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Medical Academic Word List (MAWL)

This page describes the Medical Academic Word List (MAWL), giving information on what the MAWL is, as well as a complete list of all words in the MAWL.


To explore the list more fully, try the MAWL highlighter (on this site).


What is the MAWL?

EAWL

The Medical Academic Word List (MAWL) was developed by in 2008 by Jing Wang, Shao-lan Liang and Guang-chun Ge of the Department of Foreign Languages, Fourth Military Medical University, Xi’an, China. The list was developed from a study of a 1.09 million-word corpus of medical research articles from online resources, covering 32 medical subject areas. The MAWL contains 623 word families, and has a coverage of 12.24% of words in the corpus used to derive the list.


The MAWL was developed in a similar way to the Academic Word List, by first eliminating words from the GSL (General Service List). In addition, members of the word family needed to occur in at least half of the 32 subject areas, and occur at least 30 times in the corpus.


References

Wang, J., Liang, S. and Ge, G (2008) 'Establishment of a Medical Academic Word List', English for Specific Purposes, 27, pp. 442–458.


Medical Academic Word List

The list below contains all 623 headwords in the MAWL, along with pronunciation, definition, and a list of members of the word family. The words in the MAWL are numbered according to frequency, with 1 being the most frequent, 623 being the least frequent. The list below is ordered alphabetically. Definitions are taken from the Wordnet dictionary, hosted on this site. Words (and word forms) also contain hyperlinks for a more detailed definition (these open in an alert box on the same page).


There is also a copy of the list in order of frequency.


Headword Number Definition Word forms
abdominal
[æbdɑmənəl]
544
noun
1. the muscles of the abdomen.
adj
1. of or relating to or near the abdomen. E.g.: abdominal muscles
abdomen, abdomens
absorb
[əbzɔrb]
299
verb
1. become imbued. E.g.: The liquids, light, and gases absorb
2. take up mentally. E.g.: he absorbed the knowledge or beliefs of his tribe
3. take up, as of debts or payments. E.g.: absorb the costs for something
4. take in, also metaphorically. E.g.: The sponge absorbs water well
5. cause to become one with. E.g.: The sales tax is absorbed into the state income tax
6. suck or take up or in. E.g.: A black star absorbs all matter
7. engross (oneself) fully.
8. assimilate or take in. E.g.: The immigrants were quickly absorbed into society
9. engage or engross wholly. E.g.: Her interest in butterflies absorbs her completely
absorbed, absorbency, absorbent, absorber, absorbers, absorbing, absorbs, absorption, absorptions, absorptive
abstract
[æbstrækt]
170
noun
1. a concept or idea not associated with any specific instance. E.g.: he loved her only in the abstract--not in person
2. a sketchy summary of the main points of an argument or theory.
verb
1. consider a concept without thinking of a specific example; consider abstractly or theoretically.
2. make off with belongings of others.
3. consider apart from a particular case or instance. E.g.: Let's abstract away from this particular example
4. give an abstract (of).
adj
1. existing only in the mind; separated from embodiment. E.g.: abstract words like `truth' and `justice'
2. not representing or imitating external reality or the objects of nature. E.g.: a large abstract painting
3. based on specialized theory.
4. dealing with a subject in the abstract without practical purpose or intention. E.g.: abstract reasoning, abstract science
abstracted, abstractedly, abstracting, abstraction, abstractions, abstractly, abstractness, abstracts
accelerate
[ækselɜreɪt]
468
verb
1. move faster. E.g.: The car accelerated
2. cause to move faster. E.g.: He accelerated the car
accelerated, accelerates, accelerating, acceleration, accelerations, accelerator, accelerators
access
[ækses]
350
noun
1. the right to enter.
2. the right to obtain or make use of or take advantage of something (as services or membership).
3. a way of entering or leaving. E.g.: he took a wrong turn on the access to the bridge
4. (computer science) the operation of reading or writing stored information.
5. the act of approaching or entering. E.g.: he gained access to the building
verb
1. obtain or retrieve from a storage device; as of information on a computer.
2. reach or gain access to. E.g.: How does one access the attic in this house?
accessed, accesses, accessibility, accessible, accessing, inaccessibility, inaccessible
accomplish
[əkɑmplɪʃ]
557
verb
1. put in effect.
2. to gain with effort.
accomplished, accomplishes, accomplishing, accomplishment, accomplishments
accumulate
[əkjumjəleɪt]
335
verb
1. get or gather together.
2. collect or gather.
accumulated, accumulates, accumulating, accumulation, accumulations, accumulative, accumulatively, accumulator, accumulators
accurate
[ækjɜrət]
294
adj
1. conforming exactly or almost exactly to fact or to a standard or performing with total accuracy. E.g.: an accurate reproduction, the accounting was accurate, accurate measurements, an accurate scale
2. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct.
accuracies, accuracy, accurately, inaccuracies, inaccuracy, inaccurate, inaccurately
achieve
[ətʃiv]
80
verb
1. to gain with effort. E.g.: she achieved her goal despite setbacks
achievable, achieved, achievement, achievements, achiever, achievers, achieves, achieving, unachievable
acid
[æsəd]
61
noun
1. any of various water-soluble compounds having a sour taste and capable of turning litmus red and reacting with a base to form a salt.
2. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide.
adj
1. harsh or corrosive in tone. E.g.: a barrage of acid comments
2. containing acid. E.g.: an acid taste
acidic, acidity, acidly, acids
acknowledge
[æknɑlɪdʒ]
574
verb
1. declare to be true or admit the existence or reality or truth of. E.g.: She acknowledged that she might have forgotten
2. report the receipt of. E.g.: The program committee acknowledged the submission of the authors of the paper
3. express recognition of the presence or existence of, or acquaintance with. E.g.: He never acknowledges his colleagues when they run into him in the hallway, She acknowledged his complement with a smile, it is important to acknowledge the work of others in
4. express obligation, thanks, or gratitude for. E.g.: We must acknowledge the kindness she showed towards us
5. accept as legally binding and valid. E.g.: acknowledge the deed
6. accept (someone) to be what is claimed or accept his power and authority. E.g.: The Crown Prince was acknowledged as the true heir to the throne
acknowledged, acknowledgement, acknowledgements, acknowledges, acknowledging, acknowledgment, acknowledgments, unacknowledged
acquire
[əkwaɪɜr]
252
verb
1. come into the possession of something concrete or abstract. E.g.: They acquired a new pet
2. take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect.
3. come to have or undergo a change of (physical features and attributes).
4. locate (a moving entity) by means of a tracking system such as radar.
5. win something through one's efforts. E.g.: I acquired a passing knowledge of Chinese
6. acquire or gain knowledge or skills. E.g.: Children acquire language at an amazing rate
7. gain through experience. E.g.: I acquired a strong aversion to television
acquired, acquirer, acquirers, acquires, acquiring
activate
[æktəveɪt]
27
verb
1. put in motion or move to act.
2. make active or more active. E.g.: activate an old file
3. make more adsorptive. E.g.: activate a metal
4. aerate (sewage) so as to favor the growth of organisms that decompose organic matter.
5. make (substances) radioactive.
activated, activates, activating, activation, activator, activators, inactivation, reactivate, reactivated, reactivates, reactivating, reactivation, reactivations
acute
[əkjut]
134
noun
1. a mark (') placed above a vowel to indicate pronunciation.
adj
1. having or experiencing a rapid onset and short but severe course. E.g.: acute appendicitis, the acute phase of the illness, acute patients
2. extremely sharp or intense. E.g.: acute pain, felt acute annoyance
3. having or demonstrating ability to recognize or draw fine distinctions. E.g.: an acute observer of politics and politicians
4. of an angle; less than 90 degrees.
5. ending in a sharp point.
6. of critical importance and consequence. E.g.: an acute (or critical) lack of research funds
acutely, acuteness
adapt
[ədæpt]
441
verb
1. make fit for, or change to suit a new purpose.
2. adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions.
adaptabilities, adaptability, adaptable, adaptation, adaptations, adapted, adapter, adapters, adapting, adaptive, adaptor, adaptors, adapts, maladaptive, unadapted
adequate
[ædəkwət]
603
adj
1. (sometimes followed by `to') meeting the requirements especially of a task. E.g.: she had adequate training, her training was adequate, she was adequate to the job
2. enough to meet a purpose. E.g.: an adequate income, the food was adequate
3. about average; acceptable. E.g.: more than adequate as a secretary
adequately, inadequate, inadequately
adjacent
[ədʒeɪsənt]
391
adj
1. nearest in space or position; immediately adjoining without intervening space. E.g.: had adjacent rooms
2. having a common boundary or edge; touching.
3. near or close to but not necessarily touching. E.g.: lands adjacent to the mountains, New York and adjacent cities
adjacently, nonadjacent
adjust
[ədʒʌst]
506
verb
1. alter or regulate so as to achieve accuracy or conform to a standard.
2. place in a line or arrange so as to be parallel or straight.
3. adapt or conform oneself to new or different conditions. E.g.: We must adjust to the bad economic situation
4. make correspondent or conformable.
5. decide how much is to be paid on an insurance claim.
adjustable, adjusted, adjuster, adjusters, adjusting, adjustment, adjustments, adjusts, readjust, readjusted, readjusting, readjustment, readjustments, readjusts, unadjusted
adult
[ədʌlt]
442
noun
1. a fully developed person from maturity onward.
2. any mature animal.
adj
1. (of animals) fully developed. E.g.: an adult animal
adulthood, adults
adverse
[ædvɜrs]
258
adj
1. contrary to your interests or welfare. E.g.: adverse circumstances
2. in an opposing direction. E.g.: adverse currents
adversely, adversities, adversity
affect
[əfekt]
45
noun
1. the conscious subjective aspect of feeling or emotion.
verb
1. have an effect upon. E.g.: Will the new rules affect me?
2. act physically on; have an effect upon.
3. connect closely and often incriminatingly. E.g.: This new ruling affects your business
4. make believe with the intent to deceive.
5. have an emotional or cognitive impact upon.
affected, affecting, affects, unaffected
affinity
[əfɪnɪti]
418
noun
1. the force attracting atoms to each other and binding them together in a molecule. E.g.: basic dyes have an affinity for wool and silk
2. (immunology) the attraction between an antigen and an antibody.
3. kinship by marriage or adoption; not a blood relationship.
4. (biology) state of relationship between organisms or groups of organisms resulting in resemblance in structure or structural parts. E.g.: in anatomical structure prehistoric man shows close affinity with modern humans
5. a close connection marked by community of interests or similarity in nature or character. E.g.: found a natural affinity with the immigrants
6. inherent resemblance between persons or things.
7. a natural attraction or feeling of kinship. E.g.: an affinity for politics, the mysterious affinity between them, James's affinity with Sam
affinities
aggressive
[əgresɪv]
461
adj
1. having or showing determination and energetic pursuit of your ends. E.g.: an aggressive businessman, an aggressive basketball player, he was aggressive and imperious; positive in his convictions, aggressive drivers
2. marked by aggressive ambition and energy and initiative. E.g.: an aggressive young exective
3. tending to spread quickly. E.g.: an aggressive tumor
4. characteristic of an enemy or one eager to fight. E.g.: aggressive acts against another country
aggressively, aggressiveness, aggressivenesses
agonist
[ægənɪst]
489
noun
1. the principal character in a work of fiction.
2. someone involved in a contest or battle (as in an agon).
3. a muscle that contracts while another relaxes. E.g.: when bending the elbow the biceps are the agonist
4. (biochemistry) a drug that can combine with a receptor on a cell to produce a physiological reaction.
agonistic, agonists
aid
[eɪd]
382
noun
1. a resource. E.g.: visual aids in teaching
2. the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose. E.g.: rescue party went to their aid
3. a gift of money to support a worthy person or cause.
4. the work of caring for or attending to someone or something.
verb
1. give help or assistance; be of service.
2. improve the condition of.
aided, aiding, aids, unaided
alcohol
[ælkəhɑl]
572
noun
1. a liquor or brew containing alcohol as the active agent. E.g.: alcohol (or drink) ruined him
2. any of a series of volatile hydroxyl compounds that are made from hydrocarbons by distillation.
alcoholic, alcoholics, alcoholism, alcohols
algorithm
[ælgɜrɪðəm]
155
noun
1. a precise rule (or set of rules) specifying how to solve some problem.
algorithms
alter
[ɔltɜr]
349
verb
1. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation. E.g.: The advent of the automobile may have altered the growth pattern of the city
2. make or become different in some particular way, without permanently losing one's or its former characteristics or essence.
3. make an alteration to. E.g.: This dress needs to be altered
4. insert words into texts, often falsifying it thereby.
5. remove the ovaries of.
alterable, alteration, alterations, altered, altering, alters, unalterable, unaltered
alternative
[ɔltɜrnətɪv]
575
noun
1. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. E.g.: there is no other alternative
adj
1. allowing a choice. E.g.: an alternative plan
2. necessitating a choice between mutually exclusive possibilities.
3. pertaining to unconventional choices. E.g.: an alternative life style
alternatively, alternatives
amplification
[æmpləfəkeɪʃən]
338
noun
1. addition of extra material or illustration or clarifying detail. E.g.: a few remarks added in amplification and defense
2. the amount of increase in signal power or voltage or current expressed as the ratio of output to input.
3. (electronics) the act of increasing voltage or power or current.
amplifications, amplified, amplifier, amplifiers, amplifies, amplify, amplifying
analyze
[ænəlaɪz]
6
verb
1. consider in detail and subject to an analysis in order to discover essential features or meaning.
2. make a mathematical, chemical, or grammatical analysis of; break down into components or essential features.
3. break down into components or essential features.
4. subject to psychoanalytic treatment.
analyse, analysed, analyser, analysers, analyses, analysing, analysis, analyzed, analyzes, analyzing
anesthesia
[ænɪsθiʒiə]
310
noun
1. loss of bodily sensation with or without loss of consciousness.
anaesthesia
annual
[ænjuəl]
606
noun
1. a plant that completes its entire life cycle within the space of a year.
2. a reference book that is published regularly once every year.
adj
1. occurring or payable every year. E.g.: an annual trip to Paris, annual (or yearly) income
2. completing its life cycle within a year. E.g.: a border of annual flowering plants
annually, annuals
antibiotic
[æntibaɪɑtɪk]
288
noun
1. a chemical substance derivable from a mold or bacterium that kills microorganisms and cures infections. E.g.: when antibiotics were first discovered they were called wonder drugs
adj
1. of or relating to antibiotic drugs.
antibiotics
antigen
[æntədʒən]
583
noun
1. any substance (as a toxin or enzyme) that stimulates the production of antibodies.
antigenic, antigens
apparatus
[æpɜrætəs]
504
noun
1. equipment designed to serve a specific function.
2. (anatomy) a group of body parts that work together to perform a given function. E.g.: the breathing apparatus
apparatuses
append
[əpend]
486
verb
1. add to the very end. E.g.: He appended a glossary to his novel where he used an invented language
2. fix to; attach. E.g.: append a charm to the necklace
3. state or say further.
appendage, appendages, appended, appending, appends
approach
[əproʊtʃ]
58
noun
1. ideas or actions intended to deal with a problem or situation. E.g.: his approach to every problem is to draw up a list of pros and cons
2. the act of drawing spatially closer to something. E.g.: the hunter's approach scattered the geese
3. a way of entering or leaving.
4. the final path followed by an aircraft as it is landing.
5. the event of one object coming closer to another.
6. a tentative suggestion designed to elicit the reactions of others.
7. the temporal property of becoming nearer in time. E.g.: the approach of winter
8. a close approximation. E.g.: the nearest approach to genius
9. a relatively short golf shot intended to put the ball onto the putting green. E.g.: he lost the hole when his approach rolled over the green
verb
1. move towards. E.g.: We were approaching our destination
2. come near or verge on, resemble, come nearer in quality, or character. E.g.: His playing approaches that of Horowitz
3. begin to deal with. E.g.: approach a task, approach a new project
4. come near in time. E.g.: Winter is approaching, approaching old age
5. make advances to someone, usually with a proposal or suggestion. E.g.: I was approached by the President to serve as his adviser in foreign matters
approachable, approached, approaches, approaching, unapproachable
appropriate
[əproʊpriət]
149
verb
1. give or assign a share of money or time to a particular person or cause.
2. take possession of by force, as after an invasion.
adj
1. suitable for a particular person or place or condition etc. E.g.: a book not appropriate for children, a funeral conducted the appropriate solemnity, it seems that an apology is appropriate
2. appropriate for achieving a particular end; implies a lack of concern for fairness.
3. meant or adapted for an occasion or use. E.g.: not an appropriate (or fit) time for flippancy
4. suitable and fitting.
5. being of striking appropriateness and pertinence.
appropriacy, appropriately, appropriateness, inappropriacy, inappropriate, inappropriately, inappropriateness
approximate
[əprɑksəmət]
115
verb
1. be close or similar. E.g.: Her results approximate my own
2. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time).
adj
1. not quite exact or correct. E.g.: the approximate time was 10 o'clock
2. very close in resemblance. E.g.: sketched in an approximate likeness
3. located close together. E.g.: approximate leaves grow together but are not united
approx, approximated, approximately, approximates, approximating, approximation, approximations
area
[eriə]
23
noun
1. a particular geographical region of indefinite boundary (usually serving some special purpose or distinguished by its people or culture or geography). E.g.: it was a mountainous area
2. a particular environment or walk of life. E.g.: it was a closed area of employment
3. a subject of study. E.g.: it was his area of specialization, areas of interest include...
4. a part of a structure having some specific characteristic or function. E.g.: the spacious cooking area provided plenty of room for servants
5. a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve.
6. the extent of a 2-dimensional surface enclosed within a boundary. E.g.: the area of a rectangle, it was about 500 square feet in area
areas
array
[ɜreɪ]
162
noun
1. an orderly arrangement. E.g.: an array of troops in battle order
2. an impressive display. E.g.: it was a bewildering array of books, his tools were in an orderly array on the basement wall
3. especially fine or decorative clothing.
4. an arrangement of aerials spaced to give desired directional characteristics.
verb
1. lay out in a line.
2. align oneself with a group or a way of thinking.
arrayed, arraying, arrays
aspect
[æspekt]
283
noun
1. a distinct feature or element in a problem.
2. a characteristic to be considered.
3. the visual percept of a region.
4. the beginning or duration or completion or repetition of the action of a verb.
5. the expression on a person's face.
aspects
assay
[æsi]
76
noun
1. an appraisal of the state of affairs. E.g.: they made an assay of the contents
2. a substance that is undergoing an analysis of its components.
3. a written report of the results of an analysis of the composition of some substance.
4. a quantitative or qualitative test of a substance (especially an ore or a drug) to determine its components; frequently used to test for the presence or concentration of infectious agents or antibodies etc..
verb
1. analyse (chemical substances).
2. make an effort or attempt.
assayed, assayer, assayers, assaying, assays
assess
[əses]
119
verb
1. place a value on; judge the worth of something.
2. charge (a person or a property) with a payment, such as a tax or a fine.
3. set or determine the amount of (a payment such as a fine).
4. estimate the value of (property) for taxation. E.g.: Our house hasn't been assessed in years
assessable, assessed, assesses, assessing, assessment, assessments, assessor, assessors, reassess, reassessed, reassessing, reassessment, reassessments, unassessed
assign
[əsaɪn]
379
verb
1. give an assignment to (a person) to a post, or assign a task to (a person).
2. give out or allot. E.g.: We were assigned new uniforms
3. attribute or credit to.
4. select something or someone for a specific purpose. E.g.: The teacher assigned him to lead his classmates in the exercise
5. attribute or give.
6. make undue claims to having.
7. transfer one's right to.
8. decide as to where something belongs in a scheme. E.g.: The biologist assigned the mushroom to the proper class
assigned, assignee, assignees, assigning, assignment, assignments, assigns, reassign, reassigned, reassigning, reassignment, reassignments, reassigns, unassigned
assist
[əsɪst]
523
noun
1. the activity of contributing to the fulfillment of a need or furtherance of an effort or purpose. E.g.: he gave me an assist with the housework, could not walk without assistance
2. (sports) the act of enabling another player to make a good play.
verb
1. give help or assistance; be of service.
2. act as an assistant in a subordinate or supportive function.
3. work for or be a servant to. E.g.: Is a salesperson assisting you?
assistance, assistant, assistants, assisted, assisting, assistive, assists, unassisted
assume
[əsum]
454
verb
1. take to be the case or to be true; accept without verification or proof. E.g.: I assume his train was late
2. take on titles, offices, duties, responsibilities. E.g.: When will the new President assume office?
3. take on a certain form, attribute, or aspect. E.g.: She assumed strange manners, The gods assume human or animal form in these fables
4. take on as one's own the expenses or debts of another person.
5. occupy or take on. E.g.: He assumes the lotus position
6. seize and take control without authority and possibly with force; take as one's right or possession. E.g.: He assumed to himself the right to fill all positions in the town
7. make a pretence of. E.g.: She assumed indifference, even though she was seething with anger
8. Christianity, obsolete; take up someone's soul into heaven. E.g.: This is the day when May was assumed into heaven
9. put clothing on one's body. E.g.: The queen assumed the stately robes
assumed, assumes, assuming, unassuming, unassumingly
attach
[ətætʃ]
482
verb
1. cause to be attached.
2. be attached; be in contact with.
3. become attached. E.g.: The spider's thread attached to the window sill
4. create social or emotional ties.
5. take temporary possession of as a security, by legal authority.
attached, attaches, attaching, attachment, attachments, unattached
attenuate
[ətenjueɪt]
361
verb
1. weaken the consistency of (a chemical substance).
2. become weaker, in strength, value, or magnitude.
adj
1. reduced in strength.
attenuated, attenuates, attenuating, attenuation, attenuations
attribute
[ətrɪbjut]
229
noun
1. a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.
2. an abstraction belonging to or characteristic of an entity.
verb
1. attribute or credit to. E.g.: We attributed this quotation to Shakespeare
2. decide as to where something belongs in a scheme.
attributable, attributed, attributes, attributing, attribution, attributions, attributive, attributives
audit
[ɔdɪt]
518
noun
1. an inspection of the accounting procedures and records by a trained accountant or CPA.
2. a methodical examination or review of a condition or situation. E.g.: he made an audit of all the plants on his property, an energy efficiency audit, an email log audit
verb
1. of accounts and tax returns; with the intent to verify.
2. attend academic courses without getting credit.
audited, auditing, auditor, auditors, auditory, audits
augment
[ɔgment]
601
verb
1. enlarge or increase. E.g.: The recent speech of the PLO chairman augmented tensions in the Near East
2. grow or intensify. E.g.: The pressure augmented
augmentation, augmentations, augmented, augmenting, augments
author
[ɔθɜr]
185
noun
1. someone who writes (books or stories or articles or the like), especially professionally (for pay).
2. someone who originates or causes or initiates something.
verb
1. be the author of. E.g.: She authored this play
authored, authoress, authoresses, authorial, authoring, authors, authorship
available
[əveɪləbəl]
94
adj
1. obtainable or accessible and ready for use or service. E.g.: kept a fire extinguisher available, much information is available through computers, available in many colors, the list of available candidates is unusually long
2. not busy; not otherwise committed. E.g.: he was not available for comment, he was available and willing to accompany her
3. convenient for use or disposal. E.g.: the house is available after July 1
availability, unavailability, unavailable
axis
[æksəs]
429
noun
1. a straight line through a body or figure that satisfies certain conditions.
2. the center around which something rotates.
3. the main stem or central part about which plant organs or plant parts such as branches are arranged.
4. in World War II the alliance of Germany and Italy in 1936 which later included Japan and other nations.
5. a group of countries in special alliance.
6. the 2nd cervical vertebra; serves as a pivot for turning the head.
background
[bækgraʊnd]
153
noun
1. a person's social heritage: previous experience or training. E.g.: he is a lawyer with a sports background
2. the part of a scene (or picture) that lies behind objects in the foreground. E.g.: he posed her against a background of rolling hills
3. information that is essential to understanding a situation or problem. E.g.: the embassy filled him in on the background of the incident
4. extraneous signals that can be confused with the phenomenon to be observed or measured. E.g.: they got a bad connection and could hardly hear one another over the background signals
5. relatively unimportant or inconspicuous accompanying situation. E.g.: when the rain came he could hear the sound of thunder in the background
6. the state of the environment in which a situation exists.
7. (computer science) the area of the screen in graphical user interfaces against which icons and windows appear.
8. scenery hung at back of stage.
verb
1. understate the importance or quality of.
backgrounded, backgrounding, backgrounds
bacterium
[bæktɪriəm]
488
noun
1. (microbiology) single-celled or noncellular spherical or spiral or rod-shaped organisms lacking chlorophyll that reproduce by fission; important as pathogens and for biochemical properties; taxonomy is difficult; often considered plants.
bacteria, bacterial
barrier
[bæriɜr]
320
noun
1. a structure or object that impedes free movement.
2. any condition that makes it difficult to make progress or to achieve an objective. E.g.: intolerance is a barrier to understanding
3. anything serving to maintain separation by obstructing vision or access.
barriers
baseline
[beɪslaɪn]
62
noun
1. an imaginary line or standard by which things are measured or compared. E.g.: the established a baseline for the budget
2. the back line bounding each end of a tennis or handball court; when serving the server must not step over this line.
3. the lines a baseball player must follow while running the bases.
baselines
benefit
[benəfɪt]
401
noun
1. financial assistance in time of need.
2. something that aids or promotes well-being.
3. a performance to raise money for a charitable cause.
verb
1. derive a benefit from.
2. be beneficial for.
benefited, benefiting, benefits, benefitted, benefitting
bias
[baɪəs]
313
noun
1. a partiality that prevents objective consideration of an issue or situation.
2. a line or cut across a fabric that is not at right angles to a side of the fabric.
verb
1. influence in an unfair way. E.g.: you are biasing my choice by telling me yours
2. cause to be biased.
adj
1. slanting diagonally across the grain of a fabric. E.g.: a bias fold
biased, biases, biasing, unbiased
biology
[baɪɑlədʒi]
589
noun
1. the science that studies living organisms.
2. characteristic life processes and phenomena of living organisms. E.g.: the biology of viruses
3. all the plant and animal life of a particular region.
biologies, biologist, biologists
biopsy
[baɪɑpsi]
215
noun
1. examination of tissues or liquids from the living body to determine the existence or cause of a disease.
biopsies
blast
[blæst]
620
noun
1. a long and hard-hit fly ball.
2. a sudden very loud noise.
3. a strong current of air.
4. an explosion (as of dynamite).
5. a highly pleasurable or exciting experience. E.g.: celebrating after the game was a blast
6. intense adverse criticism.
verb
1. make a strident sound. E.g.: She tended to blast when speaking into a microphone
2. hit hard.
3. use explosives on.
blasted, blaster, blasters, blasting, blasts
blot
[blɑt]
213
noun
1. a blemish made by dirt.
2. an act that brings discredit to the person who does it. E.g.: he made a huge blot on his copybook
verb
1. dry (ink) with blotting paper.
2. make a spot or mark onto.
blots, blotted, blotter, blotters, blotting
brief
[brif]
465
noun
1. a document stating the facts and points of law of a client's case.
2. a condensed written summary or abstract.
verb
1. give essential information to someone. E.g.: The reporters were briefed about the President's plan to invade
adj
1. of short duration or distance. E.g.: a brief stay in the country
2. concise and succinct. E.g.: covered the matter in a brief statement
3. (of clothing) very short. E.g.: a brief bikini
briefer, briefest, briefly, briefs
buffer
[bʌfɜr]
165
noun
1. an ionic compound that resists changes in its pH.
2. an inclined metal frame at the front of a locomotive to clear the track.
3. (computer science) a part of RAM used for temporary storage of data that is waiting to be sent to a device; used to compensate for differences in the rate of flow of data between components of a computer system.
4. a power tool used to buff surfaces.
5. a cushion-like device that reduces shock due to contact.
6. an implement consisting of soft material mounted on a block; used for polishing (as in manicuring).
verb
1. add a buffer (a solution). E.g.: buffered saline solution for the eyes
2. protect from impact.
buffered, buffering, buffers
calcium
[kælsiəm]
147
noun
1. a white metallic element that burns with a brilliant light; the fifth most abundant element in the earth's crust; an important component of most plants and animals.
cancer
[kænsɜr]
30
noun
1. any malignant growth or tumor caused by abnormal and uncontrolled cell division; it may spread to other parts of the body through the lymphatic system or the blood stream.
