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Secondary School Vocabulary Lists (SVL) Common technical words in 8 secondary school disciplines

This page describes the Secondary School Vocabulary Lists (SVL), giving information on what the SVL is, how it differs from other lists, how it was developed, as well as a complete list of words in the SVL.



What is the SVL?

The Secondary School Vocabulary Lists (SVL) is a series of lists of discipline-specific (i.e. technical) words for secondary school education, covering eight core subjects: Biology, Chemistry, Economics, English, Geology, History, Mathematics, and Physics. It was developed in 2018 by Clarence Green and James Lambert, working at Nanyang Technological University, Singapore. Although technical in nature, the list was devised using methods similar to those used to create the Academic Vocabulary List (AVL) and the Medical Academic Vocabulary List (MAVL), which are lemma-based lists which consider measures such as range and dispersion along with word frequency. The SVL is designed to help students in secondary schools improve their disciplinary literacy.


The SVL does not present a single list. Rather, it comprises three different types of word list for eight different subjects, and therefore presents 24 lists in total. The three different types of word list are as follows:

  • Lemma lists. These lists sort words by frequency, and contain only lemmas, i.e. words and inflected forms.
  • Word family lists. These lists contain full word families, again sorted by frequency (total frequency of all words in the family).
  • Collocation lists. These lists give words which are frequently associated with the SVL words, the most common 10 word associations for each.

The main lists are the lemma lists, which are similar in nature to the AVL and MAVL. This presents 880 words for Biology, 519 for Chemistry, 477 for Economics, 702 for Geography, 253 for Mathematics, 715 for History, 546 for Physics, and 686 for English.


The word family lists, which are broadly similar to the AWL and MAWL, differ from those lists in that frequency for all individual words in the family is given, allowing students (and teachers) to prioritise more frequent word forms.


The collocation lists present word associations, giving related concepts, synonyms, antonyms and hyponyms (i.e. words contained in other category words), rather than true lexical collocations. The authors found that some words only had a few collocates, while others had more than 100, and they therefore limited the number of collocates to 10 for each word. The authors recommend using these word associations in activities such as mind maps, word searches and spelling lists.

How does the SVL compare to other lists?

The SVL differs from other lists in several ways.


One difference, already noted above, is that the SVL comprises multiple lists for multiple subjects, rather than presenting a single list.


The SVL is also unique in that it draws on the methodology for creating word lists used by compilers of academic word lists for university study, and applies it to the creation of a list intended for secondary school students, who are therefore pre-university age.


The SVL contrasts with another set of technical lists for school-age students, the Middle School Vocabulary Lists created by Greene and Coxhead in 2015. Those lists, which covers five content areas (English, Health, Mathematics, Science, and Social Science/History), are intended for younger students, in grades 6 to 8 (approximately 11 to 14 years old). The Middle School Vocabulary Lists also differ from the SVL in that they were designed in a similar way to the AWL, using word families and excluding words from the GSL. The authors note the problems of excluding general words, in particular that important words with both general and subject-specific meaning may be overlooked. They give the example of set in mathematics, a general word which has a technical meaning, as shown by collocations such as empty set, universal set, and ordered set.


How was the SVL developed?

The SVL was developed from a corpus of secondary school textbooks, most published within five years of the creation of the list. The texts were taken from the Ministry of Education (Singapore) list of approved text books, all published in either Singapore or the UK, as well as A-level/O-level syllabi documents from the United Kingdom and Singapore. Some additional O-Level and A-level texts were sampled in order to reach the desired word count. In total, the corpus consisted of 206 textbooks, containing approximately 16.25 million words.


The main version of the SVL is lemma-based. As noted above, selection methods for words in the SVL were similar to those used to derive the AVL by Gardner and Davies and the MAVL by Lei and Liu. Specifically, the following six criteria were used. These were the only criteria; there was no subsequently vetting of the lists.

