49.55890.687
deltadeltas49.53490.5298
tremendous49.48690.9356
snakesnaked, snakes, snaking49.47190.7712
fleshfleshed, fleshes, fleshing49.4290.7707
ghostghosted, ghosting, ghosts49.34290.8548
marrow49.33990.4538
surgeonsurgeons49.32890.6627
instinctinstincts49.31990.7739
industrializeindustrialise, industrialised, industrialises, industrialising, industrialized, industrializes, industrializing49.28480.7247
denominatordenominators49.2380.7634
stripestriped, stripes, striping49.18880.9011
juniorjuniors49.17980.8123
solventsolvents49.17780.6174
kilometerkilometers, kilometre, kilometres49.13780.546
slabslabs49.10180.7437
clickclicked, clicking, clicks49.00480.8023
hedgehedged, hedges, hedging48.82380.7263
spraysprayed, spraying, sprays48.81980.7682
cinemacinemas48.81180.5888
plugplugged, plugging, plugs48.75580.7262
naked48.73170.9359
indifference48.7270.6389
eraseerased, erases, erasing48.67770.8308
powderpowdered, powdering, powders48.59270.8903
micro48.50570.8998
clipclipped, clipping, clippings, clips48.39870.9518
solutesolutes48.37770.6049
dissectiondissections48.31870.5207
censorcensored, censoring, censors48.28170.6834
portrayalportrayals48.26570.6195
statistics48.05860.8586
thumbthumbed, thumbing, thumbs48.03660.8984
acidic48.03560.6632
upliftuplifted, uplifting, uplifts48.00660.7132
flipflipped, flipping, flips48.00260.8409
congruent47.98260.4938
parcelparceled, parceling, parcelled, parcelling, parcels47.92160.7278
lecturerlecturers47.91760.7238
skipskipped, skipping, skips47.90760.8904
posterposters47.88560.7683
swordswords47.83260.6093
photographicphotographics47.80860.7986
auctionauctioned, auctioning, auctions47.75260.4671
barrelbarreled, barreling, barrelled, barrelling, barrels47.73560.8861
mentormentored, mentoring, mentors47.73160.7554
nicely47.72560.8826
lumplumped, lumping, lumps47.7260.9195
quizquizzed, quizzes, quizzing47.68160.8021
watershed47.66260.5699
literliters, litre, litres47.43360.7597
oxidizeoxidise, oxidised, oxidises, oxidising, oxidized, oxidizes, oxidizing47.40250.6202
mercury47.36650.6236
noisynoisier, noisiest47.35850.4145
headquarterheadquartered, headquartering, headquarters47.35750.734
phenomenal47.32250.6039
multinationalmultinationals47.30650.5437
commacommas47.23650.5475
bizarre47.21650.8821
specialtyspecialities, speciality, specialties47.20250.7667
socializesocialise, socialised, socialises, socialising, socialized, socializes, socializing47.16350.5325
enormously47.12350.9399
novicenovices47.12350.7186
roperoped, ropes, roping47.08250.5624
campuscampuses47.05350.883
clevercleverer, cleverest47.0350.8907
molemoles46.89350.7805
sometime46.79150.9026
bucketbuckets46.68950.5456
swapswapped, swapping, swaps46.67450.6789
reciperecipes46.64650.7547
airplaneaeroplane, aeroplanes, airplanes46.59650.7743
deflectiondeflections46.57350.563
deceivedeceived, deceives, deceiving46.55950.6828
syllabussyllabi, syllabuses46.54350.5816
neatneater, neatest46.53550.9081
factorialfactorials46.51140.4714
leverlevered, levering, levers46.50840.7971
descriptordescriptors46.49540.2602
semestersemesters46.32440.8668
underneath46.21340.7854
reactorreactors46.16140.6918
herbicideherbicides46.05740.5087
bonusbonuses46.04740.5973
cheatcheated, cheating, cheats46.02340.9163
missilemissiles45.96740.6937
rubrubbed, rubbing, rubbings, rubs45.94540.8953
radarradars45.87240.554
memorizememorise, memorised, memorises, memorising, memorized, memorizes, memorizing45.82840.8905
scripturescriptures45.81940.479
whoever45.73340.8434
whichever45.48940.8961
bulletbullets45.32630.8308
punchpunched, punches, punching45.32530.8684
postgraduatepostgraduates45.28730.7296
artworkartworks45.2230.5665
pardonpardoned, pardoning, pardons45.04730.8123
millimetermillimeters, millimetre, millimetres44.91630.6104
incredible44.86130.8433
halfway44.84830.8811
deadlinedeadlines44.80830.6281
bangbanged, banging, bangs44.7730.8544
semi44.49730.9148
slashslashed, slashes, slashing44.46530.7901
ridiculous44.41530.7216
homework44.38530.6791
multi44.38530.9263
volition44.33330.4814
trickytrickier, trickiest43.89620.807
cheercheered, cheering, cheers43.8120.777
shuttleshuttled, shuttles, shuttling43.76720.6116
aerosolaerosols43.70820.7136
athleticathletics43.6220.7993
chess43.56420.5698
terribly43.52520.7742
unintelligible43.51220.7767
circa43.48820.2579
scrollscrolled, scrolling, scrolls43.46520.6697
sponsorshipsponsorships43.28620.2042
connectorconnectors43.19620.5605
nastynastier, nastiest43.17220.7889
incredibly43.12820.7714
neo43.10620.6806
entrantentrants42.9820.3343
hawkhawked, hawking, hawks42.93720.8154
handouthandouts42.8520.6464
tech42.59120.8544
rackracked, racking, racks42.42320.2702
applause42.34320.679
demonstratordemonstrators42.2620.4078
calculatorcalculators41.84120.6326
mallmalls41.24410.3659
sneezesneezed, sneezes, sneezing40.81510.8074
sniffsniffed, sniffing, sniffs40.69410.5553
stadiumstadiums40.6710.5831
descendentdescendents38.9210.2082


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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 26 August 2019.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.



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