2. (astrology) a person who is born while the sun is in Cancer.
3. a small zodiacal constellation in the northern hemisphere; between Leo and Gemini.
4. the fourth sign of the zodiac; the sun is in this sign from about June 21 to July 22.
5. type genus of the family Cancridae.
cancerous, cancers
candidate
[kændədeɪt]
453
noun
1. a politician who is running for public office.
2. someone who is considered for something (for an office or prize or honor etc.).
candidacies, candidacy, candidates, candidature
capable
[keɪpəbəl]
491
adj
1. (usually followed by `of') having capacity or ability. E.g.: capable of winning, capable of hard work, capable of walking on two feet
2. possibly accepting or permitting. E.g.: a passage capable of misinterpretation
3. (followed by `of') having the temperament or inclination for. E.g.: no one believed her capable of murder
4. having the requisite qualities for.
5. have the skills and qualifications to do things well. E.g.: a capable administrator, children as young as 14 can be extremely capable and dependable
capabilities, capability, capably, incapability, incapable
capacity
[kəpæsəti]
355
noun
1. ability to perform or produce.
2. the susceptibility of something to a particular treatment.
3. the amount that can be contained. E.g.: the gas tank has a capacity of 12 gallons
4. the maximum production possible. E.g.: the plant is working at 80 per cent capacity
5. a specified function. E.g.: he was employed in the capacity of director, he should be retained in his present capacity at a higher salary
6. (computer science) the amount of information (in bytes) that can be stored on a disk drive. E.g.: the capacity of a hard disk drive is usually expressed in megabytes
7. an electrical phenomenon whereby an electric charge is stored.
8. the power to learn or retain knowledge; in law, the ability to understand the facts and significance of your behavior.
9. tolerance for alcohol. E.g.: he had drunk beyond his capacity
capacities, incapacities, incapacity
capture
[kæptʃɜr]
308
noun
1. the act of forcibly dispossessing an owner of property.
2. a process whereby a star or planet holds an object in its gravitational field.
3. any process in which an atomic or nuclear system acquires an additional particle.
4. the act of taking of a person by force.
5. the removal of an opponent's piece from the chess board.
verb
1. succeed in representing or expressing something intangible. E.g.: capture the essence of Spring, capture an idea
2. attract; cause to be enamored. E.g.: She captured all the men's hearts
3. succeed in catching or seizing, especially after a chase.
4. bring about the capture of an elementary particle or celestial body and causing it enter a new orbit. E.g.: This nucleus has captured the slow-moving neutrons, The star captured a comet
5. take possession of by force, as after an invasion. E.g.: The militia captured the castle
6. capture as if by hunting, snaring, or trapping.
captured, captures, capturing
cascade
[kæskeɪd]
400
noun
1. a small waterfall or series of small waterfalls.
2. a succession of stages or operations or processes or units. E.g.: progressing in severity as though a cascade of genetic damage was occurring, separation of isotopes by a cascade of processes
3. a sudden downpour (as of tears or sparks etc) likened to a rain shower. E.g.: a sudden cascade of sparks
verb
1. rush down in big quantities, like a cascade.
2. arrange (open windows) on a computer desktop so that they overlap each other, with the title bars visible.
cascaded, cascades, cascading
catheter
[kæθətɜr]
596
noun
1. a thin flexible tube inserted into the body to permit introduction or withdrawal of fluids or to keep the passageway open.
catheterise, catheterised, catheterises, catheterising, catheterize, catheterized, catheterizes, catheterizing, catheters
cell
[sel]
1
noun
1. any small compartment. E.g.: the cells of a honeycomb
2. (biology) the basic structural and functional unit of all organisms; cells may exist as independent units of life (as in monads) or may form colonies or tissues as in higher plants and animals.
3. a device that delivers an electric current as the result of a chemical reaction.
4. a small unit serving as part of or as the nucleus of a larger political movement.
5. a hand-held mobile radiotelephone for use in an area divided into small sections (cells), each with its own short-range transmitter/receiver.
6. small room is which a monk or nun lives.
7. a room where a prisoner is kept.
celled, cells
challenge
[tʃæləndʒ]
280
noun
1. a demanding or stimulating situation. E.g.: they reacted irrationally to the challenge of Russian power
2. a call to engage in a contest or fight.
3. questioning a statement and demanding an explanation. E.g.: his challenge of the assumption that Japan is still our enemy
4. a formal objection to the selection of a particular person as a juror.
5. a demand by a sentry for a password or identification.
verb
1. take exception to. E.g.: She challenged his claims
2. issue a challenge to. E.g.: Fischer challenged Spassky to a match
3. ask for identification. E.g.: The illegal immigrant was challenged by the border guard
4. raise a formal objection in a court of law.
challenged, challenger, challengers, challenges, challenging, challengingly, unchallengeable, unchallenged
chamber
[tʃeɪmbɜr]
192
noun
1. a natural or artificial enclosed space.
2. an enclosed volume (as the aqueous chamber of the eyeball or the chambers of the heart).
3. a room where a judge transacts business.
4. a deliberative or legislative or administrative or judicial assembly. E.g.: the upper chamber is the senate
5. a room used primarily for sleeping.
verb
1. place in a chamber.
chambered, chambers
channel
[tʃænəl]
108
noun
1. a path over which electrical signals can pass. E.g.: a channel is typically what you rent from a telephone company
2. a passage for water (or other fluids) to flow through. E.g.: the fields were crossed with irrigation channels, gutters carried off the rainwater into a series of channels under the street
3. a long narrow furrow cut either by a natural process (such as erosion) or by a tool (as e.g. a groove in a phonograph record).
4. a deep and relatively narrow body of water (as in a river or a harbor or a strait linking two larger bodies) that allows the best passage for vessels. E.g.: the ship went aground in the channel
5. (often plural) a means of communication or access. E.g.: it must go through official channels
6. a bodily passage or tube lined with epithelial cells and conveying a secretion or other substance. E.g.: poison is released through a channel in the snake's fangs
7. a television station and its programs. E.g.: a satellite TV channel, surfing through the channels, they offer more than one hundred channels
8. a way of selling a company's product either directly or via distributors. E.g.: possible distribution channels are wholesalers or small retailers or retail chains or direct mailers or your own stores
verb
1. transmit or serve as the medium for transmission.
2. direct the flow of. E.g.: channel information towards a broad audience
3. send from one person or place to another.
channelled, channelling, channels
chart
[tʃɑrt]
322
noun
1. a visual display of information.
2. a map designed to assist navigation by air or sea.
verb
1. make a chart of. E.g.: chart the territory
2. plan in detail. E.g.: The president is charting a course out of recession
3. represent by means of a graph. E.g.: chart the data
charted, charting, charts, uncharted
chemical
[kemɪkəl]
369
noun
1. produced by or used in a reaction involving changes in atoms or molecules.
adj
1. relating to or used in chemistry. E.g.: chemical engineer, chemical balance
2. of or made from or using substances produced by or used in reactions involving atomic or molecular changes. E.g.: chemical fertilizer
chemically, chemicals
chronic
[krɑnɪk]
88
adj
1. being long-lasting and recurrent or characterized by long suffering. E.g.: chronic indigestion, a chronic shortage of funds, a chronic invalid
2. having a habit of long standing. E.g.: a chronic smoker
chronically
circulation
[sɜrkjəleɪʃən]
449
noun
1. the dissemination of copies of periodicals (as newspapers or magazines).
2. movement through a circuit; especially the movement of blood through the heart and blood vessels.
3. (library science) the count of books that are loaned by a library over a specified period.
4. number of copies of a newspaper or magazine that are sold. E.g.: by increasing its circulation the newspaper hoped to increase its advertising
5. free movement or passage through a series of vessels (as of water through pipes or sap through a plant).
6. the spread or transmission of something (as news or money) to a wider group or area.
circulate, circulates, circulating, circulations, circulatory, ciruclated
clinic
[klɪnɪk]
5
noun
1. a medical establishment run by a group of medical specialists.
2. meeting for diagnosis of problems and instruction or remedial work in a particular activity.
3. a healthcare facility for outpatient care.
clinical, clinically, clinician, clinicians, clinics
cluster
[klʌstɜr]
577
noun
1. a grouping of a number of similar things. E.g.: a cluster of admirers
verb
1. come together as in a cluster or flock.
2. gather or cause to gather into a cluster.
clustered, clustering, clusters
code
[koʊd]
420
noun
1. a set of rules or principles or laws (especially written ones).
2. a coding system used for transmitting messages requiring brevity or secrecy.
3. (computer science) the symbolic arrangement of data or instructions in a computer program or the set of such instructions.
verb
1. attach a code to.
2. convert ordinary language into code. E.g.: We should encode the message for security reasons
coded, codes, coding, uncoded
cognitive
[kɑgnɪtɪv]
218
adj
1. of or being or relating to or involving cognition. E.g.: cognitive psychology, cognitive style
cognitively
cohort
[koʊhɔrt]
285
noun
1. a company of companions or supporters.
2. a band of warriors (originally a unit of a Roman Legion).
3. a group people having approximately the same age.
cohorts
colleague
[kɑlig]
396
noun
1. an associate you work with.
2. a person who is member of your class or profession. E.g.: the surgeon consulted his colleagues
colleagues
column
[kɑləm]
426
noun
1. a line of (usually military) units following one after another.
2. a vertical glass tube used in column chromatography; a mixture is poured in the top and washed through a stationary substance where components of the mixture are adsorbed selectively to form colored bands.
3. a linear array of numbers one above another.
4. anything tall and thin approximating the shape of a column or tower. E.g.: the test tube held a column of white powder
5. an article giving opinions or perspectives.
6. a vertical structure standing alone and not supporting anything (as a monument or a column of air).
7. (architeture) a tall cylindrical vertical upright and used to support a structure.
col, cols, columnar, columned, columns
comment
[kɑment]
566
noun
1. a statement that expresses a personal opinion or belief. E.g.: from time to time she contributed a personal comment on his account
2. a written explanation or criticism or illustration that is added to a book or other textual material. E.g.: he wrote an extended comment on the proposal
3. a report (often malicious) about the behavior of other people.
verb
1. make or write a comment on. E.g.: he commented the paper of his colleague
2. explain or interpret something.
3. provide interlinear explanations for words or phrases.
commentaries, commentary, commented, commenting, comments
communicate
[kəmjunəkeɪt]
253
verb
1. transmit information . E.g.: Please communicate this message to all employees
2. transmit thoughts or feelings. E.g.: He communicated his anxieties to the psychiatrist
3. transfer to another. E.g.: communicate a disease
4. join or connect. E.g.: The rooms communicated
5. be in verbal contact; interchange information or ideas. E.g.: He and his sons haven't communicated for years, Do you communicate well with your advisor?
6. administer communion; in church.
7. receive Communion, in the Catholic church.
communicated, communicates, communicating, communication, communications, communicative, communicatively, communicator, communicators, uncommunicative
community
[kəmjunəti]
328
noun
1. a group of people living in a particular local area. E.g.: the team is drawn from all parts of the community
2. a group of people having ethnic or cultural or religious characteristics in common. E.g.: the Christian community of the apostolic age, he was well known throughout the Catholic community
3. common ownership. E.g.: they shared a community of possessions
4. a group of nations having common interests. E.g.: they hoped to join the NATO community
5. the body of people in a learned occupation. E.g.: the news spread rapidly through the medical community
6. agreement as to goals. E.g.: the preachers and the bootleggers found they had a community of interests
7. a district where people live; occupied primarily by private residences.
8. (ecology) a group of interdependent organisms inhabiting the same region and interacting with each other.
communities
complex
[kɑmpleks]
103
noun
1. a conceptual whole made up of complicated and related parts. E.g.: the complex of shopping malls, houses, and roads created a new town
2. a compound described in terms of the central atom to which other atoms are bound or coordinated.
3. (psychoanalysis) a combination of emotions and impulses that have been rejected from awareness but still influence a person's behavior.
4. a whole structure (as a building) made up of interconnected or related structures.
adj
1. complicated in structure; consisting of interconnected parts. E.g.: a complex set of variations based on a simple folk melody, a complex mass of diverse laws and customs
complexed, complexes, complexities, complexity
compliance
[kəmplaɪəns]
563
noun
1. acting according to certain accepted standards.
2. happy friendly agreement.
3. a disposition or tendency to yield to the will of others.
4. the act of submitting; usually surrendering power to another.
compliances
component
[kəmpoʊnənt]
60
noun
1. an abstract part of something. E.g.: jealousy was a component of his character
2. something determined in relation to something that includes it. E.g.: the smaller component is hard to reach
3. an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system. E.g.: spare components for cars, a component or constituent element of a system
componentry, components
compound
[kɑmpaʊnd]
236
noun
1. (chemistry) a substance formed by chemical union of two or more elements or ingredients in definite proportion by weight.
2. a whole formed by a union of two or more elements or parts.
3. an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in the Orient).
verb
1. make more intense, stronger, or more marked.
2. put or add together.
3. calculate principal and interest.
4. create by mixing or combining.
5. combine so as to form a whole; mix. E.g.: compound the ingredients
adj
1. of leaf shapes; of leaves composed of several similar parts or lobes.
2. consisting of two or more substances or ingredients or elements or parts. E.g.: soap is a compound substance, housetop is a compound word, a blackberry is a compound fruit
3. composed of many distinct individuals united to form a whole or colony.
compounded, compounding, compounds
comprehensive
[kɑmprihensɪv]
462
adj
1. including all or everything. E.g.: comprehensive coverage, a comprehensive history of the revolution, a comprehensive survey, a comprehensive education
2. broad in scope. E.g.: a comprehensive survey of world affairs
3. being the most comprehensive of its class.
comp, comprehensively, comprehensiveness, comps
comprise
[kəmpraɪz]
407
verb
1. be composed of. E.g.: The land he conquered comprised several provinces
2. include or contain; have as a component. E.g.: A totally new idea is comprised in this paper
3. form or compose. E.g.: These few men comprise
comprised, comprises, comprising
compromise
[kɑmprəmaɪz]
520
noun
1. a middle way between two extremes.
2. an accommodation in which both sides make concessions. E.g.: the newly elected congressmen rejected a compromise because they considered it `business as usual'
verb
1. make a compromise; arrive at a compromise. E.g.: nobody will get everything he wants; we all must compromise
2. settle by concession.
3. expose or make liable to danger, suspicion, or disrepute. E.g.: The nuclear secrets of the state were compromised by the spy
compromised, compromises, compromising, uncompromising, uncompromisingly
compute
[kəmpjut]
422
verb
1. make a mathematical calculation or computation.
computable, computation, computational, computationally, computations, computed, computer, computerise, computerised, computerises, computerising, computerization, computerize, computerized, computerizes, computerizing, computers, computes, computing
concentrate
[kɑnsəntreɪt]
19
noun
1. the desired mineral that is left after impurities have been removed from mined ore.
2. a concentrated form of a foodstuff; the bulk is reduced by removing water.
3. a concentrated example. E.g.: the concentrate of contemporary despair
verb
1. make (the solvent of a solution) dense or denser.
2. direct one's attention on something.
3. make central.
4. make more concise.
5. draw together or meet in one common center. E.g.: These groups concentrate in the inner cities
6. compress or concentrate.
7. be cooked until very little liquid is left.
8. cook until very little liquid is left.
concentrated, concentrates, concentrating, concentration, concentrations
concept
[kɑnsept]
295
noun
1. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances.
conception, conceptions, concepts, conceptual, conceptualisation, conceptualisations, conceptualise, conceptualised, conceptualises, conceptualising, conceptualization, conceptualizations, conceptualize, conceptualized, conceptualizes, conceptualizing, conceptually
conclude
[kənklud]
100
verb
1. decide by reasoning; draw or come to a conclusion.
2. bring to a close. E.g.: The committee concluded the meeting
3. reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation.
4. come to a close.
5. reach agreement on. E.g.: They concluded an economic agreement, We concluded a cease-fire
concluded, concludes, concluding
concomitant
[kɑnkɑmətənt]
584
noun
1. an event or situation that happens at the same time as or in connection with another.
adj
1. following as a consequence.
concomitantly
conduct
[kɑndəkt]
151
noun
1. manner of acting or conducting yourself.
2. (behavioral attributes) the way a person behaves toward other people.
verb
1. direct the course of; manage or control. E.g.: You cannot conduct business like this
2. lead, as in the performance of a composition. E.g.: conduct an orchestra; Bairenboim conducted the Chicago symphony for years
3. behave in a certain manner. E.g.: They conducted themselves well during these difficult times
4. transmit or serve as the medium for transmission. E.g.: Many metals conduct heat
5. take somebody somewhere. E.g.: He conducted us to the palace
6. lead musicians in the performance of. E.g.: Bernstein conducted Mahler like no other conductor, she cannot conduct modern pieces
conductance, conducted, conducting, conduction, conductive, conductivity, conductor, conductors, conducts, semiconductor, semiconductors
confer
[kənfɜr]
555
verb
1. have a conference in order to talk something over. E.g.: We conferred about a plan of action
2. present. E.g.: The university conferred a degree on its most famous former student, who never graduated
adv
1. compare (used in texts to point the reader to another location in the text).
conference, conferences, conferencing, conferred, conferring, confers
conflict
[kɑnflɪkt]
478
noun
1. an open clash between two opposing groups (or individuals). E.g.: the harder the conflict the more glorious the triumph--Thomas Paine
2. opposition between two simultaneous but incompatible feelings. E.g.: he was immobilized by conflict and indecision
3. a hostile meeting of opposing military forces in the course of a war.
4. a state of opposition between persons or ideas or interests. E.g.: his conflict of interest made him ineligible for the post, a conflict of loyalties
5. an incompatibility of dates or events. E.g.: he noticed a conflict in the dates of the two meetings
6. opposition in a work of drama or fiction between characters or forces (especially an opposition that motivates the development of the plot). E.g.: this form of conflict is essential to Mann's writing
7. a disagreement or argument about something important. E.g.: the familiar conflict between Republicans and Democrats
verb
1. be in conflict. E.g.: The two proposals conflict!
2. go against, as of rules and laws. E.g.: This behavior conflicts with our rules
conflicted, conflicting, conflicts
confound
[kɑnfaʊnd]
616
verb
1. be confusing or perplexing to; cause to be unable to think clearly.
2. mistake one thing for another.
confounded, confounding, confounds
conjugate
[kɑndʒəgeɪt]
573
noun
1. a mixture of two partially miscible liquids A and B produces two conjugate solutions: one of A in B and another of B in A.
verb
1. unite chemically so that the product is easily broken down into the original compounds.
2. add inflections showing person, number, gender, tense, aspect, etc.. E.g.: conjugate the verb
3. undergo conjugation.
adj
1. joined together especially in a pair or pairs.
2. of a pinnate leaflet; having only one pair of leaflets.
3. formed by the union of two compounds. E.g.: a conjugated protein
4. of an organic compound; containing two or more double bonds each separated from the other by a single bond.
conjugated, conjugates, conjugating, conjugation, conjugations
consecutive
[kənsekjətɪv]
472
adj
1. in regular succession without gaps.
2. successive (without a break).
3. one after the other.
adv
1. in a consecutive manner. E.g.: we numbered the papers consecutively
consecutively
consensus
[kənsensəs]
587
noun
1. agreement in the judgment or opinion reached by a group as a whole. E.g.: the lack of consensus reflected differences in theoretical positions, those rights and obligations are based on an unstated consensus
consent
[kənsent]
371
noun
1. permission to do something. E.g.: he indicated his consent
verb
1. give an affirmative reply to; respond favorably to.
consented, consenting, consents
consequence
[kɑnsəkwəns]
270
noun
1. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon. E.g.: his decision had depressing consequences for business
2. the outcome of an event especially as relative to an individual. E.g.: that result is of no consequence
3. having important effects or influence. E.g.: decisions of great consequence are made by the president himself
consequences
consist
[kənsɪst]
179
verb
1. originate (in).
2. have its essential character; be comprised or contained in; be embodied in. E.g.: The payment consists in food, What does love consist in?
3. be consistent in form, tenor, or character; be congruous. E.g.: Desires are to be satisfied only so far as consists with an approved end
4. be composed of. E.g.: What does this dish consist of?
consisted, consisting, consists
constant
[kɑnstənt]
315
noun
1. a quantity that does not vary.
2. a number representing a quantity assumed to have a fixed value in a specified mathematical context. E.g.: the velocity of light is a constant
adj
1. persistent in occurrence and unvarying in nature. E.g.: maintained a constant temperature, a constant beat
2. continually recurring or continuing without interruption. E.g.: constant repetition of the exercise, constant chatter of monkeys
3. steadfast in purpose or devotion or affection. E.g.: a man constant in adherence to his ideals, a constant lover, constant as the northern star
4. uninterrupted in time and indefinitely long continuing. E.g.: in constant pain
constantly, constants, inconstantly
constitute
[kɑnstətut]
556
verb
1. form or compose. E.g.: These constitute my entire belongings
2. create and charge with a task or function.
3. to compose or represent.
4. set up or lay the groundwork for.
constituent, constituents, constituted, constitutes, constituting, constitutive, constitutively
construct
[kənstrʌkt]
340
noun
1. an abstract or general idea inferred or derived from specific instances.
verb
1. make by combining materials and parts. E.g.: Some eccentric constructed an electric brassiere warmer
2. put together out of components or parts.
3. draw with suitable instruments and under specified conditions. E.g.: construct an equilateral triangle
4. create by linking linguistic units. E.g.: construct a sentence, construct a paragraph
5. create by organizing and linking ideas, arguments, or concepts. E.g.: construct a proof, construct an argument
6. reassemble mentally. E.g.: reconstruct the events of 20 years ago
constructed, constructing, construction, constructions, constructive, constructively, constructivist, constructivists, constructor, constructors, constructs, reconstruct, reconstructed, reconstructing, reconstruction, reconstructions, reconstructs, unreconstructed
consult
[kənsʌlt]
622
verb
1. get or ask advice from. E.g.: They had to consult before arriving at a decision
2. seek information from. E.g.: You should consult the dictionary
3. when planning or deciding something.
4. have a conference in order to talk something over.
5. advise professionally. E.g.: The professor consults for industry
consultancies, consultancy, consultant, consultants, consultation, consultations, consultative, consulted, consulting, consults
consume
[kənsum]
526
verb
1. eat immoderately.
2. serve oneself to, or consume regularly.
3. spend extravagantly.
4. destroy completely. E.g.: The fire consumed the building
5. use up (resources or materials). E.g.: this car consumes a lot of gas
6. engage fully. E.g.: The effort to pass the exam consumed all his energy
consumable, consumables, consumed, consumer, consumerism, consumers, consumes, consuming
contact
[kɑntækt]
304
noun
1. close interaction. E.g.: they kept in daily contact, they claimed that they had been in contact with extraterrestrial beings
2. the state or condition of touching or of being in immediate proximity. E.g.: litmus paper turns red on contact with an acid
3. the act of touching physically. E.g.: her fingers came in contact with the light switch
4. the physical coming together of two or more things. E.g.: contact with the pier scraped paint from the hull
5. a person who is in a position to give you special assistance. E.g.: he used his business contacts to get an introduction to the governor
6. a channel for communication between groups.
7. (electronics) a junction where things (as two electrical conductors) touch or are in physical contact. E.g.: they forget to solder the contacts
8. a communicative interaction. E.g.: the pilot made contact with the base
9. a thin curved glass or plastic lens designed to fit over the cornea in order to correct vision or to deliver medication.
verb
1. be in or establish communication with. E.g.: He never contacted his children after he emigrated to Australia
2. be in direct physical contact with; make contact. E.g.: The wire must not contact the metal cover, The surfaces contact at this point
contactable, contacted, contacting, contacts
contaminate
[kəntæməneɪt]
613
verb
1. make impure.
2. make radioactive by adding radioactive material. E.g.: Don't drink the water--it's contaminated
contaminated, contaminates, contaminating, contamination, contaminations, uncontaminated
context
[kɑntekst]
326
noun
1. discourse that surrounds a language unit and helps to determine its interpretation.
2. the set of facts or circumstances that surround a situation or event. E.g.: the historical context
contexts, contextual, contextualise, contextualised, contextualising, contextualize, contextualized, contextualizing, contextually, uncontextualised, uncontextualized
contract
[kɑntrækt]
427
noun
1. a binding agreement between two or more persons that is enforceable by law.
2. (contract bridge) the highest bid becomes the contract setting the number of tricks that the bidder must make.
3. a variety of bridge in which the bidder receives points toward game only for the number of tricks he bid.
verb
1. enter into a contractual arrangement.
2. engage by written agreement.
3. squeeze or press together. E.g.: the spasm contracted the muscle
4. become smaller or draw together.
5. be stricken by an illness, fall victim to an illness.
6. make smaller. E.g.: The heat contracted the woollen garment
7. compress or concentrate.
8. make or become more narrow or restricted.
9. reduce in scope while retaining essential elements.
contracted, contracting, contractor, contractors, contracts
contrast
[kɑntræst]
91
noun
1. the opposition or dissimilarity of things that are compared. E.g.: in contrast to, by contrast
2. the act of distinguishing by comparing differences.
3. a conceptual separation or demarcation.
4. the perceptual effect of the juxtaposition of very different colors.
5. the range of optical density and tone on a photographic negative or print (or the extent to which adjacent areas on a television screen differ in brightness).
verb
1. put in opposition to show or emphasize differences. E.g.: The middle school teacher contrasted her best student's work with that of her weakest student
2. to show differences when compared; be different. E.g.: the students contrast considerably in their artistic abilities
contrasted, contrasting, contrastive, contrasts
contribute
[kəntrɪbjut]
376
verb
1. bestow a quality on.
2. contribute to some cause.
3. be conducive to.
4. provide.
contributed, contributes, contributing, contribution, contributions, contributor, contributors, contributory
convention
[kənvenʃən]
230
noun
1. a large formal assembly. E.g.: political convention
2. something regarded as a normative example. E.g.: the convention of not naming the main character
3. (diplomacy) an international agreement.
4. orthodoxy as a consequence of being conventional.
5. the act of convening.
conventional, conventionalism, conventionality, conventionally, conventions, unconventional, unconventionally
converse
[kɑnvɜrs]
599
noun
1. a proposition obtained by conversion.
verb
1. carry on a conversation.
adj
1. of words so related that one reverses the relation denoted by the other. E.g.: `parental' and `filial' are converse terms
2. turned about in order or relation.
conversely
cope
[koʊp]
386
noun
1. brick that is laid sideways at the top of a wall.
verb
1. come to terms or deal successfully with.
coped, copes, coping
cord
[kɔrd]
444
noun
1. a line made of twisted fibers or threads. E.g.: the bundle was tied with a cord
2. a unit of amount of wood cut for burning; 128 cubic feet.
3. a light insulated conductor for household use.
4. a cut pile fabric with vertical ribs; usually made of cotton.
verb
1. stack in cords. E.g.: cord firewood
2. bind or tie with a cord.
corded, cording, cordless, cords
core
[kɔr]
397
noun
1. the center of an object. E.g.: the ball has a titanium core
2. a small group of indispensable persons or things. E.g.: five periodicals make up the core of their publishing program
3. the central part of the Earth.
4. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience.
5. a cylindrical sample of soil or rock obtained with a hollow drill.
6. an organization founded by James Leonard Farmer in 1942 to work for racial equality.
7. the central meaning or theme of a speech or literary work.
8. the chamber of a nuclear reactor containing the fissile material where the reaction takes place.
9. a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil.
verb
1. remove the core or center from. E.g.: core an apple
cored, cores, coring
corporate
[kɔrpɜrət]
535
adj
1. of or belonging to a corporation. E.g.: corporate rates, corporate structure
2. possessing or existing in bodily form. E.g.: `corporate' is an archaic term
3. done by or characteristic of individuals acting together. E.g.: the corporate good
4. organized and maintained as a legal corporation. E.g.: a special agency set up in corporate form, an incorporated town
corporately, corporates, corporation, corporations
correlate
[kɔrəleɪt]
199
noun
1. either of two correlated variables.
verb
1. to bear a reciprocal or mutual relation. E.g.: Do these facts correlate?
2. bring into a mutual, complementary, or reciprocal relation. E.g.: I cannot correlate these two pieces of information
adj
1. mutually related.
correlated, correlates, correlating, correlation, correlational, correlations, uncorrelated
correspond
[kɔrəspɑnd]
198
verb
1. be compatible, similar or consistent; coincide in their characteristics.