  • Minimum frequency. Words needed to occur at least 28.57 times per million words.
  • Range. Words needed to occur at least in at least 50% of the texts for the relevant discipline.
  • Dispersion. Words needed to be evenly distributed throughout the corpora.
  • Range Ratio. Words needed to occur with 20% of their minimum frequency in more than 50% of texts.
  • Frequency Ratio/Keyness. Words needed to occur 3 times more often in the discipline than in the rest of the corpus.
  • Major Part of Speech. Only nouns, verb, adjectives and adverb were included.


References

Green, C. and Lambert, J. (2018) ‘Advancing disciplinary literacy through English for academic purposes: Discipline-specific wordlists, collocations and word families for eight secondary subjects’, Journal of English for Academic Purposes, 35 (2018) 105-115. https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1475158518302157.


Secondary School Vocabulary Lists (SVL)

The following list gives the 528 words in the Biology list (word family version), sorted by frequency.


List is word families


List sorted by frequency


Biology


Rank Word Total frequency Word forms Frequency
1cell24279cells12241
cell11994
celled44
2blood12375blood12350
blooded22
bloods3
3plant8016plant4441
plants3517
planted31
planting19
replanting8
4enzyme6074enzyme3860
enzymes2214
5molecule5981molecules3453
molecule2321
molecular207
6gene5594gene3549
genes2045
7dna5475dna5468
dnas7
8protein5146protein2732
proteins2414
9concentrate4939concentration4054
concentrations548
concentrated304
concentrate23
concentrating8
concentrates2
10structure4841structure3035
structures1081
structural365
structured344
structurally15
restructure1
11body4765body4415
bodies339
bodily11
12contain4361contains1679
contain1357
containing1107
contained122
container71
containers21
containment4
13chromosome4241chromosomes2635
chromosome1521
chromosomal85
14carbon4238carbon4135
carbonic92
carbons11
15membrane4217membrane3390
membranes801
membranous26
16oxygen4175oxygen4174
oxygens1
17organism4107organisms2554
organism1553
18light3891light3844
lit31
lights13
lighting2
lighted1
19process3344process2532
processes671
processing91
processed50
20part3335part1563
parts1241
partially319
partial140
partly70
pt2
21muscle3316muscles1790
muscle1526
22active3294active1824
activity739
activities415
inactive156
actively153
inactivity4
activists3
23allele3210allele1786
alleles1408
allelic16
24transport3166transport2060
transported622
transports308
transporting72
transporter54
transportation31
transporters19
25human3113human2174
humans939
26carry3087carry1019
carried858
carries523
carrying292
carrier263
carriers132
27genetic3037genetic2226
genetically696
genetics108
geneticists5
geneticist2
28tissue2984tissue1994
tissues990
29amino2896amino2760
amniotic136
30substance2893substances2113
substance780
31tube2836tube1867
tubes602
tubing367
32photosynthesis2803photosynthesis2585
photosynthetic140
photosynthesise70
photosynthesises5
photosynthesize2
photosynthesizing1
33wall2786wall1536
walls1202
walled48
34bacterium2749bacteria1856
bacterial461
bacterium432
35potential2670potential2374
potentials241
potentially54
potentiality1
36function2598function1410
functions928
functional148
functioning97
functionally11
functionality3
functioned1
37control2569control1389
controlled597
controls302
controlling164
uncontrolled92
uncontrollably12
controller9
uncontrollable3
controllable1
38test2530test2009
tested243
tests144
testing128
testable6
39animal2419animal1262
animals1157
40reduce2412reduced771
reducing558
reduce519
reduces356
reduction207
reductions1
41diffuse2387diffusion1346
diffuse612
diffuses357
diffusing52
diffused20
42species2339species2306
sp22
spp10
subspecies1
43fat2313fats983
fatty728
fat591
fatter5
fatly4
fatten1
fattest1
44vary2215variation1035
variable381
variables224
variations192
varies114
vary112
varying66
variability35
varied35
variant12
variants7
invariably1
variance1
45down2141down2044
downwards84
downward12
downs1
46release2123released1035
release746
releases229
releasing112
releasers1
47neurone2116neurone1375
neurones741
48heart2112heart2104