2. be equivalent or parallel, in mathematics.
3. exchange messages. E.g.: My Russian pen pal and I have been corresponding for several years
4. take the place of or be parallel or equivalent to.
corresponded, correspondence, correspondences, corresponding, correspondingly, corresponds
couple
[kʌpəl]
344
noun
1. a small indefinite number. E.g.: he's coming for a couple of days
2. a pair of people who live together. E.g.: a married couple from Chicago
3. a pair who associate with one another. E.g.: the engaged couple
4. two items of the same kind.
5. something joined by two equal and opposite forces that act along parallel lines.
verb
1. bring two objects, ideas, or people together. E.g.: This fact is coupled to the other one
2. link together. E.g.: can we couple these proposals?
3. form a pair or pairs.
4. make love.
coupled, couples, coupling, couplings, uncoupled
create
[krieɪt]
272
verb
1. make or cause to be or to become. E.g.: create a furor
2. bring into existence. E.g.: The company was created 25 years ago, He created a new movement in painting
3. pursue a creative activity; be engaged in a creative activity.
4. invest with a new title, office, or rank.
5. create by artistic means. E.g.: create a poem, Schoenberg created twelve-tone music, Picasso created Cubism
6. create or manufacture a man-made product.
created, creates, creating, creation, creations, creative, creatively, creativity, creator, creators, recreate, recreated, recreates, recreating
criterion
[kraɪtɪriən]
129
noun
1. a basis for comparison; a reference point against which other things can be evaluated.
2. the ideal in terms of which something can be judged.
criteria, criterions
crucial
[kruʃəl]
507
adj
1. of extreme importance; vital to the resolution of a crisis. E.g.: a crucial moment in his career, a crucial election, a crucial issue for women
2. having crucial relevance. E.g.: crucial to the case
3. of the greatest importance. E.g.: crucial information
4. having the power or quality of deciding. E.g.: the crucial experiment
crucially
cue
[kju]
521
noun
1. an actor's line that immediately precedes and serves as a reminder for some action or speech.
2. evidence that helps to solve a problem.
3. a stimulus that provides information about what to do.
4. sports implement consisting of a tapering rod used to strike a cue ball in pool or billiards.
verb
1. assist (somebody acting or reciting) by suggesting the next words of something forgotten or imperfectly learned.
cued, cueing, cues
culture
[kʌltʃɜr]
42
noun
1. a particular society at a particular time and place.
2. the tastes in art and manners that are favored by a social group.
3. all the knowledge and values shared by a society.
4. (biology) the growing of microorganisms in a nutrient medium (such as gelatin or agar). E.g.: the culture of cells in a Petri dish
5. (bacteriology) the product of cultivating micro-organisms in a nutrient medium.
6. a highly developed state of perfection; having a flawless or impeccable quality.
7. the attitudes and behavior that are characteristic of a particular social group or organization. E.g.: the developing drug culture, the reason that the agency is doomed to inaction has something to do with the FBI culture
8. the raising of plants or animals. E.g.: the culture of oysters
cultural, culturally, cultured, cultures, subculture, subcultures, uncultured
cumulative
[kjumjələtɪv]
413
adj
1. increasing by successive addition. E.g.: the benefits are cumulative, the eventual accumulative effect of these substances
cumulatively
cycle
[saɪkəl]
132
noun
1. an interval during which a recurring sequence of events occurs. E.g.: the neverending cycle of the seasons
2. a series of poems or songs on the same theme. E.g.: schubert's song cycles
3. a periodically repeated sequence of events. E.g.: a cycle of reprisal and retaliation
4. the unit of frequency; one Hertz has a periodic interval of one second.
5. a single complete execution of a periodically repeated phenomenon. E.g.: a year constitutes a cycle of the seasons
6. a wheeled vehicle that has two wheels and is moved by foot pedals.
verb
1. cause to go through a recurring sequence. E.g.: cycle the laundry in this washing program
2. pass through a cycle. E.g.: This machine automatically cycles
3. ride a motorcycle.
4. ride a bicycle.
5. recur in repeating sequences.
cycled, cycles, cyclic, cyclical, cycling, cyclist, cyclists
data
[deɪtə]
2
noun
1. a collection of facts from which conclusions may be drawn. E.g.: statistical data
datum
decade
[dekeɪd]
519
noun
1. a period of 10 years.
2. the cardinal number that is the sum of nine and one; the base of the decimal system.
decades
decline
[dɪklaɪn]
387
noun
1. change toward something smaller or lower.
2. a condition inferior to an earlier condition; a gradual falling off from a better state.
3. a gradual decrease; as of stored charge or current.
4. a downward slope or bend.
verb
1. grow worse.
2. refuse to accept.
3. show unwillingness towards. E.g.: he declined to join the group on a hike
4. grow smaller.
5. go down. E.g.: The roof declines here
6. go down in value.
7. inflect for number, gender, case, etc., "in many languages, speakers decline nouns, pronouns, and adjectives".
declined, declines, declining
defect
[difekt]
214
noun
1. an imperfection in a bodily system. E.g.: visual defects, this device permits detection of defects in the lungs
2. a failing or deficiency. E.g.: that interpretation is an unfortunate defect of our lack of information
3. an imperfection in a device or machine. E.g.: if there are any defects you should send it back to the manufacturer
4. a mark or flaw that spoils the appearance of something (especially on a person's body).
verb
1. desert (a cause, a country or an army), often in order to join the opposing cause, country, or army.
defective, defectively, defectiveness, defects
deficient
[dɪfɪʃənt]
399
adj
1. inadequate in amount or degree. E.g.: a deficient education, deficient in common sense
2. of a quantity not able to fulfill a need or requirement.
3. falling short of some prescribed norm.
deficiencies, deficiency
deficit
[defəsət]
348
noun
1. the property of being an amount by which something is less than expected or required.
2. an excess of liabilities over assets (usually over a certain period).
deficits
define
[dɪfaɪn]
73
verb
1. give a definition for the meaning of a word.
2. determine the essential quality of.
3. determine the nature of. E.g.: What defines a good wine?
4. delineate the form or outline of. E.g.: The tree was clearly defined by the light, The camera could define the smallest object
definable, defined, defines, defining, definition, definitions, indefinable, redefine, redefined, redefines, redefining, redefinition, redefinitions, undefinable, undefined
degrade
[dɪgreɪd]
309
verb
1. reduce the level of land, as by erosion.
2. reduce in worth or character, usually verbally.
3. lower the grade of something; reduce its worth.
degradation, degradations, degraded, degrades, degrading
demographic
[deməgræfɪk]
501
noun
1. a statistic characterizing human populations (or segments of human populations broken down by age or sex or income etc.).
adj
1. of or relating to demography. E.g.: demographic surveys
demographer, demographers, demographics, demographies, demography
demonstrate
[demənstreɪt]
15
verb
1. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience.
2. establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment. E.g.: The experiment demonstrated the instability of the compound
3. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes. E.g.: This decision demonstrates his se
4. march in protest; take part in a demonstration. E.g.: Thousands demonstrated against globalization during the meeting of the most powerful economic nations in Seattle
demo, demonstrated, demonstrates, demonstrating, demonstration, demonstrations, demonstrative, demonstratively, demonstratives, demonstrator, demonstrators, demos, undemonstrative
density
[densəti]
260
noun
1. the amount per unit size.
2. the spatial property of being crowded together.
dense, densely, denseness, denser, densest, densities
depict
[dɪpɪkt]
602
verb
1. show in, or as in, a picture. E.g.: This scene depicts country life
2. give a description of.
3. make a portrait of.
depicted, depicting, depiction, depictions, depicts
deposit
[dəpɑzɪt]
425
noun
1. the phenomenon of sediment or gravel accumulating.
2. matter deposited by some natural process.
3. the natural process of laying down a deposit of something.
4. money deposited in a bank.
5. a partial payment made at the time of purchase; the balance to be paid later.
6. money given as security for an article acquired for temporary use. E.g.: his deposit was refunded when he returned the car
7. a payment given as a guarantee that an obligation will be met.
8. a facility where things can be deposited for storage or safekeeping.
9. the act of putting something somewhere.
verb
1. fix, force, or implant.
2. put into a bank account. E.g.: She deposites her paycheck every month
3. put (something somewhere) firmly. E.g.: deposit the suitcase on the bench
deposited, depositing, depositor, depositors, depository, deposits
derive
[dɜraɪv]
163
verb
1. reason by deduction; establish by deduction.
2. obtain. E.g.: derive pleasure from one's garden
3. come from. E.g.: The present name derives from an older form
4. develop or evolve, especially from a latent or potential state.
5. come from; be connected by a relationship of blood, for example.
derivation, derivations, derivative, derivatives, derived, derives, deriving
design
[dɪzaɪn]
56
noun
1. the act of working out the form of something (as by making a sketch or outline or plan). E.g.: he contributed to the design of a new instrument
2. an arrangement scheme. E.g.: the awkward design of the keyboard made operation difficult, it was an excellent design for living
3. something intended as a guide for making something else.
4. a decorative or artistic work. E.g.: the coach had a design on the doors
5. an anticipated outcome that is intended or that guides your planned actions.
6. a preliminary sketch indicating the plan for something. E.g.: the design of a building
7. the creation of something in the mind.
verb
1. make or work out a plan for; devise. E.g.: design a new sales strategy
2. design something for a specific role or purpose or effect. E.g.: This room is not designed for work
3. create the design for; create or execute in an artistic or highly skilled manner. E.g.: Chanel designed the famous suit
4. make a design of; plan out in systematic, often graphic form. E.g.: design a better mousetrap
5. create designs. E.g.: Dupont designs for the house of Chanel
6. conceive or fashion in the mind; invent. E.g.: She designed a good excuse for not attending classes that day
7. intend or have as a purpose. E.g.: She designed to go far in the world of business
designed, designer, designers, designing, designs
despite
[dɪspaɪt]
178
noun
1. lack of respect accompanied by a feeling of intense dislike. E.g.: the despite in which outsiders were held is legendary
2. contemptuous disregard. E.g.: she wanted neither favor nor despite
adv
1. In spite of; against, or in defiance of.
detect
[dɪtekt]
82
verb
1. discover or determine the existence, presence, or fact of. E.g.: She detected high levels of lead in her drinking water
detectable, detected, detecting, detection, detective, detectives, detector, detectors, detects, undetectable, undetected
deviate
[divieɪt]
431
noun
1. a person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior.
verb
1. be at variance with; be out of line with.
2. turn aside; turn away from.
3. cause to turn away from a previous or expected course. E.g.: The river was deviated to prevent flooding
4. turn aside.
deviated, deviates, deviating, deviation, deviations, undeviating, undeviatingly
device
[dɪvaɪs]
203
noun
1. an instrumentality invented for a particular purpose. E.g.: the device is small enough to wear on your wrist, a device intended to conserve water
2. something in an artistic work designed to achieve a particular effect.
3. any clever (deceptive) maneuver. E.g.: he would stoop to any device to win a point
4. any ornamental pattern or design (as in embroidery).
5. an emblematic design (especially in heraldry). E.g.: he was recognized by the device on his shield
devices
diagnose
[daɪəgnoʊs]
269
verb
1. determine or distinguish the nature of a problem or an illness through a diagnostic analysis.
2. subject to a medical analysis.
diagnosed, diagnosing, misdiagnose, misdiagnosed, misdiagnosing, undiagnosed
diameter
[daɪæmətɜr]
217
noun
1. the length of a straight line passing through the center of a circle and connecting two points on the circumference.
2. a straight line connecting the center of a circle with two points on its perimeter (or the center of a sphere with two points on its surface).
diameters
diet
[daɪət]
284
noun
1. a prescribed selection of foods.
2. a legislative assembly in certain countries (e.g., Japan).
3. the usual food and drink consumed by an organism (person or animal).
4. the act of restricting your food intake (or your intake of particular foods).
verb
1. follow a regimen or a diet, as for health reasons. E.g.: He has high blood pressure and must stick to a low-salt diet
2. eat sparingly, for health reasons or to lose weight.
dietary, dieted, dietician, dieticians, dieting, dietitian, dietitians, diets
differentiate
[dɪfɜrenʃieɪt]
364
verb
1. mark as different.
2. be a distinctive feature, attribute, or trait; sometimes in a very positive sense.
3. calculate a derivative; take the derivative.
4. become different during development. E.g.: cells differentiate
5. evolve so as to lead to a new species or develop in a way most suited to the environment.
6. become distinct and acquire a different character.
differentiated, differentiates, differentiating, differentiation, undifferentiated
diffuse
[dɪfjus]
549
verb
1. move outward.
2. spread or diffuse through.
3. cause to become widely known.
adj
1. spread out; not concentrated in one place. E.g.: a large diffuse organization
2. lacking conciseness. E.g.: a diffuse historical novel
diffused, diffuser, diffusers, diffuses, diffusing, diffusion, diffusions
digit
[dɪdʒət]
293
noun
1. one of the elements that collectively form a system of numbers. E.g.: 0 and 1 are digits
2. the length of breadth of a finger used as a linear measure.
3. a finger or toe in human beings or corresponding part in other vertebrates.
digits
dilute
[daɪlut]
273
verb
1. lessen the strength or flavor of a solution or mixture.
2. corrupt, debase, or make impure by adding a foreign or inferior substance; often by replacing valuable ingredients with inferior ones.
adj
1. reduced in strength or concentration or quality or purity. E.g.: diluted alcohol, a dilute solution, dilute acetic acid
diluted, dilutes, diluting, dilution, dilutions, undiluted
dimension
[dɪmenʃən]
255
noun
1. the magnitude of something in a particular direction (especially length or width or height).
2. a construct whereby objects or individuals can be distinguished.
3. one of three cartesian coordinates that determine a position in space.
4. magnitude or extent.
verb
1. indicate the dimensions on. E.g.: These techniques permit us to dimension the human heart
2. shape or form to required dimensions.
dimensional, dimensions
diminish
[dɪmɪnɪʃ]
471
verb
1. decrease in size, extent, or range.
2. lessen the authority, dignity, or reputation of.
diminished, diminishes, diminishing, diminution, undiminished
discharge
[dɪstʃɑrdʒ]
243
noun
1. the sudden giving off of energy.
2. the act of venting.
3. a substance that is emitted or released.
4. any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body. E.g.: the discharge of pus
5. electrical conduction through a gas in an applied electric field.
6. the pouring forth of a fluid.
7. the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart).
8. a formal written statement of relinquishment.
9. the act of discharging a gun.
verb
1. complete or carry out. E.g.: discharge one's duties
2. pour forth or release. E.g.: discharge liquids
3. eliminate (substances) from the body.
4. free from obligations or duties.
5. remove the charge from.
6. go off or discharge.
7. pronounce not guilty of criminal charges.
8. leave or unload, especially of passengers or cargo;.
9. cause to go off.
10. release from military service.
11. become empty or void of its content.
discharged, discharges, discharging, undischarged
discrete
[dɪskrit]
598
adj
1. constituting a separate entity or part. E.g.: a government with three discrete divisions
disorder
[dɪsɔrdɜr]
95
noun
1. condition in which there is a disturbance of normal functioning. E.g.: the doctor prescribed some medicine for the disorder
2. a condition in which things are not in their expected places. E.g.: the files are in complete disorder
3. a disturbance of the peace or of public order.
verb
1. disturb in mind or make uneasy or cause to be worried or alarmed.
2. bring disorder to.
disordered, disorderly, disorders
display
[dɪspleɪ]
168
noun
1. something intended to communicate a particular impression. E.g.: made a display of strength
2. something shown to the public.
3. an electronic device that represents information in visual form.
4. a visual representation of something.
5. behavior that makes your feelings public. E.g.: a display of emotion
6. exhibiting openly in public view. E.g.: a display of courage
verb
1. to show, make visible or apparent. E.g.: National leaders will have to display the highest skills of statesmanship
2. make clear and visible.
3. attract attention by displaying some body part or posing; of animals.
displayed, displaying, displays
disrupt
[dɪsrʌpt]
510
verb
1. make a break in.
2. throw into disorder. E.g.: This event disrupted the orderly process
3. interfere in someone else's activity.
disrupted, disrupting, disruption, disruptions, disruptive, disruptively, disrupts
distinct
[dɪstɪŋkt]
301
adj
1. easy to perceive; especially clearly outlined. E.g.: a distinct flavor, a distinct odor of turpentine, a distinct outline, the ship appeared as a distinct silhouette, distinct fingerprints
2. (often followed by `from') not alike; different in nature or quality. E.g.: plants of several distinct types, the word `nationalism' is used in at least two distinct senses, gold is distinct from iron, a tree related to but quite distinct from the Euro
3. constituting a separate entity or part. E.g.: on two distinct occasions
4. recognizable; marked. E.g.: noticed a distinct improvement, at a distinct (or decided) disadvantage
5. clearly or sharply defined to the mind. E.g.: Claudius was the first to invade Britain with distinct...intentions of conquest, trenchant distinctions between right and wrong
distinction, distinctions, distinctive, distinctively, distinctiveness, distinctivenesses, distinctly, distinctness, indistinct, indistinctly
distribute
[dɪstrɪbjut]
104
verb
1. administer or bestow, as in small portions.
2. distribute or disperse widely.
3. make available. E.g.: The publisher wants to distribute the book in Asia
4. give out.
5. cause to be distributed.
6. cause to become widely known.
7. spread throughout a given area. E.g.: the function distributes the values evenly
8. be distributed or spread, as in statistical analyses. E.g.: Values distribute
9. be mathematically distributive.
10. to arrange in a systematic order.
distributed, distributes, distributing, distribution, distributional, distributions, distributive, distributor, distributors, redistribute, redistributed, redistributes, redistributing, redistribution
diverse
[daɪvɜrs]
542
adj
1. many and different. E.g.: a person of diverse talents
2. distinctly dissimilar or unlike. E.g.: diverse parts of the country, celebrities as diverse as Bob Hope and Bob Dylan
diversely, diverseness, diversities, diversity
document
[dɑkjəment]
263
noun
1. writing that provides information (especially information of an official nature).
2. anything serving as a representation of a person's thinking by means of symbolic marks.
3. a written account of ownership or obligation.
4. (computer science) a computer file that contains text (and possibly formatting instructions) using 7-bit ASCII characters.
verb
1. record in detail. E.g.: The parents documented every step of their child's development
2. support or supply with references. E.g.: Can you document your claims?
documentation, documented, documenting, documents, undocumented
domain
[doʊmeɪn]
289
noun
1. a particular environment or walk of life.
2. territory over which rule or control is exercised. E.g.: his domain extended into Europe
3. the set of values of the independent variable for which a function is defined.
4. people in general; especially a distinctive group of people with some shared interest.
5. a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about. E.g.: it was a limited domain of discourse
domains
dominant
[dɑmənənt]
531
noun
1. (music) the fifth note of the diatonic scale.
adj
1. exercising influence or control. E.g.: television plays a dominant role in molding public opinion, the dominant partner in the marriage
2. of genes; producing the same phenotype whether its allele is identical or dissimilar.
donor
[doʊnɜr]
86
noun
1. person who makes a gift of property.
2. (medicine) someone who gives blood or tissue or an organ to be used in another person (the host).
donee, donees, donors
dose
[doʊs]
12
noun
1. a measured portion of medicine taken at any one time.
2. the quantity of an active agent (substance or radiation) taken in or absorbed at any one time.
3. street name for lysergic acid diethylamide.
verb
1. treat with an agent; add (an agent) to. E.g.: The ray dosed the paint
2. administer a drug to.
dosage, dosages, dosed, doses, dosing
dramatic
[drəmætɪk]
619
adj
1. suitable to or characteristic of drama. E.g.: a dramatic entrance in a swirling cape, a dramatic rescue at sea
2. sensational in appearance or thrilling in effect. E.g.: a dramatic sunset, a dramatic pause
3. pertaining to or characteristic of drama. E.g.: dramatic arts
4. used of a singer or singing voice that is marked by power and expressiveness and a histrionic or theatrical style. E.g.: a dramatic tenor, a dramatic soprano
dramatic, dramatically, undramatic
drug
[drʌg]
122
noun
1. a substance that is used as a medicine or narcotic.
verb
1. administer a drug to. E.g.: They drugged the kidnapped tourist
2. use recreational drugs.
drugged, drugging, drugs
duration
[dʊreɪʃən]
131
noun
1. the period of time during which something continues.
2. the property of enduring or continuing in time.
3. continuance in time. E.g.: the ceremony was of short duration
durations
dynamic
[daɪnæmɪk]
279
noun
1. an efficient incentive. E.g.: they hoped it would act as a spiritual dynamic on all churches
adj
1. characterized by action or forcefulness or force of personality. E.g.: a dynamic market, a dynamic speaker, the dynamic president of the firm
2. of or relating to dynamics.
3. expressing action rather than a state of being; used of verbs (e.g. `to run') and participial adjectives (e.g. `running' in `running water').
dynamical, dynamically
efficacy
[efɪkæsi]
157
noun
1. capacity or power to produce a desired effect. E.g.: concern about the safety and efficacy of the vaccine
efficacies
electron
[ɪlektrɑn]
385
noun
1. an elementary particle with negative charge.
electrons
element
[eləmənt]
278
noun
1. an abstract part of something. E.g.: the grammatical elements of a sentence
2. any of the more than 100 known substances (of which 92 occur naturally) that cannot be separated into simpler substances and that singly or in combination constitute all matter.
3. an artifact that is one of the individual parts of which a composite entity is made up; especially a part that can be separated from or attached to a system. E.g.: a component or constituent element of a system
4. one of four substances thought in ancient and medieval cosmology to constitute the physical universe. E.g.: the alchemists believed that there were four elements
5. the most favorable environment for a plant or animal. E.g.: water is the element of fishes
6. the situation in which you are happiest and most effective. E.g.: in your element
7. a straight line that generates a cylinder or cone.
elements
elevation
[eləveɪʃən]
140
noun
1. the event of something being raised upward. E.g.: an elevation of the temperature in the afternoon
2. the highest level or degree attainable.
3. angular distance above the horizon (especially of a celestial object).
4. a raised or elevated geological formation.
5. distance of something above a reference point (such as sea level). E.g.: there was snow at the higher elevations
6. (ballet) the height of a dancer's leap or jump. E.g.: a dancer of exceptional elevation
7. drawing of an exterior of a structure.
8. the act of increasing the wealth or prestige or power or scope of something. E.g.: his elevation to cardinal
elevate, elevated, elevates, elevating, elevations, elevator, elevators
elicit
[ɪlɪsɪt]
448
verb
1. call forth (emotions, feelings, and responses).
2. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning).
3. derive by reason. E.g.: elicit a solution
elicitation, elicitations, elicited, eliciting, elicits
eliminate
[ɪlɪməneɪt]
352
verb
1. terminate or take out. E.g.: Let's eliminate the course on Akkadian hieroglyphics
2. do away with.
3. kill in large numbers.
4. dismiss from consideration. E.g.: This possibility can be eliminated from our consideration
5. eliminate from the body.
6. remove from a contest or race. E.g.: The cyclist has eliminated all the competitors in the race
7. remove (an unknown variable) from two or more equations.
eliminated, eliminates, eliminating, elimination, eliminations, eliminator, eliminators
elucidate
[ɪlusədeɪt]
586
verb
1. make clear and (more) comprehensible.
2. make free from confusion or ambiguity; make clear.
elucidated, elucidates, elucidating, elucidation, elucidations
embryo
[embrioʊ]
559
noun
1. (botany) a minute rudimentary plant contained within a seed or an archegonium.
2. an animal organism in the early stages of growth and differentiation that in higher forms merge into fetal stages but in lower forms terminate in commencement of larval life.
embryos
emerge
[ɪmɜrdʒ]
417
verb
1. come out into view, as from concealment. E.g.: Suddenly, the proprietor emerged from his office
2. come out of.
3. become known or apparent. E.g.: Some nice results emerged from the study
4. come up to the surface of or rise. E.g.: He felt new emotions emerge
5. happen or occur as a result of something.
emerged, emergence, emergent, emerges, emerging
emission
[ɪmɪʃən]
564
noun
1. the act of emitting; causing to flow forth.
2. a substance that is emitted or released.
3. the release of electrons from parent atoms.
4. any of several bodily processes by which substances go out of the body.
5. the occurrence of a flow of water (as from a pipe).
emissions, emit, emits, emitted, emitter, emitters, emitting
emphasize
[emfəsaɪz]
474
verb
1. to stress, single out as important. E.g.: Dr. Jones emphasizes exercise in addition to a change in diet
2. give extra weight to (a communication). E.g.: Her gesture emphasized her words
emphasise, emphasised, emphasises, emphasising, emphasized, emphasizes, emphasizing
enable
[eneɪbəl]
377
verb
1. render capable or able for some task. E.g.: This skill will enable you to find a job on Wall Street, The rope enables you to secure yourself when you climb the mountain
enabled, enables, enabling
encompass
[enkʌmpəs]
621
verb
1. include in scope; include as part of something broader; have as one's sphere or territory. E.g.: This group encompasses a wide range of people from different backgrounds
encompassed, encompasses, encompassing
encounter
[ɪnkaʊntɜr]
511
noun
1. a minor short-term fight.
2. a casual or unexpected convergence. E.g.: there was a brief encounter in the hallway
3. a casual meeting with a person or thing.
4. a hostile disagreement face-to-face.
verb
1. come together.
2. come upon, as if by accident; meet with.
3. be beset by.
4. experience as a reaction.
5. contend against an opponent in a sport, game, or battle.
encountered, encountering, encounters
energy
[enɜrdʒi]
224
noun
1. (physics) the capacity of a physical system to do work; the units of energy are joules or ergs. E.g.: energy can take a wide variety of forms
2. an exertion of force. E.g.: he plays tennis with great energy
3. enterprising or ambitious drive. E.g.: Europeans often laugh at American energy
4. an imaginative lively style (especially style of writing). E.g.: his writing conveys great energy
5. a healthy capacity for vigorous activity. E.g.: jogging works off my excess energy
6. the federal department responsible for maintaining a national energy policy of the United States; created in 1977.
energetic, energetically, energetics, energies, energise, energised, energiser, energisers, energises, energising, energize, energized, energizer, energizers, energizes, energizing
enhance
[enhæns]
146
verb
1. increase. E.g.: This will enhance your enjoyment
2. make better or more attractive. E.g.: This sauce will enhance the flavor of the meat
enhanced, enhancement, enhancements, enhancer, enhancers, enhances, enhancing
enroll
[enroʊl]
558
verb
1. register formally as a participant or member.
enrol, enroled, enroling, enrolled, enrollee, enrollees, enrolling, enrollment, enrollments, enrolls, enrolment, enrolments, enrols
ensure
[enʃʊr]
305
verb
1. make certain of. E.g.: This nest egg will ensure a nice retirement for us
2. be careful or certain to do something; make certain of something.
ensured, ensures, ensuring
entity
[entəti]
610
noun
1. that which is perceived or known or inferred to have its own distinct existence (living or nonliving).
entities
entry
[entri]
398
noun
1. an item inserted in a written record.
2. the act of beginning something new.
3. a written record of a commercial transaction.
4. something (manuscripts or architectural plans and models or estimates or works of art of all genres etc.) submitted for the judgment of others (as in a competition).
5. something that provides access (entry or exit). E.g.: beggars waited just outside the entryway to the cathedral
6. the act of entering.
entries, reentries, reentry
environment
[ɪnvaɪrənmənt]
343
noun
1. the totality of surrounding conditions. E.g.: he longed for the comfortable environment of his livingroom
2. the area in which something exists or lives.
environmental, environmentalism, environmentalist, environmentalists, environmentally, environments
enzyme
[enzaɪm]
142
noun
1. any of several complex proteins that are produced by cells and act as catalysts in specific biochemical reactions.
enzymes
episode
[epɪsoʊd]
251
noun
1. a happening that is distinctive in a series of related events.
2. a brief section of a literary or dramatic work that forms part of a connected series.
3. a part of a broadcast serial.
4. film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie.
episodes, episodic, episodically
equip
[ɪkwɪp]
467
verb
1. provide with (something) usually for a specific purpose. E.g.: The expedition was equipped with proper clothing, food, and other necessities
2. provide with abilities or understanding. E.g.: She was never equipped to be a dancer
equipment, equipments, equipped, equipping, equips, unequipped
equivalent
[ɪkwɪvələnt]
365
noun
1. a person or thing equal to another in value or measure or force or effect or significance etc. E.g.: send two dollars or the equivalent in stamps
2. the atomic weight of an element that has the same combining capacity as a given weight of another element; the standard is 8 for oxygen.
adj
1. equal in amount or value. E.g.: equivalent amounts
2. being essentially equal to something. E.g.: a wish that was equivalent to a command
equivalently, equivalents
error
[erɜr]
84
noun
1. a wrong action attributable to bad judgment or ignorance or inattention. E.g.: she was quick to point out my errors
2. inadvertent incorrectness.
3. a misconception resulting from incorrect information.
4. (baseball) a failure of a defensive player to make an out when normal play would have sufficed.
5. departure from what is ethically acceptable.
6. (computer science) the occurrence of an incorrect result produced by a computer.
7. part of a statement that is not correct. E.g.: the book was full of errors
errors
establish
[ɪstæblɪʃ]
156
verb
1. set up or found.
2. set up or lay the groundwork for. E.g.: establish a new department
3. establish the validity of something, as by an example, explanation or experiment.
4. institute, enact, or establish.
5. bring about. E.g.: The trompe l'oeil-illusion establishes depth
6. place.
7. use as a basis for; found on.
8. build or establish something abstract.
, established, establishes, establishing, establishment, establishments, reestablish, reestablished, reestablishes, reestablishing
estimate
[estəmət]
59
noun
1. an approximate calculation of quantity or degree or worth. E.g.: an estimate of what it would cost
2. a judgment of the qualities of something or somebody. E.g.: many factors are involved in any estimate of human life
3. a document appraising the value of something (as for insurance or taxation).
4. a statement indicating the likely cost of some job. E.g.: he got an estimate from the car repair shop
5. the respect with which a person is held.
verb
1. judge tentatively or form an estimate of (quantities or time). E.g.: I estimate this chicken to weigh three pounds
2. judge to be probable.
est, estimated, estimates, estimating, estimation, estimations, estimator, estimators
evaluate
[ɪvæljueɪt]
74
verb
1. place a value on; judge the worth of something.
evaluated, evaluates, evaluating, evaluation, evaluations, evaluative, evaluator, evaluators
evident
[evədənt]
33
adj
1. clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or senses. E.g.: evident hostility
2. capable of being seen or noticed. E.g.: a clearly evident erasure in the manuscript
evidently
evolution
[evəluʃən]
409
noun
1. a process in which something passes by degrees to a different stage (especially a more advanced or mature stage). E.g.: the evolution of Greek civilization
2. (biology) the sequence of events involved in the evolutionary development of a species or taxonomic group of organisms.
evolutionary, evolutionist, evolutionists
exceed
[ɪksid]
406
verb
1. go beyond. E.g.: Their loyalty exceeds their national bonds
2. go beyond. E.g.: She exceeded our expectations
3. be or do something to a greater degree. E.g.: This exceeds all my expectations
exceeded, exceeding, exceedingly, exceeds
exclude
[ɪksklud]
201
verb
1. prevent from being included or considered or accepted. E.g.: The bad results were excluded from the report
2. prevent from entering; shut out. E.g.: This policy excludes people who have a criminal record from entering the country
3. lack or fail to include. E.g.: The cost for the trip excludes food and beverages
4. prevent from entering; keep out.
5. put out or expel from a place.
excluded, excludes, excluding
exhibit
[ɪgzɪbɪt]
212
noun
1. an object or statement produced before a court of law and referred to while giving evidence.
2. something shown to the public. E.g.: the museum had many exhibits of oriental art
verb
1. show an attribute, property, knowledge, or skill. E.g.: he exhibits a great talent
2. to show, make visible or apparent. E.g.: The Metropolitan Museum is exhibiting Goya's works this month
3. show or demonstrate something to an interested audience.
4. walk ostentatiously.
exhibited, exhibiting, exhibition, exhibitionism, exhibitionist, exhibitionists, exhibitions, exhibitor, exhibitors, exhibits
expand
[ɪkspænd]
443
verb
1. extend in one or more directions. E.g.: The dough expands
2. become larger in size or volume or quantity. E.g.: his business expanded rapidly
3. make bigger or wider in size, volume, or quantity. E.g.: expand the house by adding another wing
4. grow stronger.
5. exaggerate or make bigger.
6. add details, as to an account or idea; clarify the meaning of and discourse in a learned way, usually in writing.
7. expand the influence of.
expandable, expanded, expanding, expands
expert
[ekspɜrt]
336
noun
1. a person with special knowledge or ability who performs skillfully.
adj
1. having or showing knowledge and skill and aptitude. E.g.: an expert job
expertly, expertness, experts, inexpert
expose
[ɪkspoʊz]
48
noun
1. the exposure of an impostor or a fraud. E.g.: he published an expose of the graft and corruption in city government
verb
1. expose or make accessible to some action or influence. E.g.: expose the blanket to sunshine
2. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret.
3. to show, make visible or apparent.
4. remove all or part of one's clothes to show one's body. E.g.: The man exposed himself in the subway
5. disclose to view as by removing a cover.
6. put in a dangerous, disadvantageous, or difficult position.
7. expose to light, of photographic film.
8. expose while ridiculing; especially of pretentious or false claims and ideas.
9. abandon by leaving out in the open air. E.g.: The infant was exposed by the teenage mother
exposed, exposes, exposing, exposure, exposures
external
[ɪkstɜrnəl]
286
noun
1. outward features. E.g.: he enjoyed the solemn externals of religion
adj
1. happening or arising or located outside or beyond some limits or especially surface. E.g.: the external auditory canal, external pressures
2. coming from the outside.
3. from or between other countries. E.g.: external commerce
4. purely outward or superficial. E.g.: external composure, an external concern for reputation- A.R.Gurney,Jr.
externalisation, externalise, externalised, externalises, externalising, externalities, externality, externalization, externalize, externalized, externalizes, externalizing, externally, externals
extract
[ekstrækt]
239
noun
1. a solution obtained by steeping or soaking a substance (usually in water).
2. a passage selected from a larger work.
verb
1. draw or pull out, usually with some force or effort; also used in an abstract sense. E.g.: extract a bad tooth, extract information from the telegram
2. get despite difficulties or obstacles. E.g.: I extracted a promise from the Dean for two ne positions
3. deduce (a principle) or construe (a meaning).
4. extract by the process of distillation.
5. separate (a metal) from an ore.
6. obtain from a substance, as by mechanical action.
7. take out of a literary work in order to cite or copy.
8. calculate the root of a number.
extracted, extracting, extraction, extractions, extractor, extractors, extracts
facilitate
[fəsɪləteɪt]
330
verb
1. make easier. E.g.: you could facilitate the process by sharing your knowledge
2. be of use.
3. physiology: increase the likelihood of (a response). E.g.: The stimulus facilitates a delayed impulse
facilitated, facilitates, facilitating, facilitation, facilitative, facilitator, facilitators
factor
[fæktɜr]
8
noun
1. anything that contributes causally to a result. E.g.: a number of factors determined the outcome
2. an abstract part of something. E.g.: a key factor in her success
3. any of the numbers (or symbols) that form a product when multiplied together.
4. one of two or more integers that can be exactly divided into another integer. E.g.: what are the 4 factors of 6?
5. a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission.
6. an independent variable in statistics.
7. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity. E.g.: genes were formerly called factors
verb
1. resolve into factors. E.g.: a quantum computer can factor the number 15
factored, factoring, factors
feature
[fitʃɜr]
159
noun
1. a prominent aspect of something. E.g.: the map showed roads and other features
2. the characteristic parts of a person's face: eyes and nose and mouth and chin. E.g.: an expression of pleasure crossed his features
3. the principal (full-length) film in a program at a movie theater. E.g.: the feature tonight is `Casablanca'
4. a special or prominent article in a newspaper or magazine. E.g.: they ran a feature on retirement planning
5. an article of merchandise that is displayed or advertised more than other articles.
verb
1. have as a feature. E.g.: This restaurant features the most famous chefs in France
2. wear or display in an ostentatious or proud manner.
featured, featureless, features, featuring
feedback
[fidbæk]
446
noun
1. the process in which part of the output of a system is returned to its input in order to regulate its further output.
2. response to an inquiry or experiment.
feedbacks
file
[faɪl]
588
noun
1. a set of related records (either written or electronic) kept together.
2. a line of persons or things ranged one behind the other.
3. office furniture consisting of a container for keeping papers in order.
4. a steel hand tool with small sharp teeth on some or all of its surfaces; used for smoothing wood or metal.
verb
1. record in a public office or in a court of law. E.g.: file for divorce, file a complaint
2. smooth with a file. E.g.: file one's fingernails
3. proceed in line. E.g.: The students filed into the classroom
4. file a formal charge against.
5. place in a container for keeping records.
filed, files, filing, filings, unfiled
filter
[fɪltɜr]
234
noun
1. device that removes something from whatever passes through it.
2. an electrical device that alters the frequency spectrum of signals passing through it.
verb
1. remove by passing through a filter. E.g.: filter out the impurities
2. pass through.
3. run or flow slowly, as in drops or in an unsteady stream.
filtered, filtering, filters, filtrate, filtrated, filtrating, filtration, filtrations
final
[faɪnəl]
205
noun
1. the final match between the winners of all previous matches in an elimination tournament.
2. an examination administered at the end of an academic term.
adj
1. occurring at or forming an end or termination. E.g.: the final chapter
2. conclusive in a process or progression. E.g.: the final answer
3. not to be altered or undone. E.g.: the judge's decision is final
finalise, finalised, finalises, finalising, finalist, finalists, finality, finalize, finalized, finalizes, finalizing, finally, finals, semifinalist, semifinalists
fluid
[fluəd]
220
noun
1. a substance that is fluid at room temperature and pressure.
2. a continuous amorphous substance that tends to flow and to conform to the outline of its container: a liquid or a gas.
adj
1. subject to change; variable. E.g.: a fluid situation fraught with uncertainty
2. characteristic of a fluid; capable of flowing and easily changing shape.
3. smooth and unconstrained in movement. E.g.: the fluid motion of a cat
4. in cash or easily convertible to cash. E.g.: liquid (or fluid) assets
5. affording change (especially in social status). E.g.: Britain is not a truly fluid society
fluidities, fluidity, fluids
focus
[foʊkəs]
167
noun
1. the concentration of attention or energy on something. E.g.: the focus of activity shifted to molecular biology
2. maximum clarity or distinctness of an image rendered by an optical system. E.g.: in focus, out of focus
3. maximum clarity or distinctness of an idea. E.g.: the controversy brought clearly into focus an important difference of opinion
4. a central point or locus of an infection in an organism. E.g.: the focus of infection
5. special emphasis attached to something.
6. a point of convergence of light (or other radiation) or a point from which it diverges.
7. a fixed reference point on the concave side of a conic section.
verb
1. direct one's attention on something. E.g.: Please focus on your studies and not on your hobbies
2. cause to converge on or toward a central point.
3. bring into focus or alignment; to converge or cause to converge; of ideas or emotions.
4. become focussed or come into focus. E.g.: The light focused
5. put (an image) into focus. E.g.: Please focus the image; we cannot enjoy the movie
foci, focused, focuses, focusing, focussed, focusses, focussing, refocus, refocused, refocuses, refocusing, refocussed, refocussing, unfocused, unfocussed
followup
[fɑloʊʌp]
219
noun
1. a piece of work that exploits or builds on earlier work.
2. an activity that continues something that has already begun or that repeats something that has already been done.
3. a subsequent examination of a patient for the purpose of monitoring earlier treatment.
format
[fɔrmæt]
513
noun
1. the organization of information according to preset specifications (usually for computer processing).
2. the general appearance of a publication.
verb
1. set (printed matter) into a specific format.
2. determine the arrangement of (data) for storage and display (in computer science).
3. divide (a disk) into marked sectors so that it may store data. E.g.: Please format this disk before entering data!
formats, formatted, formatting
formation
[fɔrmeɪʃən]
195
noun
1. an arrangement of people or things acting as a unit. E.g.: a defensive formation, a formation of planes
2. a particular spatial arrangement.
3. the fabrication of something in a particular shape.
4. the act of forming something.
5. (geology) the geological features of the earth.
6. natural process that causes something to form. E.g.: the formation of gas in the intestine, the formation of crystals, the formation of pseudopods
7. creation by mental activity. E.g.: the formation of sentences, the formation of memories
formations
formula
[fɔrmjələ]
347
noun
1. a group of symbols that make a mathematical statement.
2. directions for making something.
3. a conventionalized statement expressing some fundamental principle.
4. a representation of a substance using symbols for its constituent elements.
5. something regarded as a normative example. E.g.: his formula for impressing visitors
6. a liquid food for infants.
7. (mathematics) a standard procedure for solving a class of mathematical problems. E.g.: he gave us a general formula for attacking polynomials
formulae, formulaic, formulas, formulate, formulated, formulates, formulating, formulation, formulations, reformulate, reformulated, reformulating
foundation
[faʊndeɪʃən]
473
noun
1. the basis on which something is grounded. E.g.: there is little foundation for his objections
2. an institution supported by an endowment.
3. the fundamental assumptions from which something is begun or developed or calculated or explained.
4. lowest support of a structure.
5. education or instruction in the fundamentals of a field of knowledge. E.g.: he lacks the foundation necessary for advanced study
6. a woman's undergarment worn to give shape to the contours of the body.
7. the act of starting something for the first time; introducing something new. E.g.: the foundation of a new scientific society
foundations
fraction
[frækʃən]
89
noun
1. a component of a mixture that has been separated by a fractional process.
2. a small part or item forming a piece of a whole.
3. the quotient of two rational numbers.
verb
1. perform a division.
fractional, fractionally, fractions
fragment
[frægmənt]
528
noun
1. a piece broken off or cut off of something else. E.g.: a fragment of rock
2. a broken piece of a brittle artifact.
3. an incomplete piece. E.g.: fragments of a play
verb
1. break or cause to break into pieces. E.g.: The plate fragmented
fragmentary, fragmentation, fragmented, fragmenting, fragments
function
[fʌŋkʃən]
20
noun
1. a mathematical relation such that each element of one set is associated with at least one element of another set.
2. what something is used for. E.g.: the function of an auger is to bore holes
3. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. E.g.: the function of a teacher
4. a relation such that one thing is dependent on another. E.g.: height is a function of age, price is a function of supply and demand
5. a formal or official social gathering or ceremony. E.g.: it was a black-tie function
6. a vaguely specified social event. E.g.: a seemingly endless round of social functions
7. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
verb
1. perform as expected when applied.
2. serve a purpose, role, or function. E.g.: The table functions as a desk
3. perform duties attached to a particular office or place or function.
functional, functionalism, functionalist, functionalists, functionalities, functionality, functionally, functioned, functioning, functions
fund
[fʌnd]
325
noun
1. a reserve of money set aside for some purpose.
2. a supply of something available for future use.
3. a financial institution that sells shares to individuals and invests in securities issued by other companies.
verb
1. convert (short-term floating debt) into long-term debt that bears fixed interest and is represented by bonds.
2. place or store up in a fund for accumulation.
3. provide a fund for the redemption of principal or payment of interest.
4. invest money in government securities.
5. accumulate a fund for the discharge of a recurrent liability. E.g.: fund a medical care plan
6. furnish money for. E.g.: The government funds basic research in many areas
funded, funder, funders, funding, funds, unfunded
fundamental
[fʌndəmentəl]
445
noun
1. the lowest tone of a harmonic series.
adj
1. serving as an essential component. E.g.: an example that was fundamental to the argument, computers are fundamental to modern industrial structure
2. being or involving basic facts or principles. E.g.: the fundamental laws of the universe, a fundamental incompatibility between them
3. far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something. E.g.: the fundamental revolution in human values that has occurred, the book underwent fundamental changes, committed the fundamental error of confusing spending with extravaga
fundamentalism, fundamentalist, fundamentalists, fundamentally, fundamentals
furthermore
[fɜrðɜrmɔr]
181
adv
1. in addition. E.g.: computer chess games are getting cheaper all the time; furthermore, their quality is improving
fusion
[fjuʒən]
585
noun
1. an occurrence that involves the production of a union.
2. a nuclear reaction in which nuclei combine to form more massive nuclei with the simultaneous release of energy.
3. the state of being combined into one body.
4. the merging of adjacent sounds or syllables or words.
5. the combining of images from the two eyes to form a single visual percept.
6. correction of an unstable part of the spine by joining two or more vertebrae; usually done surgically but sometimes done by traction or immobilization.
7. the act of fusing (or melting) together.
fuse, fused, fuses, fusing, fusions
gender
[dʒendɜr]
245
noun
1. a grammatical category in inflected languages governing the agreement between nouns and pronouns and adjectives; in some languages it is quite arbitrary but in Indo-European languages it is usually based on sex or animateness.
2. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles.
gendered, genders
gene
[dʒin]
13
noun
1. (genetics) a segment of DNA that is involved in producing a polypeptide chain; it can include regions preceding and following the coding DNA as well as introns between the exons; it is considered a unit of heredity. E.g.: genes were formerly called factors
genes
generate
[dʒenɜreɪt]
99
verb
1. bring into existence. E.g.: The new manager generated a lot of problems, The computer bug generated chaos in the office
2. give or supply.
3. produce (energy). E.g.: We can't generate enough power for the entire city, The hydroelectric plant needs to to generate more electricity
4. make children.
generated, generates, generating, generative, generatively
gland
[glænd]
522
noun
1. any of various organs that synthesize substances needed by the body and release it through ducts or directly into the bloodstream.
glands, glandular
globe
[gloʊb]
358
noun
1. the 3rd planet from the sun; the planet on which we live.
2. an object with a spherical shape.
3. a sphere on which a map (especially of the earth) is represented.
globes
glucose
[glukoʊs]
148
noun
1. a monosaccharide sugar that has several forms; an important source of physiological energy.
glucoses
goal
[goʊl]
190
noun
1. the state of affairs that a plan is intended to achieve and that (when achieved) terminates behavior intended to achieve it.
2. a successful attempt at scoring. E.g.: the winning goal came with less than a minute left to play
3. game equipment consisting of the place toward which players of a game try to advance a ball or puck in order to score points.
4. the place designated as the end (as of a race or journey).
goalless, goals
grade
[greɪd]
171
noun
1. a body of students who are taught together.
2. a relative position or degree of value in a graded group. E.g.: lumber of the highest grade
3. the gradient of a slope or road or other surface. E.g.: the road had a steep grade
4. one-hundredth of a right angle.
5. a degree of ablaut.
6. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance). E.g.: grade A milk
7. the height of the ground on which something stands. E.g.: the base of the tower was below grade
8. a position on a scale of intensity or amount or quality.
9. a variety of cattle produced by crossbreeding with a superior breed.
verb
1. assign a rank or rating to.
2. level to the right gradient.
3. assign a grade or rank to, according to one's evaluation. E.g.: grade tests
4. determine the grade of or assign a grade to.
gradable, graded, grader, graders, grades, grading, gradings, ungraded
gradient
[greɪdiənt]
509
noun
1. a graded change in the magnitude of some physical quantity or dimension.
2. the property possessed by a line or surface that departs from the horizontal. E.g.: a five-degree gradient
gradients
graft
[græft]
174
noun
1. (surgery) tissue or organ transplanted from a donor to a recipient; in some cases the patient can be both donor and recipient.
2. the practice of offering something (usually money) in order to gain an illicit advantage.
3. the act of grafting something onto something else.
verb
1. cause to grow together parts from different plants. E.g.: graft the cherry tree branch onto the plum tree
2. place athe organ of a donor into the body of a recipient.
grafted, grafting, grafts
grant
[grænt]
337
noun
1. any monetary aid.
2. the act of providing a subsidy.
3. (law) a transfer of property by deed of conveyance.
4. Scottish painter; cousin of Lytton Strachey and member of the Bloomsbury Group (1885-1978).
5. United States actor (born in England) who was the elegant leading man in many films (1904-1986).
6. 18th President of the United States; commander of the Union armies in the American Civil War (1822-1885).
7. a contract granting the right to operate a subsidiary business.
8. a right or privilege that has been granted.
verb
1. let have. E.g.: grant permission
2. give on the basis of merit. E.g.: Funds are granted to qualified researchers
3. be willing to concede. E.g.: I grant you this much
4. allow to have. E.g.: grant a privilege
5. bestow, especially officially. E.g.: grant a degree, This bill grants us new rights
6. give over; surrender or relinquish to the physical control of another.
7. transfer by deed. E.g.: grant land
granted, granting, grantor, grantors, grants
graph
[græf]
353
noun
1. a drawing illustrating the relations between certain quantities plotted with reference to a set of axes.
verb
1. represent by means of a graph.
2. plot upon a graph.
graphed, graphing, graphs
guideline
[gaɪdlaɪn]
238
noun
1. a light line that is used in lettering to help align the letters.
2. a detailed plan or explanation to guide you in setting standards or determining a course of action.
3. a rule or principle that provides guidance to appropriate behavior.
guidelines
hence
[hens]
327
adv
1. (used to introduce a logical conclusion) from that fact or reason or as a result. E.g.: the eggs were fresh and hence satisfactory, we were young and thence optimistic
2. from this place. E.g.: get thee hence!
3. from this time. E.g.: a year hence it will be forgotten
highlight
[haɪlaɪt]
408
noun
1. the most interesting or memorable part. E.g.: the highlight of the tour was our visit to the Vatican
2. an area of lightness in a picture.
verb
1. move into the foreground to make more visible or prominent. E.g.: The introduction highlighted the speaker's distinguished career in linguistics
highlighted, highlighter, highlighters, highlighting, highlights
histology
[hɪstɑlədʒi]
493
noun
1. the branch of biology that studies the microscopic structure of animal or plant tissues.
histological, histologically, histologies, histologist, histologists
hormone
[hɔrmoʊn]
458
noun
1. the secretion of an endocrine gland that is transmitted by the blood to the tissue on which it has a specific effect.
hormonal, hormones
hypertension
[haɪpɜrtenʃən]
529
noun
1. a common disorder in which blood pressure remains abnormally high (a reading of 140/90 mm Hg or greater).
hypertensions
hypothesis
[haɪpɑθəsəs]
158
noun
1. a proposal intended to explain certain facts or observations.
2. a tentative theory about the natural world; a concept that is not yet verified but that if true would explain certain facts or phenomena. E.g.: a scientific hypothesis that survives experimental testing becomes a scientific theory
3. a message expressing an opinion based on incomplete evidence.
hypotheses, hypothesise, hypothesised, hypothesises, hypothesising, hypothesize, hypothesized, hypothesizes, hypothesizing
identical
[aɪdentɪkəl]
402
adj
1. exactly alike; incapable of being perceived as different. E.g.: rows of identical houses, cars identical except for their license plates
2. being the exact same one; not any other:. E.g.: this is the identical room we stayed in before
3. (of twins) derived from a single egg or ovum. E.g.: identical twins are monovular
4. having properties with uniform values along all axes.
5. coinciding exactly when superimposed. E.g.: identical triangles
identically
identify
[aɪdentəfaɪ]
35
verb
1. recognize as being; establish the identity of someone or something.
2. give the name or identifying characteristics of; refer to by name or some other identifying characteristic property.
3. consider (oneself) as similar to somebody else.
4. conceive of as united or associated.
5. identify as in botany or biology, for example.
6. consider to be equal or the same.
identifiable, identification, identifications, identified, identifier, identifiers, identifies, identifying, identities, identity, unidentifiable, unidentified
illustrate
[ɪləstreɪt]
267
verb
1. clarify by giving an example of.
2. depict with an illustration.
3. e.g., illustrate a book with drawings.
illustrated, illustrates, illustrating, illustration, illustrations, illustrative, illustrator, illustrators
image
[ɪmədʒ]
141
noun
1. an iconic mental representation. E.g.: her imagination forced images upon her too awful to contemplate
2. a visual representation (of an object or scene or person or abstraction) produced on a surface. E.g.: a movie is a series of images projected so rapidly that the eye integrates them
3. (Jungian psychology) a personal facade that one presents to the world. E.g.: a public image is as fragile as Humpty Dumpty
4. a standard or typical example. E.g.: he provided America with an image of the good father
5. language used in a figurative or nonliteral sense.
6. someone who closely resembles a famous person (especially an actor). E.g.: she's the very image of her mother
7. a representation of a person (especially in the form of sculpture). E.g.: the emperor's tomb had his image carved in stone
verb
1. imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind.
imaged, imagery, images, imaging
immune
[ɪmjun]
182
noun
1. a person who is immune to a particular infection.
adj
1. relating to the condition of immunity. E.g.: the immune system
2. secure against. E.g.: immune from taxation as long as he resided in Bermuda, immune from criminal prosecution
3. relating to or conferring immunity (to disease or infection).
4. (usually followed by `to') not affected by a given influence. E.g.: immune to persuasion
immunisation, immunisations, immunise, immunised, immunising, immunities, immunity, immunization, immunizations, immunize, immunized, immunizing, immuno
impact
[ɪmpækt]
120
noun
1. the striking of one body against another.
2. a forceful consequence; a strong effect. E.g.: the book had an important impact on my thinking
3. influencing strongly.
4. the violent interaction of individuals or groups entering into combat.
verb
1. press or wedge together; pack together.
2. have an effect upon.
impacted, impacting, impacts
impair
[ɪmper]
206
verb
1. make worse or less effective. E.g.: His vision was impaired
2. make imperfect.
impaired, impairing, impairment, impairments, impairs, unimpaired
implement
[ɪmpləmənt]
323
noun
1. instrumentation (a piece of equipment or tool) used to effect an end.
verb
1. apply in a manner consistent with its purpose or design. E.g.: implement a procedure
2. ensure observance of laws and rules.
3. pursue to a conclusion or bring to a successful issue. E.g.: He implemented a new economic plan
implementation, implementations, implemented, implementing, implements
implicate
[ɪmplɪkeɪt]
381
verb
1. bring into intimate and incriminating connection. E.g.: He is implicated in the scheme to defraud the government
2. impose, involve, or imply as a necessary accompaniment or result.
implicated, implicates, implicating, implication, implications
imply
[ɪmplaɪ]
455
verb
1. express or state indirectly.
2. suggest as a logically necessary consequence; in logic.
3. have as a logical consequence.
4. suggest that someone is guilty.
5. have as a necessary feature or consequence; entail.
implied, impliedly, implies, implying
incidence
[ɪnsədəns]
150
noun
1. the relative frequency of occurrence of something.
2. the striking of a light beam on a surface. E.g.: he measured the angle of incidence of the reflected light
incidences
incorporate
[ɪnkɔrpɜreɪt]
316
verb
1. make into a whole or make part of a whole. E.g.: She incorporated his suggestions into her proposal
2. include or contain; have as a component.
3. form a corporation.
4. unite or merge with something already in existence. E.g.: incorporate this document with those pertaining to the same case
adj
1. formed or united into a whole.
inc, incorporated, incorporates, incorporating, incorporation, incorporations, unincorporated
incubate
[ɪnkjəbeɪt]
85
verb
1. develop under favorable conditions, such as germs and bacteria.
2. sit on (eggs).
incubated, incubates, incubating, incubation, incubations, incubator, incubators
independent
[ɪndɪpendənt]
193
noun
1. a neutral or uncommitted person (especially in politics).
2. a writer or artist who sells services to different employers without a long-term contract with any of them.
adj
1. free from external control and constraint. E.g.: an independent mind, a series of independent judgments, fiercely independent individualism, an independent republic
2. not dependent on or conditioned by or relative to anything else.
3. of political bodies.
4. not contingent.
5. of a clause; able to stand alone syntactically as a complete sentence. E.g.: the main (or independent) clause in a complex sentence has at least a subject and a verb
6. not controlled by a party or interest group.
independently, independents
index
[ɪndeks]
216
noun
1. a numerical scale used to compare variables with one another or with some reference number.
2. a number or ratio (a value on a scale of measurement) derived from a series of observed facts; can reveal relative changes as a function of time.
3. a mathematical notation indicating the number of times a quantity is multiplied by itself.
4. an alphabetical listing of names and topics along with page numbers where they are discussed.
5. the finger next to the thumb.
verb
1. list in an index.