hearts8
49involve2096involved882
involves770
involve236
involving193
involvement15
50nucleus2080nucleus1757
nuclei323
51normal2018normal1683
normally335
52root1987root1398
roots582
rooted6
rooting1
53hormone1967hormone978
hormones868
hormonal121
54disease1922disease1311
diseases591
diseased20
55absorb1918absorbed703
absorption612
absorb346
absorbs137
absorbance49
absorbing46
absorber20
absorbent4
absorbers1
56sugar1872sugar1144
sugars688
sugary40
57digest1869digestion735
digested398
digestive311
digest193
undigested98
digests86
digesting33
indigestible14
digestible1
58chain1855chain1256
chains598
chained1
59capillary1816capillaries1098
capillary718
60flower1813flower868
flowers669
flowering184
flowered92
61vessel1810vessels1203
vessel607
62leaf1809leaf1729
leafy70
leafed7
leafless2
leaved1
63colour1776colour1175
coloured311
colours118
colourless78
colouration29
colouring23
color15
colourful14
coloration10
colored2
colourings1
64experiment1761experiment1268
experiments249
experimental229
experimentally5
experimentation5
experimented3
experimenter1
experimenting1
65parent1733parent802
parents696
parental235
66cycle1722cycle1453
cyclic150
cycles73
cycling22
cyclical16
cycled8
67chemical1718chemical1314
chemicals345
chemically59
68decrease1703decreases751
decrease635
decreased219
decreasing98
69gamete1698gametes1253
gamete445
70cross1692cross1009
crossing385
crossed166
crosses131
crossings1
71substrate1660substrate1470
substrates190
72stage1642stage1122
stages520
73sequence1635sequence1237
sequences321
sequencing56
sequenced15
sequential5
sequentially1
74present1627present1563
presenting25
presented22
presents9
presentation7
presentations1
75lung1625lungs1265
lung360
76live1608living1126
live290
lives136
lived56
77genotype1602genotype1006
genotypes596
78secrete1587secrete392
secreted387
secretion367
secretes239
secretory73
secreting67
secretions62
79artery1578artery870
arteries628
arterial80
80pair1577pair695
pairs564
pairing217
paired67
unpaired20
pairings14
81name1572name1246
named162
names89
namely46
naming29
82remove1553removed734
removal337
remove286
removes109
removing87
83enter1537enters671
enter546
entering275
entered45
84select1515selection844
selective324
selected134
selectively103
select64
selects27
selecting16
selectable3
85fluid1485fluid1353
fluids106
fluidity26
86fertile1448fertilisation796
fertilised165
fertilisers115
fertile108
fertiliser59
fertilise46
infertile37
fertility33
fertilization29
infertility22
fertilises9
fertilising9
fertilized9
fertilize6
fertilizer3
fertilizers2
87shape1434shape1022
shaped330
shapes80
misshapen1
shapeless1
88starch1424starch1416
starched4
starchy4
89prevent1412prevent655
prevents429
preventing167
prevented79
prevention57
preventive14
preventative9
preventable2
90hair1406hair1045
hairs284
hairy39
haired38
91gland1392gland747
glands639
glandular6
92store1378stored574
storage413
store204
stores154
storing33
93mutate1362mutation830
mutations414
mutated92
mutate21
mutates2
mutational2
mutating1
94organ1352organs771
organ581
95nerve1351nerve1182
nerves169
96stem1348stem1090
stems243
stemmed15
97vein1329vein845
veins483
veined1
98bind1312bind451
binds353
binding310
bound192
unbound6
99combine1305recombinant308
combine201
combinations195
combination176
combined167
combines154
recombination39
combining32
recombine24
recombined5
recombines3
recombinations1
100kidney1278kidney777
kidneys501
101code1271code490
codes362
coding294
coded125
102site1270site897
sites371
sited2
103response1244response1028
responses206
responsive5
responsiveness3
unresponsive2
104receptor1241receptor650
receptors591
105individual1237individuals697
individual529
individually11
106male1210male1059
males151
107synthesis1180synthesis746
synthesised152
synthesise141
synthesises44
synthesized38
synthesize25
synthesising23
synthesizes8
synthesizing2
synth1
108impulse1178impulses923
impulse255
109link1174linked442
link420
links112
linkage104
linking37
linkages31
linker13
interlinked8
linkers4
unlinked3
110skin1149skin1134
skins9
skinned6
111cytoplasm1133cytoplasm1132
cytoplasms1
112sex1129sex581
sexual430
sexually102
sexes15
sexing1