2. provide with an index. E.g.: index the book
3. adjust through indexation. E.g.: The government indexes wages and prices
indexation, indexed, indexer, indexers, indexes, indexical, indexing, indices
indicate
[ɪndəkeɪt]
22
verb
1. be a signal for or a symptom of. E.g.: These symptoms indicate a serious illness
2. indicate a place, direction, person, or thing; either spatially or figuratively. E.g.: he indicated his opponents
3. to state or express briefly. E.g.: indicated his wishes in a letter
4. give evidence of. E.g.: The results indicate the need for more work
5. suggest the necessity of an intervention; in medicine. E.g.: Tetracycline is indicated in such cases
indicated, indicates, indicating, indication, indications, indicative, indicator, indicators
individual
[ɪndəvɪdʒəwəl]
47
noun
1. a human being.
2. a single organism.
adj
1. being or characteristic of a single thing or person. E.g.: individual drops of rain, please mark the individual pages, they went their individual ways
2. separate and distinct from others of the same kind. E.g.: mark the individual pages
3. characteristic of or meant for a single person or thing. E.g.: an individual serving
4. concerning one person exclusively. E.g.: we all have individual cars
individualise, individualised, individualism, individualist, individualistic, individualists, individuality, individualize, individualized, individually, individuals
induce
[ɪndus]
29
verb
1. cause to arise. E.g.: induce a crisis
2. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner. E.g.: The ads induced me to buy a VCR
3. cause to occur rapidly.
4. reason or establish by induction.
5. produce electric current by electrostatic or magnetic processes.
induced, inducement, inducements, induces, inducing
infect
[ɪnfekt]
41
verb
1. communicate a disease to. E.g.: Your children have infected you with this head cold
2. contaminate with a disease or microorganism.
3. contaminate with ideas or an ideology. E.g.: society was infected by racism
4. affect in a contagious way. E.g.: His laughter infects everyone who is in the same room
infected, infecting, infection, infections, infectious, infectiously, infective, infects, noninfectious, reinfect, reinfected, reinfecting, reinfects, uninfected
inferior
[ɪnfɪriɜr]
430
noun
1. one of lesser rank or station or quality.
2. a character or symbol set or printed or written beneath or slightly below and to the side of another character.
adj
1. of or characteristic of low rank or importance.
2. of low or inferior quality.
3. inferior in rank or status.
4. written or printed below and to one side of another character.
5. having an orbit between the sun and the Earth's orbit. E.g.: Mercury and Venus are inferior planets
6. lower than a given reference point. E.g.: inferior alveolar artery
7. falling short of some prescribed norm.
inferiorities, inferiority, inferiors
infiltrate
[ɪnfɪltreɪt]
487
verb
1. cause (a liquid) to enter by penetrating the interstices.
2. enter a group or organization in order to spy on the members. E.g.: The student organization was infiltrated by a traitor
3. pass into or through by filtering or permeating. E.g.: the substance infiltrated the material
4. pass through an enemy-line; in a military conflict.
infiltrated, infiltrates, infiltrating, infiltration, infiltrations
inflammation
[ɪnfləmeɪʃən]
66
noun
1. a response of body tissues to injury or irritation; characterized by pain and swelling and redness and heat.
2. the state of being emotionally aroused and worked up. E.g.: he tried to calm those who were in a state of extreme inflammation
3. arousal to violent emotion.
4. the act of setting on fire or catching fire.
inflame, inflamed, inflames, inflaming, inflammations, inflammatory, noninflammatory
infuse
[ɪnfjuz]
184
verb
1. teach and impress by frequent repetitions or admonitions.
2. fill, as with a certain quality.
3. undergo the process of infusion.
4. let sit in a liquid to extract a flavor or to cleanse.
5. introduce into the body through a vein, for therapeutic purposes. E.g.: Some physiologists infuses sugar solutions into the veins of animals
infused, infuses, infusing, infusion, infusions
inhibit
[ɪnhɪbət]
102
verb
1. to put down by force or authority.
2. limit the range or extent of. E.g.: Contact between the young was inhibited by strict social customs
inhibited, inhibiting, inhibition, inhibitions, inhibitor, inhibitors, inhibitory, inhibits, uninhibited, uninhibitedly
initial
[ɪnɪʃəl]
107
noun
1. the first letter of a word (especially a person's name). E.g.: he refused to put the initials FRS after his name
verb
1. mark with one's initials.
adj
1. occurring at the beginning. E.g.: took the initial step toward reconciliation
initialisation, initialisations, initialise, initialised, initialises, initialising, initialization, initializations, initialize, initialized, initializes, initializing, initialled, initialling, initially, initials
inject
[ɪndʒekt]
207
verb
1. give an injection to. E.g.: We injected the glucose into the patient's vein
2. to introduce (a new aspect or element). E.g.: He injected new life into the performance
3. force or drive (a fluid or gas) into by piercing. E.g.: inject hydrogen into the balloon
4. take by injection. E.g.: inject heroin
5. feed intravenously.
6. to insert between other elements.
injected, injecting, injection, injections, injector, injectors, injects
injury
[ɪndʒɜri]
77
noun
1. any physical damage to the body caused by violence or accident or fracture etc..
2. an accident that results in physical damage or hurt.
3. a casualty to military personnel resulting from combat.
4. an act that injures someone.
injure, injured, injures, injuries, injuring, uninjured
inner
[ɪnɜr]
524
adj
1. located inward. E.g.: Beethoven's manuscript looks like a bloody record of a tremendous inner battle- Leonard Bernstein
2. located or occurring within or closer to a center. E.g.: an inner room
3. innermost or essential. E.g.: the inner logic of Cubism
4. confined to an exclusive group. E.g.: privy to inner knowledge
5. exclusive to a center; especially a center of influence. E.g.: inner regions of the organization, inner circles of government
6. inside or closer to the inside of the body. E.g.: the inner ear
innermost, inward, inwardly, inwardness, inwards
input
[ɪnpʊt]
298
noun
1. signal going into an electronic system.
2. any stimulating information or event; acts to arouse action.
verb
1. enter (data or a program) into a computer.
inputs, inputting
insight
[ɪnsaɪt]
562
noun
1. clear or deep perception of a situation.
2. a feeling of understanding.
3. the clear (and often sudden) understanding of a complex situation.
4. grasping the inner nature of things intuitively.
insightful, insights
instruct
[ɪnstrʌkt]
264
verb
1. impart skills or knowledge to. E.g.: He instructed me in building a boat
2. give instructions or directions for some task. E.g.: She instructed the students to work on their pronounciation
3. make aware of.
instructed, instructing, instruction, instructional, instructionally, instructions, instructive, instructively, instructor, instructors, instructs
insulin
[ɪnsələn]
90
noun
1. hormone secreted by the isles of Langerhans in the pancreas; regulates storage of glycogen in the liver and accelerates oxidation of sugar in cells.
insulins
intake
[ɪnteɪk]
372
noun
1. the process of taking food into the body through the mouth (as by eating).
2. an opening through which fluid is admitted to a tube or container.
intakes
integrate
[ɪntəgreɪt]
615
verb
1. make into a whole or make part of a whole.
2. open (a place) to members of all races and ethnic groups.
3. become one; become integrated. E.g.: The students at this school integrate immediately, despite their different backgrounds
4. calculate the integral of; calculate by integration.
integrated, integrates, integrating, integration, integrative, integrator, integrators, reintegrate, reintegrated, reintegrates, reintegrating
integrity
[ɪntegrəti]
497
noun
1. an unreduced or unbroken completeness or totality.
2. moral soundness.
intense
[ɪntens]
87
adj
1. in an extreme degree. E.g.: intense heat, intense anxiety, intense desire, intense emotion, the skunk's intense acrid odor, intense pain, enemy fire was intense
2. extremely sharp or intense. E.g.: intense itching and burning
3. (of color) having the highest saturation. E.g.: intense blue
intensely, intensification, intensified, intensifies, intensify, intensifying, intensities, intensity, intensive, intensively
interact
[ɪntɜrækt]
186
verb
1. act together or towards others or with others. E.g.: He should interact more with his colleagues
interacted, interacting, interaction, interactional, interactionally, interactions, interactive, interactively, interacts
internal
[ɪntɜrnəl]
254
adj
1. happening or arising or located within some limits or especially surface. E.g.: internal organs, internal mechanism of a toy, internal party maneuvering
2. occurring within an institution or community.
3. inside the country. E.g.: the nation's internal politics
4. located inward.
5. innermost or essential. E.g.: the internal contradictions of the theory
internalisation, internalise, internalised, internalises, internalising, internalization, internalize, internalized, internalizes, internalizing, internally
interpret
[ɪntɜrprət]
262
verb
1. make sense of; assign a meaning to. E.g.: How do you interpret his behavior?
2. give an interpretation or explanation to.
3. give an interpretation or rendition of.
4. create an image or likeness of.
5. restate (words) from one language into another language. E.g.: Can you interpret the speech of the visiting dignitaries?
6. make sense of a language.
interpretable, interpretation, interpretations, interpretative, interpreted, interpreter, interpreters, interpreting, interpretive, interprets, misinterpret, misinterpretation, misinterpretations, misinterpreted, misinterpreting, misinterprets, reinterpret, reinterpretation, reinterpretations, reinterpreted, reinterpreting, reinterprets
interval
[ɪntɜrvəl]
160
noun
1. a definite length of time marked off by two instants.
2. a set containing all points (or all real numbers) between two given endpoints.
3. the distance between things.
4. the difference in pitch between two notes.
intervals
intervene
[ɪntɜrvin]
53
verb
1. get involved, so as to alter or hinder an action, or through force or threat of force. E.g.: Why did the U.S. not intervene earlier in WW II?
2. be placed or located between other things or extend between spaces and events. E.g.: This interludes intervenes between the two movements, Eight days intervened
3. occur between other event or between certain points of time. E.g.: the war intervened between the birth of her two children
intervened, intervenes, intervening, intervention, interventions
intrinsic
[ɪntrɪnsɪk]
525
adj
1. belonging to a thing by its very nature. E.g.: form was treated as something intrinsic, as the very essence of the thing- John Dewey
2. situated within or belonging solely to the organ or body part on which it acts. E.g.: intrinsic muscles
intrinsically
invade
[ɪnveɪd]
480
verb
1. march aggressively into another's territory by military force for the purposes of conquest and occupation. E.g.: Hitler invaded Poland on September 1, 1939
2. to intrude upon, infringe, encroach on, violate. E.g.: This new colleague invades my territory
3. occupy in large numbers or live on a host.
4. penetrate or assault, in a harmful or injurious way. E.g.: The cancer had invaded her lungs
invaded, invader, invaders, invades, invading
investigate
[ɪnvestəgeɪt]
133
verb
1. investigate scientifically. E.g.: Let's investigate the syntax of Chinese
2. conduct an inquiry or investigation of. E.g.: The district attorney's office investigated reports of possible irregularities
investigated, investigates, investigating, investigation, investigations, investigative, investigator, investigators, investigatory
involve
[ɪnvɑlv]
49
verb
1. connect closely and often incriminatingly.
2. engage as a participant. E.g.: Don't involve me in your family affairs!
3. have as a necessary feature or consequence; entail. E.g.: This decision involves many changes
4. require as useful, just, or proper.
5. contain as a part. E.g.: Dinner at Joe's always involves at least six courses
6. wrap. E.g.: The tower was involved in mist
7. occupy or engage the interest of. E.g.: His story completely involved me during the entire afternoon
8. make complex or intricate or complicated. E.g.: The situation was rather involved
involved, involvement, involvements, involves, involving, uninvolved
isolate
[aɪsəleɪt]
144
verb
1. place or set apart. E.g.: They isolated the political prisoners from the other inmates
2. obtain in pure form. E.g.: The chemist managed to isolate the compound
3. set apart from others.
4. separate (experiences) from the emotions relating to them.
isolated, isolates, isolating, isolation, isolationism, isolationist, isolationists
issue
[ɪʃu]
187
noun
1. an important question that is in dispute and must be settled. E.g.: the issue could be settled by requiring public education for everyone, politicians never discuss the real issues
2. one of a series published periodically. E.g.: she found an old issue of the magazine in her dentist's waitingroom
3. the provision of something by issuing it (usually in quantity). E.g.: a new issue of stamps, the last issue of penicillin was over a month ago
4. some situation or event that is thought about.
5. supplies (as food or clothing or ammunition) issued by the government.
6. the immediate descendants of a person. E.g.: he died without issue
7. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.
8. the income arising from land or other property.
9. the becoming visible.
10. an opening that permits escape or release. E.g.: the canyon had only one issue
11. the act of issuing printed materials.
verb
1. prepare and issue for public distribution or sale.
2. circulate or distribute or equip with. E.g.: issue a new uniform to the children
3. bring out an official document (such as a warrant).
4. come out of. E.g.: Water issued from the hole in the wall
5. make out and issue.
issuance, issued, issuer, issuers, issues, issuing
kit
[kɪt]
312
noun
1. a case for containing a set of articles.
2. gear consisting of a set of articles or tools for a specified purpose.
3. young of any of various fur-bearing animals. E.g.: a fox kit
verb
1. supply with a set of articles or tools.
kits, kitted, kitting
label
[leɪbəl]
319
noun
1. a brief description given for purposes of identification. E.g.: the label Modern is applied to many different kinds of architecture
2. trade name of a company that produces musical recordings. E.g.: the artists and repertoire department of a recording label is responsible for finding new talent
3. a radioactive isotope that is used in a compound in order to trace the mechanism of a chemical reaction.
4. an identifying or descriptive marker that is attached to an object.
verb
1. assign a label to; designate with a label. E.g.: These students were labelled `learning disabled'
2. attach a tag or label to. E.g.: label these bottles
3. pronounce judgment on. E.g.: They labeled him unfit to work here
4. distinguish (as a compound or molecule) by introducing a labeled atom.
5. distinguish (an element or atom) by using a radioactive isotope or an isotope of unusual mass for tracing through chemical reactions.
labeled, labeling, labelled, labelling, labels, unlabeled, unlabelled
laboratory
[læbrətɔri]
123
noun
1. a workplace for the conduct of scientific research.
2. a region resembling a laboratory inasmuch as it offers opportunities for observation and practice and experimentation. E.g.: Pakistan is a laboratory for studying the use of American troops to co
lab, laboratories, labs
lane
[leɪn]
545
noun
1. a narrow way or road.
2. a well-defined track or path; for e.g. swimmers or lines of traffic.
lanes
laser
[leɪzɜr]
345
noun
1. an acronym for light amplification by stimulated emission of radiation; an optical device that produces an intense monochromatic beam of coherent light.
lasers
lateral
[lætɜrəl]
329
noun
1. a pass to a receiver upfield from the passer.
adj
1. situated at or extending to the side. E.g.: the lateral branches of a tree
2. lying away from the median and sagittal plane of a body. E.g.: lateral lemniscus
laterality, laterally, laterals
layer
[leɪɜr]
256
noun
1. single thickness of usually some homogeneous substance.
2. a relatively thin sheetlike expanse or region lying over or under another.
3. an abstract place usually conceived as having depth. E.g.: a simile has at least two layers of meaning
4. a hen that lays eggs.
5. thin structure composed of a single thickness of cells.
verb
1. make or form a layer. E.g.: layer the different colored sands
layered, layering, layers
lesion
[liʒən]
69
noun
1. any visible abnormal structural change in a bodily part.
2. any break in the skin or an organ caused by violence or surgical incision.
lesions
linear
[lɪniɜr]
291
adj
1. designating or involving an equation whose terms are of the first degree.
2. of or in or along or relating to a line; involving a single dimension. E.g.: a linear foot
3. of a circuit or device having an output that is proportional to the input. E.g.: linear amplifier
4. of a leaf shape; long and narrow.
5. measured lengthwise.
linearities, linearity, linearly, nonlinear
link
[lɪŋk]
237
noun
1. the means of connection between things linked in series.
2. a fastener that serves to join or link. E.g.: the walls are held together with metal links placed in the wet mortar during construction
3. the state of being connected.
4. a connecting shape.
5. a unit of length equal to 1/100 of a chain.
6. (computing) an instruction that connects one part of a program or an element on a list to another program or list.
7. a channel for communication between groups.
8. a two-way radio communication system (usually microwave); part of a more extensive telecommunication network.
9. an interconnecting circuit between two or more locations for the purpose of transmitting and receiving data.
verb
1. make a logical or causal connection.
2. connect, fasten, or put together two or more pieces.
3. be or become joined or united or linked. E.g.: The travelers linked up again at the airport
4. link with or as with a yoke.
interlink, interlinked, interlinking, interlinks, linkage, linkages, linked, linking, links
lipid
[laɪpəd]
221
noun
1. an oily organic compound insoluble in water but soluble in organic solvents; essential structural component of living cells (along with proteins and carbohydrates).
lipids
liver
[lɪvɜr]
40
noun
1. large and complicated reddish-brown glandular organ located in the upper right portion of the abdominal cavity; secretes bile and functions in metabolism of protein and carbohydrate and fat; synthesizes substances involved in the clotting of the blood; sy.
2. liver of an animal used as meat.
3. a person who has a special life style. E.g.: a high liver
4. someone who lives in a place. E.g.: a liver in cities
livers
locate
[loʊkeɪt]
225
verb
1. discover the location of; determine the place of; find by searching or examining. E.g.: Can you locate your cousins in the Midwest?
2. determine or indicate the place, site, or limits of, as if by an instrument or by a survey. E.g.: Our sense of sight enables us to locate objects in space
3. assign a location to. E.g.: The company located some of their agents in Los Angeles
4. take up residence and become established.
located, locater, locaters, locates, locating, location, locations, locator, locators, relocate, relocated, relocates, relocating, relocation, relocations
logistic
[lədʒɪstɪk]
560
adj
1. of or relating to logistics. E.g.: logistic requirements
logistical, logistically, logistics
longitude
[lɑndʒətud]
483
noun
1. an imaginary great circle on the surface of the earth passing through the north and south poles at right angles to the equator. E.g.: all points on the same meridian have the same longitude
longitudes
loop
[lup]
433
noun
1. fastener consisting of a metal ring for lining a small hole to permit the attachment of cords or lines.
2. anything with a round or oval shape (formed by a curve that is closed and does not intersect itself).
3. (computer science) a single execution of a set of instructions that are to be repeated.
4. an inner circle of advisors (especially under President Reagan). E.g.: he's no longer in the loop
5. the basic pattern of the human fingerprint.
6. a computer program that performs a series of instructions repeatedly until some specified condition is satisfied.
7. the topology of a network whose components are connected in a loop.
8. an intrauterine device in the shape of a loop.
9. a complete electrical circuit around which current flows or a signal circulates.
10. a flight maneuver; aircraft flies a complete circle in the vertical plane.
verb
1. move in loops. E.g.: The bicycle looped around the tree
2. make a loop in. E.g.: loop a rope
3. fly loops, perform a loop. E.g.: the stunt pilot looped his plane
4. wind around something in coils or loops.
5. fasten or join with a loop. E.g.: He looped the watch through his belt
looped, looping, loops
magnetic
[mægnetɪk]
222
adj
1. of or relating to or caused by magnetism. E.g.: magnetic forces
2. having the properties of a magnet; i.e. of attracting iron or steel. E.g.: the hard disk is covered with a thin coat of magnetic material
3. capable of being magnetized.
4. determined by earth's magnetic fields. E.g.: magnetic north, the needle of a magnetic compass points to the magnetic north pole
5. having the properties of a magnet; the ability to draw or pull. E.g.: the knife hung on a magnetic board
6. possessing an extraordinary ability to attract. E.g.: a magnetic personality
magnet, magnetically, magnetics, magnetise, magnetised, magnetises, magnetising, magnetism, magnetization, magnetize, magnetized, magnetizes, magnetizing, magnets, nonmagnetic
magnitude
[mægnətud]
346
noun
1. the property of relative size or extent. E.g.: they tried to predict the magnitude of the explosion
2. a number assigned to the ratio of two quantities; two quantities are of the same order of magnitude if one is less than 10 times as large as the other; the number of magnitudes that the quantities differ is specified to within a power of 10.
3. relative importance. E.g.: a problem of the first magnitude
magnitudes
major
[meɪdʒɜr]
105
noun
1. a commissioned military officer in the United States Army or Air Force or Marines; below lieutenant colonel and above captain.
2. British statesman who was prime minister from 1990 until 1997 (born in 1943).
3. a university student who is studying a particular field as the principal subject. E.g.: she is a linguistics major
4. the principal field of study of a student at a university. E.g.: her major is linguistics
verb
1. have as one's principal field of study. E.g.: She is majoring in linguistics
adj
1. of greater importance or stature or rank. E.g.: a major artist, a major role, major highways
2. greater in scope or effect. E.g.: a major contribution, a major improvement, a major break with tradition, a major misunderstanding
3. greater in number or size or amount. E.g.: a major portion (a majority) of the population, a major portion of the winnings
4. of the field of academic study in which one concentrates or specializes. E.g.: his major field was mathematics
5. of a scale or mode. E.g.: major scales, the key of D major
6. of greater seriousness or danger. E.g.: a major earthquake, a major hurricane, a major illness
7. of full legal age. E.g.: major children
8. of the elder of two boys with the same family name. E.g.: Jones major
majored, majoring
malignancy
[məlɪgnənsi]
580
noun
1. (medicine) a malignant state; progressive and resistant to treatment and tending to cause death.
2. quality of being disposed to evil; intense ill will.
malign, malignancies, malignant, malignantly, maligned, maligning, maligns, nonmalignant
manifest
[mænəfest]
576
noun
1. a customs document listing the contents put on a ship or plane.
verb
1. provide evidence for; stand as proof of; show by one's behavior, attitude, or external attributes. E.g.: The buildings in Rome manifest a high level of architectural sophistication
2. record in a ship's manifest. E.g.: each passenger must be manifested
3. reveal its presence or make an appearance. E.g.: the ghost manifests each year on the same day
adj
1. clearly apparent or obvious to the mind or senses. E.g.: manifest disapproval
manifestation, manifestations, manifested, manifesting, manifestly, manifests
manipulate
[mənɪpjəleɪt]
492
verb
1. influence or control shrewdly or deviously. E.g.: He manipulated public opinion in his favor
2. hold something in one's hands and move it.
3. fake or falsify.
4. manipulate in a fraudulent manner.
5. control (others or oneself) or influence skillfully, usually to one's advantage. E.g.: She manipulates her boss
6. treat manually, as with massage, for therapeutic purposed.
manipulated, manipulates, manipulating, manipulation, manipulations, manipulative, manipulator, manipulators
manual
[mænjuəl]
395
noun
1. a small handbook.
2. (military) a prescribed drill in handling a rifle.
adj
1. of or relating to the hands. E.g.: manual dexterity
2. requiring human effort. E.g.: a manual transmission
3. doing or requiring physical work. E.g.: manual labor, manual laborer
manually, manuals
margin
[mɑrdʒən]
223
noun
1. the boundary line or the area immediately inside the boundary.
2. a permissible difference; allowing some freedom to move within limits.
3. the amount of collateral a customer deposits with a broker when borrowing from the broker to buy securities.
4. (finance) the net sales minus the cost of goods and services sold.
5. the blank space that surrounds the text on a page.
6. a strip near the boundary of an object. E.g.: he jotted a note on the margin of the page
marginal, marginalisation, marginalise, marginalised, marginalising, marginality, marginalization, marginalize, marginalized, marginalizing, marginally, marginals, margined, margins
mature
[mətʃʊr]
540
verb
1. develop and reach maturity; undergo maturation. E.g.: He matured fast
2. develop and work out fully in one's mind. E.g.: I need to mature my thoughts
3. become due for repayment. E.g.: These bonds mature in 2005
4. cause to ripen or develop fully. E.g.: Age matures a good wine
5. grow old or older.
6. cause to ripen and discharge pus.
adj
1. characteristic of maturity. E.g.: mature for her age
2. fully considered and perfected. E.g.: mature plans
3. having reached full natural growth or development. E.g.: a mature cell
4. fully developed or matured and ready to be eaten or used. E.g.: full-bodies mature wines
5. (of birds) having developed feathers or plumage; often used in combination.
immature, immaturely, immatures, immaturity, maturation, maturational, matured, maturely, matures, maturing, maturities, maturity, prematurity
maximize
[mæksəmaɪz]
137
verb
1. make as big or large as possible.
2. make the most of. E.g.: He maximized his role
maximisation, maximise, maximised, maximises, maximising, maximization, maximize, maximized, maximizes, maximizing
mediate
[midieɪt]
43
verb
1. act between parties with a view to reconciling differences. E.g.: He mediated a settlement
2. occupy an intermediate or middle position or form a connecting link or stage between two others. E.g.: mediate between the old and the new
adj
1. acting through or dependent on an intervening agency. E.g.: the disease spread by mediate as well as direct contact
2. being neither at the beginning nor at the end in a series. E.g.: in a mediate position
intermediation, mediated, mediates, mediating, mediation, mediations, mediator, mediators, unmediated
medium
[midiəm]
101
noun
1. a means or instrumentality for storing or communicating information.
2. the surrounding environment. E.g.: fish require an aqueous medium
3. an intervening substance through which signals can travel as a means for communication.
4. (bacteriology) a nutrient substance (solid or liquid) that is used to cultivate micro-organisms.
5. an intervening substance through which something is achieved. E.g.: the dissolving medium is called a solvent
6. a liquid with which pigment is mixed by a painter.
7. (biology) a substance in which specimens are preserved or displayed.
8. a state that is intermediate between extremes; a middle position. E.g.: a happy medium
9. someone who serves as an intermediary between the living and the dead. E.g.: he consulted several mediums
10. transmissions that are disseminated widely to the public.
11. an occupation for which you are especially well suited.
adj
1. around the middle of a scale of evaluation of physical measures. E.g.: medium bombers
2. (of meat) cooked until there is just a little pink meat inside.
mediums
membrane
[membreɪn]
110
noun
1. a thin pliable sheet of material.
2. a pliable sheet of tissue that covers or lines or connects organs or cells of animals.
membranes, membranous
mental
[mentəl]
500
adj
1. involving the mind or an intellectual process. E.g.: mental images of happy times, mental calculations, in a terrible mental state, mental suffering, free from mental defects
2. of or relating to the mind. E.g.: mental powers, mental development, mental hygiene
3. of or relating to the chin- or lip-like structure in insects and certain mollusks.
4. of or relating to the chin or median part of the lower jaw.
5. affected by a disorder of the mind. E.g.: a mental patient, mental illness
mentality, mentally
metabolic
[metəbɑlɪk]
202
adj
1. of or relating to metabolism. E.g.: metabolic rate
2. undergoing metamorphosis.
metabolically
methanol
[meθənɑl]
554
noun
1. a light volatile flammable poisonous liquid alcohol; used as an antifreeze and solvent and fuel and as a denaturant for ethyl alcohol.
methanols
method
[meθəd]
9
noun
1. a way of doing something, especially a systematic way; implies an orderly logical arrangement (usually in steps).
methodical, methodically, methodological, methodologically, methodologies, methodology, methods
microscope
[maɪkrəskoʊp]
257
noun
1. magnifier of the image of small objects. E.g.: the invention of the microscope led to the discovery of the cell
microscopes, microscopic, microscopical, microscopically, microscopy
migrate
[maɪgreɪt]
404
verb
1. move from one country or region to another and settle there. E.g.: Many Germans migrated to South America in the mid-19th century, This tribe transmigrated many times over the centuries
2. move periodically or seasonally. E.g.: birds migrate in the Winter, The worker migrate to where the crops need harvesting
migrated, migrates, migrating, migration, migrations, migratory, nonmigratory, transmigration
minimize
[mɪnəmaɪz]
124
verb
1. make small or insignificant. E.g.: Let's minimize the risk
2. represent as less significant or important.
3. belittle.
minimisation, minimise, minimised, minimises, minimising, minimization, minimize, minimized, minimizes, minimizing
minor
[maɪnɜr]
459
noun
1. a young person of either sex.
adj
1. of lesser importance or stature or rank. E.g.: a minor poet, had a minor part in the play, a minor official, many of these hardy adventurers were minor noblemen, minor back roads
2. lesser in scope or effect. E.g.: had minor differences, a minor disturbance
3. inferior in number or size or amount. E.g.: a minor share of the profits
4. of a scale or mode. E.g.: the minor keys, in B flat minor
5. not of legal age. E.g.: minor children
6. of lesser seriousness or danger. E.g.: suffered only minor injuries, some minor flooding, a minor tropical disturbance
7. of your secondary field of academic concentration or specialization (US university).
8. of the younger of two boys with the same family name. E.g.: Jones minor
9. warranting only temporal punishment.
10. limited in size or scope.
minorities, minority, minors
mode
[moʊd]
470
noun
1. how something is done or how it happens. E.g.: their nomadic mode of existence
2. a particular functioning condition or arrangement. E.g.: switched from keyboard to voice mode
3. a classification of propositions on the basis of whether they claim necessity or possibility or impossibility.
4. verb inflections that express how the action or state is conceived by the speaker.
5. any of various fixed orders of the various diatonic notes within an octave.
6. the most frequent value of a random variable.
modes, modish
modify
[mɑdəfaɪ]
394
verb
1. make less severe or harsh or extreme. E.g.: please modify this letter to make it more polite
2. add a modifier to a constituent.
3. cause to change; make different; cause a transformation.
modification, modifications, modified, modifier, modifiers, modifies, modifying, unmodified
modulate
[mɔdʒjuleɪt]
359
verb
1. change the key of, in music. E.g.: modulate the melody
2. of one's speech, varying the pitch.
3. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of. E.g.: modulate the pitch
4. adjust the pitch, tone, or volume of.
5. vary the frequency, amplitude, phase, or other characteristic of (electromagnetic waves).
modulated, modulates, modulating, modulation, modulations
molecular
[məlekjəlɜr]
83
adj
1. relating to or produced by or consisting of molecules. E.g.: molecular structure, molecular oxygen, molecular weight is the sum of all the atoms in a molecul
2. relating to simple or elementary organization. E.g.: proceed by more and more detailed analysis to the molecular facts of perception--G.A. Miller
molecule, molecules
monitor
[mɑnətɜr]
128
noun
1. display consisting of a device that takes signals from a computer and displays them on a CRT screen.
2. someone who supervises (an examination).
3. someone who gives a warning so that a mistake can be avoided.
4. an iron-clad vessel built by Federal forces to do battle with the Merrimac.
5. electronic equipment that is used to check the quality or content of electronic transmissions.
6. a piece of electronic equipment that keeps track of the operation of a system continuously and warns of trouble.
7. any of various large tropical carnivorous lizards of Africa and Asia and Australia; fabled to warn of crocodiles.
verb
1. keep tabs on; keep an eye on; keep under surveillance.
monitored, monitoring, monitors, unmonitored
morbidity
[mɔrbɪdəti]
570
noun
1. the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year.
2. the relative incidence of a particular disease.
3. the quality of being unhealthful and generally bad for you.
mortality
[mɔrtæləti]
161
noun
1. the quality or state of being mortal.
2. the ratio of deaths in an area to the population of that area; expressed per 1000 per year.
mortalities, mortally
mount
[maʊnt]
341
noun
1. a lightweight horse kept for riding only.
2. the act of climbing something.
3. a land mass that projects well above its surroundings; higher than a hill.
4. mounting consisting of a piece of metal (as in a ring or other jewelry) that holds a gem in place. E.g.: the diamond was in a plain gold mount
5. something forming a back that is added for strengthening.
verb
1. attach to a support. E.g.: They mounted the aerator on a floating
2. go up or advance.
3. fix onto a backing, setting, or support. E.g.: mount slides for macroscopic analysis
4. put up or launch. E.g.: mount a campaign against pronography
5. get on the back of. E.g.: mount a horse
6. go upward with gradual or continuous progress.
7. prepare and supply with the necessary equipment for execution or performance. E.g.: mount a theater production, mount an attack, mount a play
8. copulate with.
mounted, mounting, mountings, mounts, mt
multiple
[mʌltəpəl]
98
noun
1. the product of a quantity by an integer. E.g.: 36 is a multiple of 9
adj
1. having or involving or consisting of more than one part or entity or individual. E.g.: multiple birth, multiple ownership, made multiple copies of the speech, his multiple achievements in public life, her multiple personalities
multiples
muscular
[mʌskjəlɜr]
3
adj
1. of or relating to or consisting of muscle. E.g.: muscular contraction
2. having a robust muscular body-build characterized by predominance of structures (bone and muscle and connective tissue) developed from the embryonic mesodermal layer.
3. having or suggesting great physical power or force. E.g.: the muscular and passionate Fifth Symphony
4. (of a person) possessing physical strength and weight; rugged and powerful. E.g.: a muscular boxer
muscularly
mutation
[mjuteɪʃən]
145
noun
1. (biology) an organism that has characteristics resulting from chromosomal alteration.
2. (genetics) any event that changes genetic structure; any alteration in the inherited nucleic acid sequence of the genotype of an organism.
3. a change or alteration in form or qualities.
mutate, mutated, mutates, mutating, mutational, mutations
negative
[negətɪv]
188
noun
1. a reply of denial. E.g.: he answered in the negative
2. a piece of photographic film showing an image with black and white tones reversed.
verb
1. vote against; refuse to endorse; refuse to assent.
adj
1. characterized by or displaying negation or denial or opposition or resistance; having no positive features. E.g.: a negative outlook on life, a colorless negative personality, a negative evaluation, a negative reaction to an advertising campaign
2. reckoned in a direction opposite to that regarded as positive.
3. having a negative electric charge. E.g.: electrons are negative
4. expressing or consisting of a negation or refusal or denial.
5. having the quality of something harmful or unpleasant. E.g.: ran a negative campaign, delinquents retarded by their negative outlook on life
6. not indicating the presence of microorganisms or disease or a specific condition. E.g.: the HIV test was negative
7. less than zero. E.g.: a negative number
8. designed or tending to discredit, especially without positive or helpful suggestions. E.g.: negative criticism
9. involving disadvantage or harm. E.g.: minus (or negative) factors
negatively, negatives, negativism, negativity
nervous
[nɜrvəs]
508
adj
1. easily agitated. E.g.: quick nervous movements
2. causing or fraught with or showing anxiety. E.g.: those nervous moments before takeoff
3. of or relating to the nervous system. E.g.: nervous disease
4. excited in anticipation.
5. unpredictably excitable (especially of horses).
nervously, nervousness
neutral
[nutrəl]
604
noun
1. one who does not side with any party in a war or dispute.
adj
1. neither moral nor immoral; neither good nor evil, right nor wrong.
2. having no personal preference. E.g.: a neutral observer
3. having only a limited ability to react chemically; not active.
4. not supporting or favoring either side in a war, dispute, or contest.
5. having no net electric charge; not electrified.
6. lacking hue. E.g.: neutral colors like back or white
7. of no distinctive quality or characteristics or type.
8. lacking distinguishing quality or characteristics. E.g.: a neutral personality that made no impression whatever
neutralisation, neutralise, neutralised, neutralises, neutralising, neutrality, neutralization, neutralize, neutralized, neutralizes, neutralizing, neutrally, neutrals
nevertheless
[nevɜrðəles]
485
adv
1. despite anything to the contrary (usually following a concession). E.g.: while we disliked each other, nevertheless we agreed
nitrogen
[naɪtrədʒən]
512
noun
1. a common nonmetallic element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless inert diatomic gas; constitutes 78 percent of the atmosphere by volume; a constituent of all living tissues.
nitrogenous, nitrogens
node
[noʊd]
392
noun
1. a connecting point at which several lines come together.
2. any thickened enlargement.
3. (physics) the point of minimum displacement in a periodic system.
4. (astronomy) a point where an orbit crosses a plane.
5. the source of lymph and lymphocytes.
6. any bulge or swelling of an anatomical structure or part.
7. (computer science) any computer that is hooked up to a computer network.
nodes
normal
[nɔrməl]
16
noun
1. something regarded as a normative example.
adj
1. conforming with or constituting a norm or standard or level or type or social norm; not abnormal. E.g.: serve wine at normal room temperature, normal diplomatic relations, normal working hours, normal word order, normal curiosity, the normal course o
2. in accordance with scientific laws.
3. being approximately average or within certain limits in e.g. intelligence and development. E.g.: a perfectly normal child, of normal intelligence, the most normal person I've ever met
4. forming a right angle.
normalisation, normalise, normalised, normalises, normalising, normality, normalization, normalize, normalized, normalizes, normalizing, normally
notion
[noʊʃən]
578
noun
1. a vague idea in which some confidence is placed.
2. a general inclusive concept.
3. an odd or fanciful or capricious idea. E.g.: the theatrical notion of disguise is associated with disaster in his stories
4. (usually plural) small personal articles or clothing or sewing items. E.g.: buttons and needles are notions
notions
novel
[nɑvəl]
275
noun
1. a extended fictional work in prose; usually in the form of a story.
2. a printed and bound book that is an extended work of fiction. E.g.: his bookcases were filled with nothing but novels, he burned all the novels
adj
1. of a kind not seen before. E.g.: the computer produced a completely novel proof of a well-known theorem
2. pleasantly novel or different.
nuclear
[nukliɜr]
113
adj
1. (weapons) deriving destructive energy from the release of atomic energy. E.g.: nuclear war, nuclear weapons
2. of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of an atom. E.g.: nuclear physics, nuclear fission, nuclear forces
3. of or relating to or constituting the nucleus of a cell. E.g.: nuclear membrane, nuclear division
4. constituting or like a nucleus. E.g.: annexation of the suburban fringe by the nuclear metropolis, the nuclear core of the congregation
numerical
[numerəkəl]
538
adj
1. measured or expressed in numbers. E.g.: numerical value, the numerical superiority of the enemy
2. of or relating to or denoting numbers. E.g.: numerical analysis
3. designated by or expressed in numbers. E.g.: numerical symbols, numerical equations
4. relating to or having ability to think in or work with numbers. E.g.: tests for rating numerical aptitude
numeric, numerically
objective
[əbdʒektɪv]
233
noun
1. the goal intended to be attained (and which is believed to be attainable).
2. the lens or system of lenses nearest the object being viewed.
adj
1. undistorted by emotion or personal bias; based on observable phenomena. E.g.: an objective appraisal, objective evidence
2. serving as or indicating the object of a verb or of certain prepositions and used for certain other purposes. E.g.: objective case
3. emphasizing or expressing things as perceived without distortion of personal feelings or interpretation. E.g.: objective art
4. belonging to immediate experience of actual things or events. E.g.: there is no objective evidence of anything of the kind
objectively, objectives, objectivity
obtain
[əbteɪn]
24
verb
1. come into possession of. E.g.: How did you obtain the visa?
2. receive a specified treatment (abstract).
3. be valid, applicable, or true.
obtainable, obtained, obtaining, obtains, unobtainable
obvious
[ɑbviəs]
582
adj
1. easily perceived or understood. E.g.: obvious errors
2. easily perceived by the senses or grasped by the mind. E.g.: an obvious (or palpable) lie
3. obvious to the eye or mind.
4. obvious to the eye.
obviously, obviousness
occur
[əkɜr]
31
verb
1. come to pass. E.g.: Nothing occurred that seemed important
2. come to one's mind; suggest itself. E.g.: It occurred to me that we should hire another secretary
3. to be found to exist. E.g.: sexism occurs in many workplaces, precious stones occur in a large area in Brazil
occurred, occurrence, occurrences, occurring, occurs, reoccur, reoccurred, reoccurring, reoccurs
odd
[ɑd]
597
adj
1. not divisible by two.
2. not easily explained. E.g.: it is odd that his name is never mentioned
3. an indefinite quantity more than that specified. E.g.: invited 30-odd guests
4. beyond or deviating from the usual or expected. E.g.: had an odd name
5. of the remaining member of a pair, of socks e.g..
6. not used up. E.g.: some odd dollars left
odder, oddest, oddities, oddity, oddly, oddness, odds
onset
[ɑnset]
125
noun
1. the beginning or early stages. E.g.: the onset of pneumonia
2. (military) an offensive against an enemy (using weapons).
onsets
optimal
[ɑptɪməl]
311
adj
1. most desirable possible under a restriction expressed or implied. E.g.: optimal concentration of a drug
optimally
option
[ɑpʃən]
380
noun
1. the right to buy or sell property at an agreed price; the right is purchased and if it is not exercised by a stated date the money is forfeited.
2. one of a number of things from which only one can be chosen. E.g.: what option did I have?
3. the act of choosing or selecting.
optional, optionally, options
oral
[ɔrəl]
265
noun
1. an examination conducted by word of mouth.
adj
1. using speech rather than writing. E.g.: an oral tradition, an oral agreement
2. of or relating to or affecting or for use in the mouth. E.g.: oral hygiene, an oral thermometer, an oral vaccine
3. of or involving the mouth or mouth region or the surface on which the mouth is located. E.g.: the oral cavity, the oral mucous membrane, the oral surface of a starfish
4. a stage in psychosexual development when the child's interest is concentrated in the mouth; fixation at this stage is said to result in dependence, selfishness, and aggression.
orally
organism
[ɔrgənɪzəm]
411
noun
1. a living thing that has (or can develop) the ability to act or function independently.
2. a system considered analogous in structure or function to a living body. E.g.: the social organism
organisms
orient
[ɔrient]
366
noun
1. the countries of Asia.
2. the hemisphere that includes Eurasia and Africa and Australia.
verb
1. be oriented.
2. determine one's position with reference to another point.
3. cause to point.
adj
1. (poetic) eastern. E.g.: the orient sun
oriental, orientalism, orientalist, orientalists, orientals
outcome
[aʊtkʌm]
37
noun
1. something that results.
2. a phenomenon that follows and is caused by some previous phenomenon.
outcomes
output
[aʊtpʊt]
360
noun
1. final product; the things produced.
2. production of a certain amount.
3. signal that comes out of an electronic system.
4. the quantity of something (as a commodity) that is created (usually within a given period of time).
5. what is produced in a given time period.
verb
1. to create or manufacture a specific amount. E.g.: the computer is outputting the data from the job I'm running
outputs
overall
[oʊvɜrɔl]
64
noun
1. work clothing consisting of denim trousers (usually with a bib and shoulder straps).
2. a loose protective coverall or smock worn over ordinary clothing for dirty work.
adj
1. involving only main features. E.g.: the overall pattern of his life
2. including everything. E.g.: the overall cost
overlap
[oʊvɜrlæp]
390
noun
1. a representation of common ground between theories or phenomena. E.g.: there was no overlap between their proposals
2. the property of partial coincidence in time.
3. a flap that lies over another part.
verb
1. coincide partially or wholly. E.g.: Our vacations overlap
2. extend over and cover a part of. E.g.: The roofs of the houses overlap in this crowded city
overlapped, overlapping, overlaps
overnight
[oʊvɜrnaɪt]
375
adj
1. lasting through or extending over the whole night. E.g.: an overnight trip
adv
1. happening in a short time or with great speed. E.g.: these solutions cannot be found overnight!
oxide
[ɑksaɪd]
476
noun
1. any compound of oxygen with another element or a radical.
oxides
oxygen
[ɑksədʒən]
567
noun
1. a nonmetallic bivalent element that is normally a colorless odorless tasteless nonflammable diatomic gas; constitutes 21 percent of the atmosphere by volume; the most abundant element in the earth's crust.
oxygens
panel
[pænəl]
460
noun
1. sheet that forms a distinct (usually flat) section or component of something.
2. a committee appointed to judge a competition.
3. (law) a group of people summoned for jury service (from whom a jury will be chosen).
4. a group of people gathered for a special purpose as to plan or discuss an issue or judge a contest etc.
5. a pad placed under a saddle.
6. (computer science) a small temporary window in a graphical user interface that appears in order to request information from the user; after the information has been provided the user dismisses the box with `okay' or `cancel'.
7. electrical device consisting of an insulated panel containing switches and dials and meters for controlling other electrical devices. E.g.: he checked the instrument panel
verb
1. decorate with panels. E.g.: panel the walls with wood
2. select from a list. E.g.: empanel prospective jurors
paneled, paneling, panelled, panelling, panels
paradigm
[perədaɪm]
505
noun
1. systematic arrangement of all the inflected forms of a word.
2. a standard or typical example.
3. the class of all items that can be substituted into the same position (or slot) in a grammatical sentence (are in paradigmatic relation with one another).
4. the generally accepted perspective of a particular discipline at a given time. E.g.: he framed the problem within the psychoanalytic paradigm
paradigmatic, paradigms
parallel
[perəlel]
403
noun
1. something having the property of being analogous to something else.
2. an imaginary line around the Earth parallel to the equator.
verb
1. be parallel to. E.g.: Their roles are paralleled by ours
2. make or place parallel to something. E.g.: They paralleled the ditch to the highway
3. duplicate or match.
adj
1. being everywhere equidistant and not intersecting. E.g.: parallel lines never converge, concentric circles are parallel, dancers in two parallel rows
2. of or relating to the simultaneous performance of multiple operations. E.g.: parallel processing
paralleled, paralleling, parallelism, parallelled, parallelling, parallels, unparalleled
parameter
[pɜræmətɜr]
143
noun
1. a constant in the equation of a curve that can be varied to yield a family of similar curves.
2. any factor that defines a system and determines (or limits) its performance.
3. a quantity (such as the mean or variance) that characterizes a statistical population and that can be estimated by calculations from sample data.
parameters
participate
[pɑrtɪsəpeɪt]
68
verb
1. share in something.
2. become a participant; be involved in.
participated, participates, participating, participation, participations, participatory
pathology
[pəθɑlədʒi]
502
noun
1. the branch of medical science that studies the causes and nature and effects of diseases.
2. any deviation from a healthy or normal condition.
pathologies, pathologist, pathologists
pathway
[pæθweɪ]
65
noun
1. a bundle of mylenated nerve fibers following a path through the brain.
2. a trodden path.
pathways
peak
[pik]
139
noun
1. the most extreme possible amount or value. E.g.: voltage peak
2. the period of greatest prosperity or productivity.
3. the highest level or degree attainable. E.g.: the peak of perfection, summer was at its peak
4. the top point of a mountain or hill. E.g.: the view from the peak was magnificent
5. a V shape.
6. the highest point (of something). E.g.: at the peak of the pyramid
7. a brim that projects to the front to shade the eyes.
verb
1. to reach the highest point; attain maximum intensity, activity. E.g.: That wild, speculative spirit peaked in 1929
adj
1. of a period of maximal use or demand or activity. E.g.: at peak hours the streets traffic is unbelievable
2. approaching or constituting a maximum. E.g.: working at peak efficiency
peaked, peaking, peaks
per
[pɜr]
55
adv
1. for each (used with units to express a rate).
perceive
[pɜrsiv]
435
verb
1. to become aware of through the senses. E.g.: I could perceive the ship coming over the horizon
2. become conscious of. E.g.: She finally perceived the futility of her protest
perceived, perceives, perceiving
percent
[pɜrsent]
208
noun
1. a proportion multiplied by 100.
percentage, percentages
perception
[pɜrsepʃən]
334
noun
1. the representation of what is perceived; basic component in the formation of a concept.
2. a way of conceiving something. E.g.: Luther had a new perception of the Bible
3. the process of perceiving.
4. knowledge gained by perceiving. E.g.: a man admired for the depth of his perception
5. becoming aware of something via the senses.
perceptions
period
[pɪriəd]
36
noun
1. an amount of time. E.g.: a time period of 30 years, hastened the period of time of his recovery, Picasso's blue period
2. one of three periods of play in hockey games.
3. a stage in the history of a culture having a definable place in space and time. E.g.: a novel from the Victorian period
4. the interval taken to complete one cycle of a regularly repeating phenomenon.
5. the monthly discharge of blood from the uterus of nonpregnant women from puberty to menopause.
6. a punctuation mark (.) placed at the end of a declarative sentence to indicate a full stop or after abbreviations. E.g.: in England they call a period a stop
7. a unit of geological time during which a system of rocks formed. E.g.: ganoid fishes swarmed during the earlier geological periods
8. the end or completion of something. E.g.: death put a period to his endeavors, a change soon put a period to my tranquility
periodic, periodical, periodically, periodicals, periodicity, periods
peripheral
[pɜrɪfɜrəl]
176
noun
1. (computer science) electronic equipment connected by cable to the CPU of a computer. E.g.: disk drives and printers are important peripherals
adj
1. on or near an edge or constituting an outer boundary; the outer area. E.g.: Russia's peripheral provinces, peripheral suburbs
2. related to the key issue but not of central importance. E.g.: a peripheral interest, energy is far from a peripheral issue in the economy, peripheral issues
peripherally, peripherals, peripheries, periphery
persist
[pɜrsɪst]
496
verb
1. continue to exist.
2. be persistent, refuse to stop. E.g.: he persisted to call me every night, The child persisted and kept asking questions
3. stay behind.
persisted, persistence, persistency, persistent, persistently, persisting, persists
perspective
[pɜrspektɪv]
464
noun
1. a way of regarding situations or topics etc..
2. the appearance of things relative to one another as determined by their distance from the viewer.
perspectives
pharmacology
[fɑrməkɑlədʒi]
494
noun
1. the science or study of drugs: their preparation and properties and uses and effects.
pharmacological, pharmacologies, pharmacologist, pharmacologists
phase
[feɪz]
38
noun
1. (physical chemistry) a distinct state of matter in a system; matter that is identical in chemical composition and physical state and separated from other material by the phase boundary. E.g.: the reaction occurs in the liquid phase of the system
2. any distinct time period in a sequence of events.
3. a particular point in the time of a cycle; measured from some arbitrary zero and expressed as an angle.
4. (astronomy) the particular appearance of a body's state of illumination (especially one of the recurring shapes of the part of Earth's moon that is illuminated by the sun). E.g.: the full phase of the moon
verb
1. arrange in phases or stages. E.g.: phase a withdrawal
2. adjust so as to be in a synchronized condition. E.g.: he phased the intake with the output of the machine
phased, phases, phasing
phenomenon
[fənɑmənɑn]
479
noun
1. any state or process known through the senses rather than by intuition or reasoning.
2. a remarkable development.
phenomena, phenomenoms
physiology
[fɪziɑlədʒi]
475
noun
1. the branch of the biological sciences dealing with the functioning of organisms.
2. processes and functions of an organism.
physiologies, physiologist, physiologists
placebo
[pləsiboʊ]
530
noun
1. an innocuous or inert medication; given as a pacifier or to the control group in experiments on the efficacy of a drug.
2. (Roman Catholic Church) vespers of the office for the dead.
placebos
plasma
[plæzmə]
169
noun
1. colorless watery fluid of blood and lymph containing no cells and in which erythrocytes and leukocytes and platelets are suspended.
2. a green slightly translucent variety of chalcedony used as a gemstone.
3. (physical chemistry) a fourth state of matter distinct from solid or liquid or gas and present in stars and fusion reactors; a gas becomes a plasma when it is heated until the atoms lose all their electrons, leaving a highly electrified collection of nucl.
plasmas
plastic
[plæstɪk]
607
noun
1. generic name for certain synthetic or semisynthetic materials that can be molded or extruded into objects or films or filaments or used for making e.g. coatings and adhesives.
adj
1. used of the imagination. E.g.: material...transformed by the plastic power of the imagination--Coleridge
2. capable of being molded or modeled (especially of earth or clay or other soft material). E.g.: plastic substances such as wax or clay
3. capable of being influenced or formed. E.g.: the plastic minds of children
plasticity, plastics
plot
[plɑt]
415
noun
1. a secret scheme to do something (especially something underhand or illegal). E.g.: they concocted a plot to discredit the governor
2. a small area of ground covered by specific vegetation. E.g.: a bean plot
3. the story that is told in a novel or play or movie etc.. E.g.: the characters were well drawn but the plot was banal
4. a chart or map showing the movements or progress of an object.
verb
1. plan secretly, usually something illegal. E.g.: They plotted the overthrow fo the government
2. make a schematic or technical drawing of that shows how things work or how they are constructed.
3. make a plat of.
plots, plotted, plotter, plotters, plotting
plus
[plʌs]
292
noun
1. a useful or valuable quality.
2. the arithmetic operation of summing; calculating the sum of two or more numbers. E.g.: four plus three equals seven
adj
1. on the positive side or higher end of a scale. E.g.: a plus value, temperature of plus 5 degrees, a grade of C plus
2. involving advantage or good. E.g.: a plus (or positive) factor
pluses
portion
[pɔrʃən]
384
noun
1. something determined in relation to something that includes it. E.g.: I read a portion of the manuscript
2. something less than the whole of a human artifact.
3. the result of parcelling out or sharing.
4. assets belonging to or due to or contributed by an individual person or group.
5. your overall circumstances or condition in life (including everything that happens to you). E.g.: success that was her portion
6. an individual quantity of food or drink taken as part of a meal. E.g.: his portion was larger than hers
verb
1. give out or allot.
portioned, portioning, portions
positive
[pɑzətɪv]
96
noun
1. a film showing a photographic image whose tones correspond to those of the original subject.
adj
1. characterized by or displaying affirmation or acceptance or certainty etc.. E.g.: a positive attitude, the reviews were all positive, a positive benefit, a positive demand
2. having a positive electric charge. E.g.: protons are positive
3. involving advantage or good. E.g.: a plus (or positive) factor
4. indicating existence or presence of a suspected condition or pathogen. E.g.: a positive pregnancy test
5. formally laid down or imposed. E.g.: positive laws
6. impossible to deny or disprove. E.g.: proof positive
7. of or relating to positivism. E.g.: positive philosophy
8. greater than zero. E.g.: positive numbers
9. marked by excessive confidence. E.g.: the less he knows the more positive he gets
10. persuaded of; very sure. E.g.: I am positive he is lying
11. granting what has been desired or requested. E.g.: a positive answer
positively, positives, positivism, positivist, positivistic, positivists, positivity
postulate
[pɑstʃəleɪt]
593
noun
1. (logic) a proposition that is accepted as true in order to provide a basis for logical reasoning.
verb
1. maintain or assert.
2. take as a given; assume as a postulate or axiom.
3. require as useful, just, or proper.
postulated, postulates, postulating
potential
[pətenʃəl]
46
noun
1. the inherent capacity for coming into being.
2. the difference in electrical charge between two points in a circuit expressed in volts.
adj
1. existing in possibility. E.g.: a potential problem
2. expected to become or be; in prospect. E.g.: potential clients
potentialities, potentiality, potentially, potentials
practitioner
[præktɪʃənɜr]
367
noun
1. someone who practices a learned profession.
practitioners
precede
[prɪsid]
498
verb
1. be earlier in time; go back further. E.g.: Stone tools precede bronze tools
2. come before. E.g.: Most English adjectives precede the noun they modify
3. be the predecessor of. E.g.: Bill preceded John in the long line of Susan's husbands
4. move ahead (of others) in time or space.
5. furnish with a preface or introduction. E.g.: She always precedes her lectures with a joke
preceded, precedence, precedent, precedents, precedes, preceding, unprecedented, unprecedentedly
precise
[prɪsaɪs]
611
adj
1. sharply exact or accurate or delimited. E.g.: a precise mind, specified a precise amount, arrived at the precise moment
2. (of ideas, images, representations, expressions) characterized by perfect conformity to fact or truth ; strictly correct. E.g.: a precise image, a precise measurement
imprecise, imprecision, precisely, preciseness, precision
precursor
[prikɜrsɜr]
434
noun
1. a substance from which another substance is formed (especially by a metabolic reaction).
2. a person who goes before or announces the coming of another.
3. an indication of the approach of something or someone.
precursors, precursory
predict
[prɪdɪkt]
197
verb
1. make a prediction about; tell in advance.
2. indicate by signs.
predictability, predictable, predictably, predicted, predicting, prediction, predictions, predictive, predictor, predictors, predicts, unpredictability, unpredictable, unpredictably
predominant
[prɪdɑmənənt]
412
adj
1. most frequent or common.
2. having superior power and influence. E.g.: the predominant mood among policy-makers is optimism
predominance, predominances, predominantly
preliminary
[prɪlɪməneri]
436
noun
1. a minor match preceding the main event.
2. something that serves as a preceding event or introduces what follows. E.g.: training is a necessary preliminary to employment
adj
1. designed to orient or acquaint with a situation before proceeding. E.g.: a preliminary investigation
preliminaries
prescribe
[prəskraɪb]
363
verb
1. issue commands or orders for.
prescribed, prescribes, prescribing
prevalence
[prevələns]
307
noun
1. the quality of prevailing generally; being widespread. E.g.: he was surprised by the prevalence of optimism about the future
2. (epidemiology) the ratio (for a given time period) of the number of occurrences of a disease or event to the number of units at risk in the population.
3. a superiority in numbers or amount.
prevalences, prevalent
previous
[priviəs]
14
adj
1. (used especially of persons) of the immediate past. E.g.: the previous occupant of the White House
2. too soon or too hasty. E.g.: our condemnation of him was a bit previous
3. just preceding something else in time or order. E.g.: the previous owner
previously
primary
[praɪmeri]
57
noun
1. a preliminary election where delegates or nominees are chosen.