113female1117female949
females168
114phenotype1116phenotype645
phenotypes471
115pollen1115pollen1109
pollens6
116continue1108continuous474
continues197
continue191
continuously88
continued63
continually35
continuity24
continual16
continuing15
continuation5
117transpire1107transpiration1094
transpiring7
transpire3
transpires2
transpired1
118sperm1103sperm775
sperms328
119short1087short748
shorter148
shorten45
shortest41
shortage38
shortness27
shortening15
shortened11
shortens10
shortages4
120contract1080contract691
contracts271
contracting82
contracted36
121carbohydrate1078carbohydrates652
carbohydrate426
122seed1071seeds616
seed368
seedlings49
seedling29
seeded6
seedless3
123urine1069urine870
urinary175
urination13
urinate5
urinating5
urinated1
124eye1062eye784
eyes268
eyed10
125convert1045converted549
convert276
converts163
converting54
converters3
126characteristic1038characteristics656
characteristic382
127treat1030treatment462
treated223
treat147
untreated94
treating54
treatments42
treats3
untreatable3
treatable2
128antibody1028antibodies765
antibody263
129division1014division906
divisions108
130reproduce1012reproduction664
reproduce251
reproducing44
reproduced27
reproduces20
reproducible5
reproducibility1
131maintain1006maintain456
maintained185
maintains141
maintaining115
maintenance109
132polypeptide1005polypeptide685
polypeptides320
133infect1003infection325
infected285
infections145
infectious126
infect48
infects32
uninfected23
infecting9
infective8
noninfectious1
reinfect1
134pollinate997pollination616
pollinated333
pollinating20
pollinate16
pollinators7
pollinator4
pollinates1
135stimulate994stimulates394
stimulated215
stimulate178
stimulating138
stimulation65
stimulatory4
136layer994layer835
layers149
layered8
layering2
137nucleotide992nucleotides597
nucleotide395
138ventricle987ventricle659
ventricles328
139mitochondria980mitochondria571
mitochondrion316
mitochondrial93
140chloroplast965chloroplasts558
chloroplast407
141surround964surrounding482
surrounded230
surroundings137
surrounds78
surround37
142transmit963transmission375
transmitted294
transmits110
transmit108
transmitter48
transmitting26
transmissible2
143nitrogen951nitrogen676
nitrogenous275
144strand946strand614
strands332
145intestine938intestine691
intestinal152
intestines95
146waste906waste672
wastes163
wasted34
wastage21
wasteful12
wasting3
waster1
147haemoglobin897haemoglobin894
haemoglobins3
148virus893virus521
viruses372
149resist892resistance465
resistant365
resist37
resists11
resisted5
resisting4
resistances3
nonresistant2
150fibre892fibres536
fibre227
fibrous115
fibers11
fiber3
151egg892egg670
eggs222
152thick886thick425
thicker145
thickness137
thickened56
thicken47
thickening37
thickens26
thickest10
thickly2
thicknesses1
153brain876brain860
brains16
154stoma874stomata660
stoma214
155green871green863
greenish8
156inside870inside869
insides1
157permeable864permeable648
permeability152
impermeable61
permeabilities2
impermeability1
158generation864generation701
generations163
159mineral859mineral721
minerals138
160intense859intensity726
intensities85
intense22
intensive15
intensively5
intensely4
intensifies1
intensify1
161ribosome857ribosomes482
ribosome298
ribosomal77
162alveolar849alveoli480
alveolus254
alveolar115
163label842labelled452
label277
labeled48
labels33
labelling28
labeling2
unlabelled2
164nutrient836nutrients655
nutrient181
165adapt832adapted417
adaptations163
adaptation94
adapt77
adaptive43
adapts15
adaptable9
adaptability4
adapting4
adaption3
adaptor2
adapter1
166regulate799regulation210
regulate157
regulatory106
regulating81
regulated75
regulates66
regulator54
regulators38
regulations8
unregulated4
167organic798organic589
inorganic209
168phosphate794phosphate705
phosphates89
169excess773excess548
excessive212
excessively11
excesses2
170excrete766excretion310
excretory223
excreted182
excrete30
excretes15
excreting6
171insect760insect400
insects360
172grain759grains519
grain237
grained3
173attach759attached451
attach111
attaches95
attachment77
attaching21
attachments4
174complex758complex658
complexes80
complexity12
complexed8
175breed756breeding399