2. one of the main flight feathers projecting along the outer edge of a bird's wing.
3. coil forming the part of an electrical circuit such that changing current in it induces a current in a neighboring circuit. E.g.: current through the primary coil induces current in the secondary coil
adj
1. of first rank or importance or value; direct and immediate rather than secondhand. E.g.: primary goals, a primary effect, primary sources, a primary interest
2. not derived from or reducible to something else; basic. E.g.: a primary instinct
3. most important element. E.g.: policemen were primary targets
4. of or being the essential or basic part.
5. of primary importance.
primaries, primarily
principal
[prɪnsəpəl]
516
noun
1. the original amount of a debt on which interest is calculated.
2. the educator who has executive authority for a school. E.g.: she sent unruly pupils to see the principal
3. an actor who plays a principal role.
4. capital as contrasted with the income derived from it.
5. the major party to a financial transaction at a stock exchange; buys and sells for his own account.
adj
1. most important element. E.g.: the principal rivers of America, the principal example
principally, principals
principle
[prɪnsəpəl]
536
noun
1. a basic generalization that is accepted as true and that can be used as a basis for reasoning or conduct. E.g.: their principles of composition characterized all their works
2. a rule or standard especially of good behavior. E.g.: a man of principle, he will not violate his principles
3. a basic truth or law or assumption. E.g.: the principles of democracy
4. a rule or law concerning a natural phenomenon or the function of a complex system. E.g.: the principle of the conservation of mass, the principle of jet propulsion
5. rule of personal conduct.
6. (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature). E.g.: the principles of internal-combustion engines
principled, principles, unprincipled
prior
[praɪɜr]
75
noun
1. the head of a religious order; in an abbey the prior is next below the abbot.
adj
1. earlier in time.
priors
probe
[proʊb]
268
noun
1. an inquiry into unfamiliar or questionable activities. E.g.: there was a congressional probe into the scandal
2. a flexible slender surgical instrument used to explore wounds or body cavities.
3. an exploratory action or expedition.
4. an investigation conducted using a probe instrument.
verb
1. question or examine thoroughly and closely.
2. examine physically with or as if with a probe. E.g.: probe an anthill
probed, probes, probing
procedure
[prəsidʒɜr]
63
noun
1. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. E.g.: the procedure of obtaining a driver's license
2. a process or series of acts especially of a practical or mechanical nature involved in a particular form of work.
3. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
4. a mode of conducting legal and parliamentary proceedings.
procedural, procedures
process
[prɑses]
17
noun
1. a particular course of action intended to achieve a result. E.g.: it was a process of trial and error
2. a sustained phenomenon or one marked by gradual changes through a series of states. E.g.: events now in process, the process of calcification begins later for boys than for girls
3. (psychology) the performance of some composite cognitive activity; an operation that affects mental contents. E.g.: the process of thinking
4. a writ issued by authority of law; usually compels the defendant's attendance in a civil suit; failure to appear results in a default judgment against the defendant.
5. a mental process that you are not directly aware of. E.g.: the process of denial
6. a natural prolongation or projection from a part of an organism either animal or plant. E.g.: a bony process
verb
1. deal with in a routine way. E.g.: process a loan, process the applicants
2. subject to a process or treatment, with the aim of readying for some purpose, improving, or remedying a condition. E.g.: process cheese, process hair
3. perform mathematical and logical operations on (data) according to programmed instructions in order to obtain the required information. E.g.: The results of the elections were still being processed when he gave his acceptance speech
4. institute legal proceedings against; file a suit against. E.g.: He was warned that the district attorney would process him
5. shape, form, or improve a material. E.g.: process iron
6. deliver a warrant or summons to someone. E.g.: He was processed by the sheriff
7. march in a procession. E.g.: They processed into the dining room
processed, processes, processing, processor, processors, reprocess, reprocessed, reprocesses, reprocessing, unprocessed
professional
[prəfeʃənəl]
608
noun
1. a person engaged in one of the learned professions.
2. an athlete who plays for pay.
3. an authority qualified to teach apprentices.
adj
1. engaged in a profession or engaging in as a profession or means of livelihood. E.g.: the professional man or woman possesses distinctive qualifications, began her professional career after the Olympics, professional theater, professional football
2. of or relating to or suitable as a profession. E.g.: professional organizations, a professional field such as law
3. characteristic of or befitting a profession or one engaged in a profession. E.g.: professional conduct, professional ethics, a thoroughly professional performance
4. of or relating to a profession. E.g.: we need professional advice, professional training, professional equipment for his new office
5. engaged in by members of a profession. E.g.: professional occupations include medicine and the law and teaching
pro, profession, professionalism, professionally, professionals, professions, pros, semipro, semipros, unprofessional
profile
[proʊfaɪl]
228
noun
1. an analysis (often in graphical form) representing the extent to which something exhibits various characteristics. E.g.: a biochemical profile of blood, a psychological profile of serial killers
2. a side view representation of an object (especially a human face).
3. biographical sketch.
4. degree of exposure to public notice. E.g.: he prefers a low profile
5. a vertical section of the Earth's crust showing the different horizons or layers.
verb
1. write about. E.g.: The author of this article profiles a famous painter
2. represent in profile, by drawing or painting.
profiled, profiles, profiling
profound
[proʊfaʊnd]
617
adj
1. showing intellectual penetration or emotional depths; from the depths of your being. E.g.: the differences are profound, a profound insight, a profound book, a profound mind, profound contempt, profound regret
2. of the greatest intensity; complete. E.g.: a profound silence, a state of profound shock
3. far-reaching and thoroughgoing in effect especially on the nature of something.
4. coming from deep within one. E.g.: a profound sigh
5. (of sleep) deep and complete. E.g.: fell into a profound sleep
6. situated at or extending to great depth; too deep to have been sounded or plumbed. E.g.: the profound depths of the sea
profounder, profoundest, profoundly, profoundness
project
[prɑdʒekt]
561
noun
1. any piece of work that is undertaken or attempted.
2. a planned undertaking.
verb
1. communicate vividly. E.g.: He projected his feelings
2. extend out or project in space.
3. transfer (ideas or principles) from one domain into another.
4. project on a screen. E.g.: The images are projected onto the screen
5. cause to be heard. E.g.: His voice projects well
6. draw a projection of.
7. make or work out a plan for; devise.
8. present for consideration.
9. imagine; conceive of; see in one's mind.
10. put or send forth.
11. throw, send, or cast forward. E.g.: project a missile
12. regard as objective.
projected, projecting, projection, projectionist, projectionists, projections, projects
proliferation
[proʊlɪfɜreɪʃən]
194
noun
1. growth by the rapid multiplication of parts.
2. a rapid increase in number (especially a rapid increase in the number of deadly weapons). E.g.: the proliferation of nuclear weapons
proliferate, proliferated, proliferates, proliferating, proliferations
prolong
[prəlɔŋ]
332
verb
1. lengthen in time; cause to be or last longer. E.g.: We prolonged our stay
2. lengthen or extend in duration or space. E.g.: prolong the treatment of the patient
prolongation, prolonged, prolonging, prolongs
prominent
[prɑmənənt]
503
adj
1. having a quality that thrusts itself into attention. E.g.: a new theory is the most prominent feature of the book
2. conspicuous in position or importance. E.g.: a prominent citizen
prominently
promote
[prəmoʊt]
247
verb
1. contribute to the progress or growth of.
2. give a promotion to or assign to a higher position. E.g.: I got promoted after many years of hard work
3. make publicity for; try to sell (a product).
4. be changed for a superior chess or checker piece.
5. change a pawn for a king by advancing it to the eighth row, or change a checker piece for a more valuable piece by moving it the row closest to your opponent.
promo, promos, promoted, promoter, promoters, promotes, promoting, promotion, promotional, promotions
proportion
[prəpɔrʃən]
240
noun
1. the quotient obtained when the magnitude of a part is divided by the magnitude of the whole.
2. magnitude or extent. E.g.: a building of vast proportions
3. balance among the parts of something.
4. harmonious arrangement or relation of parts or elements within a whole (as in a design).
verb
1. give pleasant proportions to.
2. adjust in size relative to other things.
proportional, proportionality, proportionally, proportionate, proportionately, proportioned, proportions
prospect
[prɑspekt]
423
noun
1. the possibility of future success. E.g.: his prospects as a writer are excellent
2. belief about (or mental picture of) the future.
3. someone who is considered for something (for an office or prize or honor etc.).
4. the visual percept of a region.
5. a prediction of the course of a disease.
verb
1. search for something desirable. E.g.: prospect a job
2. explore for useful or valuable things or substances, such as minerals.
prospective, prospectively, prospects
protein
[proʊtin]
10
noun
1. any of a large group of nitrogenous organic compounds that are essential constituents of living cells; consist of polymers of amino acids; essential in the diet of animals for growth and for repair of tissues; can be obtained from meat and eggs and milk a.
proteins
protocol
[proʊtəkɑl]
152
noun
1. (computer science) rules determining the format and transmission of data.
2. forms of ceremony and etiquette observed by diplomats and heads of state.
3. code of correct conduct. E.g.: safety protocols, academic protocol
protocols
proximal
[prɑksəməl]
314
adj
1. situated nearest to point of attachment or origin. E.g.: the proximal end of a bone
proximally
publish
[pʌblɪʃ]
209
verb
1. put into print. E.g.: The newspaper published the news of the royal couple's divorce
2. prepare and issue for public distribution or sale. E.g.: publish a magazine or newspaper
3. have (one's written work) issued for publication. E.g.: She published 25 books during her long career
publishable, published, publisher, publishers, publishes, publishing, republish, republished, republishes, republishing, unpublished
purchase
[pɜrtʃəs]
414
noun
1. the acquisition of something for payment. E.g.: they closed the purchase with a handshake
2. something acquired by purchase.
3. a means of exerting influence or gaining advantage. E.g.: he could get no purchase on the situation
4. the mechanical advantage gained by being in a position to use a lever.
verb
1. obtain by purchase; acquire by means of a financial transaction. E.g.: The family purchased a new car
purchasable, purchased, purchaser, purchasers, purchases, purchasing, repurchase, repurchased, repurchasers, repurchases, repurchasing
qualitative
[kwɑləteɪtɪv]
356
adj
1. involving distinctions based on qualities. E.g.: qualitative change, qualitative data, qualitative analysis determines the chemical constituents of a substance or mixture
2. relating to or involving comparisons based on qualities.
qualitatively
quantify
[kwɑntɪfaɪ]
333
verb
1. use as a quantifier.
2. express as a number or measure or quantity. E.g.: Can you quantify your results?
quantifiable, quantification, quantified, quantifies, quantifying
questionnaire
[kwestʃəner]
242
noun
1. a form containing a set of questions; submitted to people to gain statistical information.
questionnaires
radical
[rædɪkəl]
302
noun
1. (chemistry) two or more atoms bound together as a single unit and forming part of a molecule.
2. an atom or group of atoms with at least one unpaired electron; in the body it is usually an oxygen molecule than has lost an electron and will stabilize itself by stealing an electron from a nearby molecule. E.g.: in the body free radicals are high-energy part
3. a person who has radical ideas or opinions.
4. a character conveying the lexical meaning of a logogram.
5. a sign placed in front of an expression to denote that a root is to be extracted.
6. (linguistics) the form of a word after all affixes are removed.
adj
1. (used of opinions and actions) far beyond the norm. E.g.: radical opinions on education
2. markedly new or introducing radical change. E.g.: radical political views
3. arising from or going to the root. E.g.: a radical flaw in the plan
4. of or relating to or constituting a linguistic root. E.g.: a radical verb form
5. especially of leaves; located at the base of a plant or stem; especially arising directly from the root or rootstock or a root-like stem. E.g.: radical leaves
radicalism, radicalisms, radically, radicals
random
[rændəm]
339
adj
1. lacking any definite plan or order or purpose; governed by or depending on chance. E.g.: a random choice, bombs fell at random, random movements
2. taken haphazardly. E.g.: a random choice
randomisation, randomisations, randomise, randomised, randomises, randomising, randomization, randomizations, randomize, randomized, randomizes, randomizing, randomly, randomness
range
[reɪndʒ]
34
noun
1. an area in which something acts or operates or has power or control. E.g.: the range of a supersonic jet
2. the limits within which something can be effective. E.g.: range of motion
3. a large tract of grassy open land on which livestock can graze. E.g.: they used to drive the cattle across the open range every spring, he dreamed of a home on the range
4. a series of hills or mountains. E.g.: the valley was between two ranges of hills, the plains lay just beyond the mountain range
5. a place for shooting (firing or driving) projectiles of various kinds. E.g.: the army maintains a missile range in the desert, any good golf club will have a range where you can practice
6. the limits of the values a function can take. E.g.: the range of this function is the interval from 0 to 1
7. a variety of different things or activities. E.g.: he answered a range of questions, he was impressed by the range and diversity of the collection
8. the limit of capability.
9. a kitchen appliance used for cooking food.
verb
1. change or be different within limits. E.g.: Estimates for the losses in the earthquake range as high as $2 billion, The instruments ranged from tuba to cymbals, My students range from very bright to dull
2. move about aimlessly or without any destination, often in search of food or employment.
3. have a range; be capable of projecting over a certain distance, as of a gun. E.g.: This gun ranges over two miles
4. range or extend over; occupy a certain area.
5. lay out in a line.
6. feed as in a meadow or pasture.
7. let eat. E.g.: range the animals in the prairie
8. assign a rank or rating to.
ranged, ranges, ranging
ratio
[reɪʃioʊ]
114
noun
1. the relative magnitudes of two quantities (usually expressed as a quotient).
ratios
rationale
[ræʃənæl]
550
noun
1. (law) an explanation of the fundamental reasons (especially an explanation of the working of some device in terms of laws of nature). E.g.: the rationale for capital punishment
rationales
react
[riækt]
92
verb
1. show a response or a reaction to something.
2. undergo a chemical reaction; react with another substance under certain conditions. E.g.: The hydrogen and the oxygen react
3. act against or in opposition to. E.g.: She reacts negatively to everything I say
overreact, overreacted, overreacting, overreaction, overreactions, overreacts, reactance, reactant, reactants, reacted, reacting, reaction, reactionaries, reactionary, reactions, reactive, reactivity, reactor, reactors, reacts, unreactive
reagent
[rieɪdʒənt]
405
noun
1. a chemical agent for use in chemical reactions.
reagents
rear
[rɪr]
499
noun
1. the back of a military formation or procession. E.g.: infantrymen were in the rear
2. the side of an object that is opposite its front. E.g.: his room was toward the rear of the hotel
3. the part of something that is furthest from the normal viewer. E.g.: it was hidden in the rear of the store
4. the fleshy part of the human body that you sit on.
5. the side that goes last or is not normally seen.
verb
1. stand up on the hind legs, of quadrupeds. E.g.: The horse reared in terror
2. bring up.
3. rise up.
4. cause to rise up.
5. construct, build, or erect.
adj
1. located in or toward the back or rear. E.g.: the chair's rear legs, the rear door of the plane, on the rearward side
reared, rearing, rears
recall
[rikɔl]
609
noun
1. a request by the manufacturer of a defective product to return the product (as for replacement or repair).
2. a call to return. E.g.: the recall of our ambassador
3. a bugle call that signals troops to return.
4. the process of remembering (especially the process of recovering information by mental effort). E.g.: he has total recall of the episode
5. the act of removing an official by petition.
verb
1. recall knowledge from memory; have a recollection.
2. go back to something earlier.
3. call to mind.
4. summon to return. E.g.: The ambassador was recalled to his country
5. cause one's (or someone else's) thoughts or attention to return from a reverie or digression. E.g.: She was recalled by a loud laugh
6. make unavailable; bar from sale or distribution. E.g.: The company recalled the product when it was found to be faulty
7. cause to be returned. E.g.: recall the defective auto tires
recalled, recalling, recalls
receptor
[riseptɜr]
109
noun
1. a cellular structure that is postulated to exist in order to mediate between a chemical agent that acts on nervous tissue and the physiological response.
2. an organ having nerve endings (in the skin or viscera or eye or ear or nose or mouth) that respond to stimulation.
receptors
recipient
[rəsɪpiənt]
259
noun
1. a person who gets something.
2. the semantic role of the animate entity that is passively involved in the happening denoted by the verb in the clause.
recipients
recover
[rɪkʌvɜr]
232
verb
1. get or find back; recover the use of.
2. get over an illness or shock.
3. regain a former condition after a financial loss. E.g.: We expect the stocks to recover to $2.90
4. regain or make up for.
5. of materials from waste products.
6. cover anew. E.g.: recover a chair
irrecoverable, recoverable, recovered, recoveries, recovering, recovers, recovery
recruit
[rəkrut]
204
noun
1. a recently enlisted soldier.
2. any new member or supporter (as in the armed forces).
verb
1. register formally as a participant or member. E.g.: The party recruited many new members
2. seek to employ. E.g.: The lab director recruited an able crew of assistants
3. cause to assemble or enlist in the military. E.g.: recruit new soldiers
recruited, recruiter, recruiters, recruiting, recruitment, recruits
region
[ridʒən]
67
noun
1. the extended spatial location of something. E.g.: the farming regions of France, regions of outer space
2. a part of an animal that has a special function or is supplied by a given artery or nerve. E.g.: in the abdominal region
3. a large indefinite location on the surface of the Earth. E.g.: penguins inhabit the polar regions
4. the approximate amount of something (usually used prepositionally as in `in the region of'). E.g.: it was going to take in the region of two or three months to finish the job
5. a knowledge domain that you are interested in or are communicating about. E.g.: here we enter the region of opinion
regional, regionalism, regionally, regions
regression
[rəgreʃən]
241
noun
1. an abnormal state in which development has stopped prematurely.
2. (psychiatry) a defense mechanism in which you flee from reality by assuming a more infantile state.
3. the relation between selected values of x and observed values of y (from which the most probable value of y can be predicted for any value of x).
4. returning to a former state.
regress, regressed, regresses, regressing, regressions, regressive
regulate
[regjəleɪt]
200
verb
1. fix or adjust the time, amount, degree, or rate of. E.g.: regulate the temperature
2. bring into conformity with rules or principles or usage; impose regulations. E.g.: We cannot regulate the way people dress, This town likes to regulate
3. shape or influence; give direction to.
4. check the emission of (sound).
regulated, regulates, regulating, regulation, regulations, regulator, regulators, regulatory, unregulated
relapse
[rilæps]
537
noun
1. a failure to maintain a higher state.
verb
1. deteriorate in health. E.g.: he relapsed
2. go back to bad behavior.
relapsed, relapses, relapsing
release
[rilis]
116
noun
1. merchandise issued for sale or public showing (especially a record or film). E.g.: a new release from the London Symphony Orchestra
2. the act of liberating someone or something.
3. a process that liberates or discharges something. E.g.: there was a sudden release of oxygen, the release of iodine from the thyroid gland
4. an announcement distributed to members of the press in order to supplement or replace an oral presentation.
5. the termination of someone's employment (leaving them free to depart).
6. euphemistic expressions for death.
7. a legal document evidencing the discharge of a debt or obligation.
8. activity that releases or expresses creative energy or emotion.
9. the act of allowing a fluid to escape.
10. a formal written statement of relinquishment.
11. (music) the act or manner of terminating a musical phrase or tone.
verb
1. release, as from one's grip.
2. grant freedom to; free from confinement.
3. let (something) fall or spill a container.
4. eliminate (substances) from the body.
5. prepare and issue for public distribution or sale.
6. generate and separate from cells or bodily fluids. E.g.: release a hormone into the blood stream
7. make (information) available publication. E.g.: release the list with the names of the prisoners
8. part with a possession or right.
9. make (assets) available. E.g.: release the holdings in the dictator's bank account
released, releases, releasing, unreleased
relevant
[reləvənt]
250
adj
1. having a bearing on or connection with the subject at issue. E.g.: the scientist corresponds with colleagues in order to learn about matters relevant to her own research
2. having crucial relevance. E.g.: relevant testimony
irrelevancies, irrelevancy, irrelevant, relevancy, relevantly
rely
[rɪlaɪ]
490
verb
1. have confidence or faith in.
reliabilities, reliability, reliable, reliably, reliance, reliant, relied, relies, relying, unreliability, unreliable
remove
[rimuv]
210
noun
1. degree of figurative distance or separation. E.g.: just one remove from madness or it imitates at many removes a Shakespearean tragedy;
verb
1. remove something concrete, as by lifting, pushing, taking off, etc. or remove something abstract. E.g.: remove a threat, remove a wrapper
2. remove from a position or an office.
3. dispose of.
4. cause to leave.
5. shift the position or location of, as for business, legal, educational, or military purposes. E.g.: He removed his children to the countryside, remove a case to another court
6. go away or leave.
7. kill intentionally and with premeditation.
8. get rid of something abstract. E.g.: The death of her mother removed the last obstacle to their marriage
removable, removal, removals, removed, remover, removers, removes, removing
renal
[rinəl]
342
adj
1. of or relating to the kidneys.
render
[rendɜr]
579
noun
1. a substance similar to stucco but exclusively applied to masonry walls.
verb
1. cause to become. E.g.: The shot rendered her immobile
2. provide or furnish with.
3. give an interpretation or rendition of. E.g.: The pianist rendered the Beethoven sonata beautifully
4. give or supply. E.g.: The estate renders some revenue for the family
5. pass down. E.g.: render a verdict
6. make over as a return. E.g.: They had to render the estate
7. give back. E.g.: render money
8. to surrender someone or something to another. E.g.: render up the prisoners, render the town to the enemy
9. show in, or as in, a picture. E.g.: the face of the child is rendered with much tenderness in this painting
10. coat with plastic or cement. E.g.: render the brick walls in the den
11. bestow. E.g.: render thanks
12. restate (words) from one language into another language. E.g.: She rendered the French poem into English
13. melt (fat, lard, etc.) in order to separate out impurities. E.g.: render fat in a casserole
rendered, rendering, renderings, renders
replicate
[replɪkeɪt]
300
verb
1. bend or turn backward.
2. biology: reproduce or make an exact copy of. E.g.: replicate the cell
3. make or do or perform again. E.g.: He could never replicate his brilliant performance of the magic trick
replicated, replicates, replicating, replication, replications
require
[rikwaɪɜr]
28
verb
1. require as useful, just, or proper. E.g.: success usually requires hard work
2. consider obligatory; request and expect. E.g.: We require our secretary to be on time
3. make someone do something.
4. have need of.
required, requirement, requirements, requires, requiring
research
[risɜrtʃ]
25
noun
1. systematic investigation to establish facts.
2. a search for knowledge. E.g.: their pottery deserves more research than it has received
verb
1. inquire into.
2. attempt to find out in a systematically and scientific manner. E.g.: The student researched the history of that word
researched, researcher, researchers, researches, researching
resemble
[rɪzembəl]
581
verb
1. appear like; be similar or bear a likeness to. E.g.: She resembles her mother very much, This paper resembles my own work
resemblance, resemblances, resembled, resembles, resembling
residual
[rɪzɪdʒuəl]
463
noun
1. something left after other parts have been taken away.
2. (often plural) a payment that is made to a performer or writer or director of a television show or commercial that is paid for every repeat showing. E.g.: he could retire on his residuals
adj
1. relating to or indicating a remainder. E.g.: residual quantity
residuals, residuary, residue, residues
resolve
[rizɑlv]
539
noun
1. the trait of being resolute; firmness of purpose.
2. a formal expression by a meeting; agreed to by a vote.
verb
1. bring to an end; settle conclusively.
2. reach a conclusion after a discussion or deliberation.
3. reach a decision. E.g.: he resolved never to drink again
4. understand the meaning of.
5. make clearly visible. E.g.: can this image be resolved?
6. find the solution.
7. cause to go into a solution.
resolved, resolves, resolving, unresolved
respective
[rɪspektɪv]
52
adj
1. considered individually. E.g.: the respective club members
irrespective, irrespectively, respectively
respiratory
[respɜrətɔri]
244
adj
1. pertaining to respiration. E.g.: respiratory assistance
respiration, respirations, respire, respired, respires, respiring
respond
[rɪspɑnd]
7
verb
1. show a response or a reaction to something.
2. reply or respond to.
3. respond favorably or as hoped. E.g.: The cancer responded to the aggressive therapy
responded, respondent, respondents, responder, responders, responding, responds
restore
[rɪstɔr]
477
verb
1. return to its original or usable and functioning condition. E.g.: restore the forest to its original pristine condition
2. return to life; get or give new life or energy. E.g.: The week at the spa restored me
3. give or bring back.
4. restore by replacing a part or putting together what is torn or broken.
5. bring back into original existence, use, function, or position. E.g.: restore law and order, restore the emperor to the throne
restoration, restorations, restorative, restored, restorer, restorers, restores, restoring, unrestored
restrict
[ristrɪkt]
481
verb
1. place restrictions on.
2. place under restrictions; limit access to.
3. place limits on (extent or access). E.g.: restrict the use of this parking lot
4. make more specific.
restricted, restricting, restriction, restrictions, restrictive, restrictively, restricts, unrestricted, unrestrictive
retain
[rɪteɪn]
543
verb
1. hold within. E.g.: This soil retains water, I retain this drug for a long time
2. allow to remain in a place or position. E.g.: She retains a lawyer
3. secure and keep for possible future use or application. E.g.: The landlord retained the security deposit
4. keep in one's mind. E.g.: I cannot retain so much information
retained, retainer, retainers, retaining, retains
reveal
[rɪvil]
126
verb
1. make visible.
2. make known to the public information that was previously known only to a few people or that was meant to be kept a secret. E.g.: The actress won't reveal how old she is
3. make clear and visible. E.g.: The article revealed the policies of the government
4. disclose directly or through prophets. E.g.: God rarely reveal his plans for Mankind
revealed, revealing, revealingly, reveals, revelation, revelations, unrevealed
reverse
[rɪvɜrs]
183
noun
1. a relation of direct opposition. E.g.: we thought Sue was older than Bill but just the reverse was true
2. the gears by which the motion of a machine can be reversed.
3. an unfortunate happening that hinders of impedes; something that is thwarting or frustrating.
4. the side of a coin or medal that does not bear the principal design.
5. (American football) a running play in which a back running in one direction hands the ball to a back running in the opposite direction.
6. turning in the opposite direction.
verb
1. change to the contrary. E.g.: The trend was reversed
2. turn inside out or upside down.
3. rule against.
4. annul by recalling or rescinding.
adj
1. directed or moving toward the rear.
2. reversed (turned backward) in order or nature or effect.
3. of the transmission gear causing backward movement in a motor vehicle. E.g.: in reverse gear
irreversible, irreversibly, reversal, reversals, reversed, reverses, reversible, reversibly, reversing
robust
[roʊbʌst]
514
adj
1. physically strong.
2. marked by richness and fullness of flavor. E.g.: a robust claret, the robust flavor of fresh-brewed coffee
3. strong enough to withstand intellectual challenge. E.g.: the experiment yielded robust results, a robust faith
4. rough and crude. E.g.: a robust tale
robustly, robustness
role
[roʊl]
32
noun
1. the actions and activities assigned to or required or expected of a person or group. E.g.: play its role
2. an actor's portrayal of someone in a play.
3. what something is used for.
4. normal or customary activity of a person in a particular social setting. E.g.: what is your role on the team?
roles
rotate
[roʊteɪt]
297
verb
1. turn on or around an axis or a center. E.g.: The lamb roast rotates on a spit over the fire
2. exchange on a regular basis. E.g.: We rotate the lead soprano every night
3. cause to turn on an axis or center.
4. perform a job or duty on a rotating basis. E.g.: Interns have to rotate for a few months
5. turn outward. E.g.: ballet dancers can rotate their legs out by 90 degrees
6. plant or grow in a fixed cyclic order of succession. E.g.: We rotate the crops so as to maximize the use of the soil
rotated, rotates, rotating, rotation, rotational, rotations, rotatory
route
[rut]
569
noun
1. an established line of travel or access.
2. an open way (generally public) for travel or transportation.
verb
1. send documents or materials to appropriate destinations.
2. send via a specific route.
3. divert in a specified direction.
routed, routes, routing
routine
[rutin]
594
noun
1. an unvarying or habitual method of procedure.