breed143
bred67
interbreed56
interbreeding28
breeders23
breeds22
breeder11
interbred6
interbreeds1
176valve751valves408
valve342
bivalve1
177relax750relax443
relaxes122
relaxed68
relaxation67
relaxing45
relaxations5
178replicate748replication511
replicate89
replicates77
replicated67
replicating3
replications1
179microscope746microscope576
microscopic76
microscopes60
microscopy28
microscopical5
microscopically1
180cancer744cancer629
cancerous59
cancers56
181inhibit738inhibitor247
inhibition130
inhibits112
inhibitors87
inhibit62
inhibited40
inhibitory32
inhibiting21
uninhibited5
inhibitions2
182plasmid734plasmid500
plasmids234
183nervous732nervous731
nervousness1
184observe726observed346
observations138
observation119
observe79
observable22
observing15
observes5
observer2
185immune724immune428
immunity261
immunisation22
immunised7
immuno4
immunisations1
immunise1
186survive720survive405
survival227
surviving50
survived21
survives11
survivors3
survivor2
survivability1
187inherit720inheritance323
inherited269
inherit75
inherits29
inheriting22
inheritances2
188atrium716atrium421
atria223
atrial72
189daughter704daughter676
daughters28
190stimulus701stimulus533
stimuli168
191line694line480
lines147
lined67
192copy690copies304
copy287
copied76
copying23
193ovary680ovary447
ovaries203
ovarian30
194thin678thin552
thinner109
thinnest4
thinning4
thins4
thinness3
thinly2
195transcript663transcription625
transcriptional25
transcript10
transcripts3
196circulate663circulation316
circulatory270
circulating20
circulate19
circulates17
circulated16
circulations5
197smoke658smoke281
smoking223
smokers75
smoker40
smoked28
smokes11
198homology655homologous633
homology20
homologies2
199breathe654breathing525
breathe65
breathed44
breathes20
200limit651limiting314
limited124
limit78
limits72
limitations27
limitation15
ltd15
unlimited5
limitless1
201identical646identical643
identically3
202antigen642antigen326
antigens291
antigenic25
203spine640spinal630
spine8
spines1
spiny1
204tubule626tubule431
tubules195
205activate625activation265
activated156
activates86
activate54
activator25
activating13
activators12
inactivation10
reactivated3
reactivate1
206drug624drug321
drugs303
207sun617sunlight430
sun153
sunny28
sunshine3
sunnier1
sunniest1
suns1
208embryo616embryo509
embryos107
209dissolve615dissolved392
dissolve138
dissolves72
dissolving13
210multiple608multiple605
multiples3
211cord605cord595
cords10
212reflex602reflex560
reflexes42
213stomach600stomach592
stomachs8
214chlorophyll600chlorophyll583
chlorophylls17
215pigment599pigment302
pigments260
pigmented22
pigmentation15
216pump594pump285
pumped176
pumps105
pumping27
pumper1
217content594content349
contents245
218catalyse592catalysed201
catalyse175
catalyses149
catalysing19
catalytic18
catalyzed12
catalyze7
catalyzes7
catalyzing4
219heterozygous588heterozygous542
heterozygote46
220mammal587mammals306
mammalian164
mammal117
221homozygote587homozygous573
homozygote14
222ecosystem583ecosystem476
ecosystems107
223axon579axon482
axons97
224health573healthy298
health254
healthier14
healthiest3
unhealthy3
healthily1
225chance572chance433
chances139
226cellular569cellular365
intercellular106
extracellular51
intracellular47
227special564specialised276
special178
specialized41
specially25
specialise15
specialisation14
specialist7
specialises2
specialising2
specialization2
specialisations1
specialists1
228damage562damage286
damaged202
damaging41
damages25
undamaged8
229metabolic555metabolic541
metabolically14
230aerobics553aerobic530
aerobically23
231mechanism552mechanism363
mechanisms189
232sweat549sweat435
sweating109
sweats4
sweaty1
233complement548complementary531
complement17
234fuse543fusion207
fuse171
fuses117
fused33
fusing15
235stigma537stigma419
stigmas118
236antibiotic531antibiotic286
antibiotics245
237trait527trait291
traits236
238lipid525lipids334
lipid191
239pancreas522pancreas513
pancreases9
240lining519lining511
linings8
241adrenaline517adrenaline353
adrenal164
242duct514duct385
ducts101
ductless27
ducted1
243follicle511follicle380
follicles131
244modify508modified358
modification55
modifies28
modifications24