2. a short theatrical performance that is part of a longer program. E.g.: she had a catchy little routine
3. a set sequence of steps, part of larger computer program.
adj
1. occurring at fixed times or predictable intervals. E.g.: made her routine trip to the store
2. found in the ordinary course of events. E.g.: it was a routine day
routinely, routines, subroutine, subroutines
saline
[səlin]
495
noun
1. an isotonic solution of sodium chloride and distilled water.
adj
1. containing salt. E.g.: a saline solution
salinities, salinity
scan
[skæn]
127
noun
1. the act of scanning; systematic examination of a prescribed region. E.g.: he made a thorough scan of the beach with his binoculars
2. an image produced by scanning. E.g.: he analysed the brain scan, you could see the tumor in the CAT scan
verb
1. examine minutely or intensely. E.g.: the surgeon scanned the X-ray
2. examine hastily. E.g.: She scanned the newspaper headlines while waiting for the taxi
3. make a wide, sweeping search of. E.g.: The beams scanned the night sky
4. conform to a metrical pattern.
5. move a light beam over; in electronics, to reproduce an image.
6. read metrically. E.g.: scan verses
7. obtain data from magnetic tapes.
scanned, scanner, scanners, scanning, scans
scar
[skɑr]
428
noun
1. a mark left (usually on the skin) by the healing of injured tissue.
2. an indication of damage.
verb
1. mark with a scar. E.g.: The skin disease scarred his face permanently
scarred, scarring, scars
scenario
[sɪnerioʊ]
440
noun
1. an outline or synopsis of a play (or, by extension, of a literary work).
2. a setting for a work of art or literature. E.g.: the scenario is France during the Reign of Terror
3. a postulated sequence of possible events. E.g.: planners developed several scenarios in case of an attack
scenarios
schedule
[skedʒʊl]
410
noun
1. a temporally organized plan for matters to be attended to.
2. an ordered list of times at which things are planned to occur.
verb
1. plan for an activity or event. E.g.: I've scheduled a concert next week
2. make a schedule; plan the time and place for events. E.g.: I scheduled an exam for this afternoon
reschedule, rescheduled, reschedules, rescheduling, scheduled, schedules, scheduling, unscheduled
score
[skɔr]
44
noun
1. a number or letter indicating quality (especially of a student's performance). E.g.: what was your score on your homework?
2. a written form of a musical composition; parts for different instruments appear on separate staves on large pages. E.g.: he studied the score of the sonata
3. a number that expresses the accomplishment of a team or an individual in a game or contest. E.g.: the score was 7 to 0
4. a set of twenty members. E.g.: a score were sent out but only one returned
5. grounds. E.g.: he tried to blame the victim but his success on that score was doubtful
6. the facts about an actual situation. E.g.: he didn't know the score
7. an amount due (as at a restaurant or bar). E.g.: add it to my score and I'll settle later
8. a slight surface cut (especially a notch that is made to keep a tally).
9. a resentment strong enough to justify retaliation. E.g.: settling a score
10. the act of scoring in a game or sport. E.g.: the winning score came with less than a minute left to play
11. a seduction culminating in sexual intercourse. E.g.: calling his seduction of the girl a `score' was a typical example of male slang
verb
1. gain points in a game. E.g.: The home team scored many times
2. make small marks into the surface of. E.g.: score the clay before firing it
3. make underscoring marks.
4. write a musical score for.
5. induce to have sex. E.g.: Did you score last night?
6. get a certain number or letter indicating quality or performance. E.g.: She scored high on the SAT, He scored a 200
7. assign a grade or rank to, according to one's evaluation. E.g.: score the SAT essays
scored, scorer, scorers, scores, scoring
secondary
[sekənderi]
172
noun
1. the defensive football players who line up behind the linemen.
2. coil such that current is induced in it by passing a current through the primary coil.
adj
1. of second rank or importance or value; not direct or immediate. E.g.: the stone will be hauled to a secondary crusher, a secondary source, a secondary issue, secondary streams
2. inferior in rank or status.
3. depending on or incidental to what is original or primary. E.g.: a secondary infection
4. not of major importance. E.g.: played a secondary role in world events
5. belonging to a lower class or rank.
second, secondaries, secondarily, seconder, seconders, secondly
secrete
[sɪkrit]
553
verb
1. generate and separate from cells or bodily fluids. E.g.: secrete digestive juices
2. place out of sight; keep secret. E.g.: The money was secreted from his children
secreted, secretes, secreting, secretion, secretions, secretor, secretors, secretory
section
[sekʃən]
78
noun
1. a self-contained part of a larger composition (written or musical). E.g.: he always turns first to the business section, the history of this work is discussed in the next section
2. a very thin slice (of tissue or mineral or other substance) for examination under a microscope. E.g.: sections from the left ventricle showed diseased tissue
3. a distinct region or subdivision of a territorial or political area or community or group of people. E.g.: no section of the nation is more ardent than the South, there are three synagogues in the Jewish section
4. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object. E.g.: a section of a fishing rod, metal sections were used below ground
5. a small team of policemen working as part of a police platoon.
6. one of the portions into which something is regarded as divided and which together constitute a whole. E.g.: the finance section of the company
7. a land unit of 1 square mile measuring 1 mile on a side.
8. (geometry) the area created by a plane cutting through a solid.
9. a division of an orchestra containing all instruments of the same class.
10. a small army unit usually having a special function.
11. a specialized division of a large organization. E.g.: she got a job in the historical section of the Treasury
12. a segment of a citrus fruit. E.g.: he ate a section of the orange
13. the cutting of or into body tissues or organs (especially by a surgeon as part of an operation).
verb
1. divide into segments.
sectional, sectioned, sectioning, sections, subsection, subsections
seek
[sik]
416
noun
1. the movement of a read/write head to a specific data track on a disk.
verb
1. try to get or reach. E.g.: seek a position, seek an education, seek happiness
2. try to locate or discover, or try to establish the existence of.
3. make an effort or attempt. E.g.: She always seeks to do good in the world
4. go to or towards. E.g.: a liquid seeks its own level
5. inquire for. E.g.: seek directions from a local
seeker, seekers, seeking, seeks, sought, unsought
segment
[segmənt]
235
noun
1. one of several parts or pieces that fit with others to constitute a whole object. E.g.: finished the final segment of the road
2. one of the parts into which something naturally divides. E.g.: a segment of an orange
verb
1. divide into segments. E.g.: segment an orange, segment a compound word
2. divide or split up. E.g.: The cells segmented
segmental, segmentation, segmentations, segmented, segmenting, segments
select
[səlekt]
136
verb
1. pick out, select, or choose from a number of alternatives. E.g.: She selected a pair of shoes from among the dozen the salesgirl had shown her
adj
1. of superior grade. E.g.: select peaches
2. selected or chosen for special qualifications.
selected, selecting, selection, selections, selective, selectively, selectivities, selectivity, selector, selectors, selects, unselected
sequence
[sikwəns]
135
noun
1. serial arrangement in which things follow in logical order or a recurrent pattern. E.g.: the sequence of names was alphabetical, he invented a technique to determine the sequence of base pairs in DNA
2. a following of one thing after another in time. E.g.: the doctor saw a sequence of patients
3. film consisting of a succession of related shots that develop a given subject in a movie.
4. the action of following in order. E.g.: he played the trumps in sequence
5. several repetitions of a melodic phrase in different keys.
verb
1. arrange in a sequence.
2. determine the order of constituents in. E.g.: They sequenced the human genome
sequenced, sequences, sequencing, sequential, sequentially
series
[sɪriz]
164
noun
1. similar things placed in order or happening one after another. E.g.: they were investigating a series of bank robberies
2. a serialized set of programs. E.g.: a comedy series, the Masterworks concert series
3. a periodical that appears at scheduled times.
4. (sports) several contests played successively by the same teams. E.g.: the visiting team swept the series
5. a group of postage stamps having a common theme or a group of coins or currency selected as a group for study or collection. E.g.: the Post Office issued a series commemorating famous American entertainers, his coin collection included the complete series of
6. (mathematics) the sum of a finite or infinite sequence of expressions.
7. (electronics) connection of components in such a manner that current flows first through one and then through the other. E.g.: the voltage divider consisted of a series of fixed resistors
serum
[sɪrəm]
72
noun
1. watery fluid of the blood that resembles plasma but contains fibrinogen.
antiserum, antiserums, serums
sex
[seks]
452
noun
1. activities associated with sexual intercourse. E.g.: they had sex in the back seat
2. either of the two categories (male or female) into which most organisms are divided. E.g.: the war between the sexes
3. all of the feelings resulting from the urge to gratify sexual impulses. E.g.: he wanted a better sex life, the film contained no sex or violence
4. the properties that distinguish organisms on the basis of their reproductive roles. E.g.: she didn't want to know the sex of the foetus
verb
1. stimulate sexually.
2. tell the sex (of young chickens).
sexed, sexes, sexing, sexism, sexist, sexists, sexless, sexual, sexualise, sexualised, sexualises, sexualising, sexuality, sexualize, sexualized, sexualizes, sexualizing, sexually, sexy
shift
[ʃɪft]
354
noun
1. an event in which something is displaced without rotation.
2. a qualitative change.
3. the time period during which you are at work.
4. the act of changing one thing or position for another.
5. the act of moving from one place to another. E.g.: his constant shifting disrupted the class
6. (geology) a crack in the earth's crust resulting from the displacement of one side with respect to the other.
7. a group of workers who work for a specific period of time.
8. a woman's sleeveless undergarment.
9. a loose-fitting dress hanging straight from the shoulders without a waist.
verb
1. make a shift in or exchange of.
2. change place or direction.
3. move around.
4. move very slightly. E.g.: He shifted in his seat
5. move from one setting or context to another. E.g.: shift the emphasis, shift one's attention
6. change in quality. E.g.: His tone shifted
7. move and exchange for another. E.g.: shift the date for our class reunion
8. move sideways or in an unsteady way.
9. move abruptly.
10. use a shift key on a keyboard. E.g.: She could not shift so all ther letters are written in lower case
11. change phonetically as part of a systematic historical change. E.g.: Grimm showed how the consonants shifted
12. change gears. E.g.: you have to shift when you go down a steep hill
13. lay aside, abandon, or leave for another.
shifted, shifting, shifts
significant
[səgnɪfɪkənt]
4
adj
1. important in effect or meaning. E.g.: a significant change in tax laws, a significant change in the Constitution, a significant contribution, significant details, statistically significant
2. fairly large.
3. too closely correlated to be attributed to chance and therefore indicating a systematic relation. E.g.: the interaction effect is significant at the .01 level, no significant difference was found
4. rich in significance or implication.
insignificant, insignificantly, significantly
similar
[sɪməlɜr]
18
adj
1. marked by correspondence or resemblance. E.g.: similar food at similar prices, problems similar to mine, they wore similar coats
2. having the same or similar characteristics.
3. resembling or similar; having the same or some of the same characteristics; often used in combination.
4. (of words) expressing closely related meanings.
5. capable of replacing or changing places with something else.
dissimilar, dissimilarities, dissimilarity, similarities, similarity, similarly
simulate
[sɪmjələt]
357
verb
1. reproduce someone's behavior or looks.
2. create a representation or model of.
3. make a pretence of.
simulated, simulates, simulating, simulation, simulations, simulator, simulators
simultaneous
[saɪməlteɪniəs]
551
adj
1. occurring or operating at the same time.
simultaneity, simultaneously
site
[saɪt]
54
noun
1. the piece of land on which something is located (or is to be located). E.g.: a good site for the school
2. physical position in relation to the surroundings. E.g.: the sites are determined by highly specific sequences of nucleotides
3. a computer connected to the internet that maintains a series of web pages on the World Wide Web. E.g.: the Israeli web site was damaged by hostile hackers
verb
1. assign a location to.
sited, sites, siting
skeletal
[skelətəl]
274
adj
1. of or relating to or forming or attached to a skeleton. E.g.: the skeletal system, skeletal bones, skeletal muscles
2. very thin especially from disease or hunger or cold. E.g.: a nightmare population of gaunt men and skeletal boys
software
[sɔftwer]
227
noun
1. (computer science) written programs or procedures or rules and associated documentation pertaining to the operation of a computer system and that are stored in read/write memory. E.g.: the market for software is expected to expand
softwares
soluble
[sɑljəbəl]
565
adj
1. (of a substance) capable of being dissolved in some solvent (usually water).
2. susceptible of solution or of being solved or explained. E.g.: the puzzle is soluble
insolubility, insoluble, solubility
somewhat
[sʌmwʌt]
595
adv
1. to a small degree or extent. E.g.: his arguments were somewhat self-contradictory
2. to a moderately sufficient extent or degree.
source
[sɔrs]
93
noun
1. the place where something begins, where it springs into being. E.g.: Pittsburgh is the source of the Ohio River
2. a person who supplies information.
3. a publication (or a passage from a publication) that is referred to. E.g.: he spent hours looking for the source of that quotation
4. a document (or organization) from which information is obtained. E.g.: the reporter had two sources for the story
5. a facility where something is available.
6. anything that provides inspiration for later work.
7. someone who originates or causes or initiates something.
8. (technology) a process by which energy or a substance enters a system. E.g.: a heat source, a source of carbon dioxide
9. anything (a person or animal or plant or substance) in which an infectious agent normally lives and multiplies.
verb
1. get (a product) from another country or business. E.g.: She sourced a supply of carpet
2. specify the origin of. E.g.: The writer carefully sourced her report
sourced, sources, sourcing
span
[spæn]
600
noun
1. the complete duration of something. E.g.: the job was finished in the span of an hour
2. the distance or interval between two points.
3. two items of the same kind.
4. a unit of length based on the width of the expanded human hand (usually taken as 9 inches).
5. a structure that allows people or vehicles to cross an obstacle such as a river or canal or railway etc..
6. the act of sitting or standing astride.
verb
1. to cover or extend over an area or time period. E.g.: Rivers traverse the valley floor, The parking lot spans 3 acres, The novel spans three centuries
spanned, spanning, spans
species
[spiʃiz]
388
noun
1. (biology) taxonomic group whose members can interbreed.
2. a specific kind of something. E.g.: a species of molecule, a species of villainy
specie, subspecies
specific
[spəsɪfɪk]
39
noun
1. a fact about some part (as opposed to general).
2. a medicine that has a mitigating effect on a specific disease. E.g.: quinine is a specific for malaria
adj
1. (sometimes followed by `to') applying to or characterized by or distinguishing something particular or special or unique. E.g.: rules with specific application, demands specific to the job, a specific and detailed account of the accident
2. stated explicitly or in detail. E.g.: needed a specific amount
3. relating to or distinguishing or constituting a taxonomic species. E.g.: specific characters
4. being or affecting a disease produced by a particular microorganism or condition; used also of stains or dyes used in making microscope slides. E.g.: quinine is highly specific for malaria, a specific remedy, a specific stain is one having a specific affin
nonspecific, specifically, specification, specifications, specificities, specificity, specifics, unspecific
specimen
[spesəmən]
166
noun
1. an example regarded as typical of its class.
2. a bit of tissue or blood or urine that is taken for diagnostic purposes. E.g.: they collected a urine specimen for urinalysis
specimens
spectrum
[spektrəm]
378
noun
1. an ordered array of the components of an emission or wave.
2. broad range of related values or qualities or ideas or activities.
spectrums
speculate
[spekjəleɪt]
592
verb
1. to believe especially on uncertain or tentative grounds.
2. talk over conjecturally, or review in an idle or casual way and with an element of doubt or without sufficient reason to reach a conclusion.
3. reflect deeply on a subject. E.g.: philosophers have speculated on the question of God for thousands of years
4. invest at a risk.
speculated, speculates, speculating, speculation, speculations, speculative, speculatively, speculator, speculators
spinal
[spaɪnəl]
534
noun
1. anesthesia of the lower half of the body; caused by injury to the spinal cord or by injecting an anesthetic beneath the arachnoid membrane that surrounds the spinal cord.
adj
1. of or relating to the spine or spinal cord. E.g.: spinal cord, spinal injury
spinally, spine, spineless, spinelessly, spinelessness, spines, spiny
spontaneous
[spɑnteɪniəs]
515
adj
1. happening or arising without apparent external cause. E.g.: spontaneous laughter, spontaneous combustion, a spontaneous abortion
2. said or done without having been planned or written in advance.
3. produced without being planted or without human labor.
spontaneously
stable
[steɪbəl]
306
noun
1. a farm building for housing horses or other livestock.
verb
1. shelter in a stable. E.g.: stable horses
adj
1. resistant to change of position or condition. E.g.: a stable ladder, a stable peace, a stable relationship, stable prices
2. firm and dependable; subject to little fluctuation. E.g.: the economy is stable
3. not taking part readily in chemical change.
4. maintaining equilibrium.
5. showing little if any change.
instabilities, instability, stabilisation, stabilise, stabilised, stabiliser, stabilisers, stabilises, stabilising, stability, stabilization, stabilize, stabilized, stabilizer, stabilizers, stabilizes, stabilizing, stabler, stablest, unstable
stance
[stæns]
373
noun
1. standing posture.
2. a rationalized mental attitude.
stances
static
[stætɪk]
623
noun
1. a crackling or hissing noise cause by electrical interference.
2. angry criticism. E.g.: they will probably give you a lot of static about your editorial
adj
1. not active or moving. E.g.: a static village community and a completely undynamic type of agriculture, static feudal societies
2. not in physical motion.
3. concerned with or producing or caused by static electricity. E.g.: an electrostatic generator produces high-voltage static electricity
4. showing little if any change. E.g.: a static population
statically
statistic
[stətɪstɪk]
362
noun
1. a datum that can be represented numerically.
statistical, statistically, statistician, statisticians, statistics
status
[stætəs]
180
noun
1. the relative position or standing of things or especially persons in a society. E.g.: he had the status of a minor, the novel attained the status of a classic
2. a state at a particular time. E.g.: the current status of the arms negotiations
statuses
sterile
[sterəl]
421
adj
1. incapable of reproducing.
2. free of or using methods to keep free of pathological microorganisms. E.g.: a sterile operating area
3. deficient in originality or creativity; lacking powers of invention. E.g.: a sterile ideology lacking in originality
, sterilisation, sterilisations, sterilise, sterilised, steriliser, sterilisers, sterilises, sterilising, sterilities, sterility, sterilization, sterilizations, sterilize, sterilized, sterilizer, sterilizers, sterilizes, sterilizing
stimulate
[stɪmjəleɪt]
154
verb
1. act as a stimulant. E.g.: The book stimulated her imagination, This play stimulates
2. cause to do; cause to act in a specified manner.
3. stir the feelings, emotions, or peace of.
4. cause to be alert and energetic. E.g.: Coffee and tea stimulate me, This herbal infusion doesn't stimulate
5. cause to occur rapidly.
6. stir feelings in. E.g.: stimulate my appetite
7. provide the needed stimulus for.
stimulated, stimulates, stimulating, stimulation, stimulations
strain
[streɪn]
112
noun
1. (physics) deformation of a physical body under the action of applied forces.
2. difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension. E.g.: she endured the stresses and strains of life
3. a succession of notes forming a distinctive sequence.
4. (psychology) nervousness resulting from mental stress. E.g.: his responsibilities were a constant strain, the mental strain of staying alert hour after hour was too much for him
5. a special variety of domesticated animals within a species. E.g.: he created a new strain of sheep
6. (biology) a group of organisms within a species that differ in trivial ways from similar groups. E.g.: a new strain of microorganisms
7. a lineage or race of people.
8. injury to a muscle (often caused by overuse); results in swelling and pain.
9. pervading note of an utterance.
10. an effortful attempt to attain a goal.
11. an intense or violent exertion.
12. the act of singing.
verb
1. to exert much effort or energy. E.g.: straining our ears to hear
2. test the limits of.
3. use to the utmost; exert vigorously or to full capacity. E.g.: Don't strain your mind too much
4. separate by passing through a sieve or other straining device to separate out coarser elements.
5. make tense and uneasy or nervous or anxious;.
6. stretch or force to the limit. E.g.: strain the rope
7. remove by passing through a filter.
8. rub through a strainer or process in an electric blender.
9. alter the shape of (something) by stress.
strained, strainer, strainers, straining, strains
strategy
[strætədʒi]
173
noun
1. an elaborate and systematic plan of action.
2. the branch of military science dealing with military command and the planning and conduct of a war.
strategic, strategically, strategies, strategist, strategists
stress
[stres]
111
noun
1. the relative prominence of a syllable or musical note (especially with regard to stress or pitch). E.g.: he put the stress on the wrong syllable
2. (psychology) a state of mental or emotional strain or suspense. E.g.: stress is a vasoconstrictor
3. (physics) force that produces strain on a physical body. E.g.: the intensity of stress is expressed in units of force divided by units of area
4. special emphasis attached to something. E.g.: the stress was more on accuracy than on speed
5. difficulty that causes worry or emotional tension. E.g.: she endured the stresses and strains of life, he presided over the economy during the period of the greatest stress and danger- R.J.Samuelson
verb
1. to stress, single out as important.
2. put stress on; utter with an accent.
3. test the limits of.
stressed, stresses, stressful, stressing, unstressed
structure
[strʌktʃɜr]
97
noun
1. a thing constructed; a complex construction or entity. E.g.: the structure consisted of a series of arches
2. the manner of construction of something and the arrangement of its parts. E.g.: artists must study the structure of the human body, the structure of the benzene molecule
3. the complex composition of knowledge as elements and their combinations. E.g.: his lectures have no structure
4. a particular complex anatomical structure. E.g.: he has good bone structure
5. the people in a society considered as a system organized by a characteristic pattern of relationships. E.g.: sociologists have studied the changing structure of the family
verb
1. give a structure to. E.g.: I need to structure my days
restructure, restructured, restructures, restructuring, structural, structuralism, structuralisms, structurally, structured, structures, structuring, unstructured
subsequent
[sʌbsəkwənt]
196
adj
1. following in time or order. E.g.: subsequent developments
subsequently
substantial
[səbstænʃəl]
368
adj
1. fairly large. E.g.: won by a substantial margin
2. being the essence or essential element of a thing. E.g.: substantial equivalents
3. having substance or capable of being treated as fact; not imaginary. E.g.: the substantial world, a mere dream, neither substantial nor practical, most ponderous and substantial things- Shakespeare
4. providing abundant nourishment. E.g.: ate a substantial breakfast
5. of good quality and condition; solidly built. E.g.: several substantial timber buildings
insubstantial, insubstantially, substantiality, substantially
substitute
[sʌbstətut]
438
noun
1. a person or thing that takes or can take the place of another.
2. an athlete who plays only when another member of the team drops out.
3. someone who takes the place of another (as when things get dangerous or difficult).
verb
1. put in the place of another; switch seemingly equivalent items. E.g.: substitute regular milk with fat-free milk
2. be a substitute. E.g.: The young teacher had to substitute for the sick colleague, The skim milk substitutes for cream--we are on a strict diet
3. act as a substitute.
adj
1. being a replacement or substitute for a regular member of a team.
2. capable of substituting in any of several positions on a team.
3. artificial and inferior. E.g.: substitute coffee
substituted, substitutes, substituting, substitution, substitutions
successive
[səksesɪv]
612
adj
1. in regular succession without gaps.
succession, successions, successively, successor, successors
sufficient
[səfɪʃənt]
317
adj
1. of a quantity that can fulfill a need or requirement but without being abundant. E.g.: sufficient food
insufficient, insufficiently, sufficiently
sum
[sʌm]
447
noun
1. a quantity of money. E.g.: he borrowed a large sum
2. a quantity obtained by addition.
3. the final aggregate. E.g.: the sum of all our troubles did not equal the misery they suffered
4. the choicest or most essential or most vital part of some idea or experience.
5. the whole amount.
6. the basic unit of money in Uzbekistan.
7. a set containing all and only the members of two or more given sets.
verb
1. be a summary of. E.g.: The abstract sums up the main ideas in the paper
2. determine the sum of.
summed, summing, sums
summary
[sʌmɜri]
246
noun
1. a brief statement that presents the main points in a concise form. E.g.: he gave a summary of the conclusions
adj
1. performed speedily and without formality. E.g.: a summary execution, summary justice
2. briefly giving the gist of something. E.g.: a summary formulation of a wide-ranging subject
summaries, summarily, summarisation, summarisations, summarise, summarised, summarises, summarising, summarization, summarizations, summarize, summarized, summarizes, summarizing
superior
[supɪriɜr]
303
noun
1. one of greater rank or station or quality.
2. the head of a religious community.
3. a combatant who is able to defeat rivals.
4. the largest freshwater lake in the world; the deepest of the Great Lakes.
5. a town in northwest Wisconsin on Lake Superior across from Duluth.
6. a character or symbol set or printed or written above and immediately to one side of another character.
adj
1. of high or superior quality or performance. E.g.: superior wisdom derived from experience, superior math students
2. of or characteristic of high rank or importance. E.g.: a superior officer
3. (sometimes followed by `to') not subject to or influenced by. E.g.: overcome by a superior opponent, trust magnates who felt themselves superior to law
4. written or printed above and to one side of another character.
5. having an orbit farther from the sun than the Earth's orbit. E.g.: Mars and Jupiter are the closest in of the superior planets
6. having a higher rank. E.g.: superior officer
7. (often followed by `to') above being affected or influenced by. E.g.: he is superior to fear, an ignited firework proceeds superior to circumstances until its blazing vitality fades
superiority, superiors
supplement
[sʌpləmənt]
351
noun
1. textual matter that is added onto a publication; usually at the end.
2. a quantity added (e.g. to make up for a deficiency).
3. a supplementary component that improves capability.
verb
1. add as a supplement to what seems insufficient. E.g.: supplement your diet
2. serve as a supplement to. E.g.: Vitamins supplemented his meager diet
3. add to the very end.
supplemental, supplementary, supplementation, supplemented, supplementing, supplements
suppress
[səpres]
527
verb
1. to put down by force or authority. E.g.: suppress a nascent uprising
2. come down on or keep down by unjust use of one's authority.
3. control and refrain from showing; of emotions.
4. keep under control; keep in check. E.g.: suppress a smile
5. put out of one's consciousness.
suppressed, suppresses, suppressing, suppression, suppressor, suppressors
surgery
[sɜrdʒɜri]
118
noun
1. the branch of medical science that treats disease or injury by operative procedures. E.g.: he is professor of surgery at the Harvard Medical School
2. a room where a doctor or dentist can be consulted. E.g.: he read the warning in the doctor's surgery
3. a room in a hospital equipped for the performance of surgical operations.
4. a medical procedure involving an incision with instruments; performed to repair damage or arrest disease in a living body. E.g.: he died while undergoing surgery
surgeries
survey
[sɜrveɪ]
226
noun
1. a detailed critical inspection.
2. short descriptive summary (of events).
3. the act of looking or seeing or observing. E.g.: his survey of the battlefield was limited
verb
1. consider in a comprehensive way.
2. look over in a comprehensively, inspect. E.g.: He surveyed his new classmates
3. keep under surveillance.
4. hold a review (of troops).
5. make a survey of; for statistical purposes.
6. plot a map of (land).
surveyed, surveying, surveyor, surveyors, surveys
survive
[sɜrvaɪv]
50
verb
1. continue to live; endure or last. E.g.: These superstitions survive in the backwaters of America
2. continue in existence after (an adversity, etc.). E.g.: He survived the cancer against all odds
3. support oneself.
4. live longer than.
survival, survivalist, survivalists, survivals, survived, survives, surviving, survivor, survivors
susceptible
[səseptəbəl]
533
adj
1. (often followed by `of' or `to') yielding readily to or capable of. E.g.: susceptible to colds, susceptible of proof
2. easily impressed emotionally.
insusceptible, susceptibilities, susceptibility
suspend
[səspend]
547
verb
1. hang freely. E.g.: The secret police suspended their victims from the ceiling and beat them
2. cause to be held in suspension in a fluid. E.g.: suspend the particles
3. bar temporarily; from school, office, etc..
4. stop a process or a habit by imposing a freeze on it.
5. make inoperative or stop. E.g.: suspend payments on the loan
6. as of a prison sentence.
suspended, suspender, suspenders, suspending, suspends, suspension, suspensions
sustain
[səsteɪn]
318
verb
1. lengthen or extend in duration or space. E.g.: We sustained the diplomatic negotiations as long as possible
2. undergo (as of injuries and illnesses).
3. provide with nourishment. E.g.: We sustained ourselves on bread and water
4. supply with necessities and support. E.g.: She alone sustained her family, The money will sustain our good cause
5. be the physical support of; car