modify22
unmodified11
modifying10
246menstruate500menstrual308
menstruation187
menstruating2
premenstrual2
menstruations1
247filter500filtrate221
filter106
filtered94
filtration52
filters19
filtering7
unfiltered1
248diabetes500diabetes409
diabetic71
diabetics20
249anaerobic500anaerobic466
anaerobically34
250circle499circular419
circle50
circles21
circled3
encircle2
semicircular2
encircled1
encircling1
251guard497guard496
guarded1
252restrict496restriction403
restricted31
restricts19
restrict17
restrictive11
restricting9
restrictions6
253detect484detect189
detected164
detects60
detection37
detecting21
detectable5
detector4
detective1
detectors1
undetectable1
undetected1
254reproductive483reproductive452
reproductively31
255fragment483fragments322
fragment153
fragmented4
fragmentation3
fragmenting1
256arteriole483arteriole249
arterioles234
257contraction473contraction377
contractions96
258potato472potato439
potatoes33
259clot470clotting257
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260dark465dark365
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261pyramid461pyramid378
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262uterus460uterus456
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263pull458pull221
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264insert452inserted245
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265biological451biological444
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266milk447milk423
milky18
milking6
267biology447biology387
biologists53
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268zygote441zygote396
zygotic28
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269epithelial440epithelial233
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270sieve438sieve436
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271saturate434saturated254
unsaturated115
saturation64
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272lymphocyte433lymphocytes315
lymphocyte117
lymphocytic1
273pupil432pupil394
pupils38
274vesicle428vesicles283
vesicle145
275decompose424decomposers184
decomposition114
decomposer40
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276saliva423salivary217
saliva206
277codon423codon314
anticodon109
278mature421mature276
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279ovum420ovum339
ova81
280sap413sap410
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281eukaryotic413eukaryotic309
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282harm406harmful273
harmless70
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283fruit404fruit266
fruits134
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284synapse398synapse234
synapses164
285respirator398respiratory398
286anther398anther240
anthers158
287translate394translation316
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288polymerase394polymerase374
polymerases20
289mother388mother363
mothers25
290diet387diet326
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291brown382brown375
browning3
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292closed381closed219
closing82
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293shoot377shoot289
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294branch377branch135
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295smooth372smooth356
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296habitat372habitat231
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297cavity372cavity359
cavities13
298pathogen367pathogens211
pathogen156
299block364block115
blocks81
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300envelope360envelope324
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301spindle359spindle348
spindles11
302evolution359evolution266
evolutionary93
303coat359coat289
coated37
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coating8
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304filament358filament183
filaments172
filamentous3
305retina357retina350
retinal6
retinas1
306phospholipid355phospholipid228
phospholipids127
307phagocyte353phagocytes162
phagocytosis135
phagocyte56
308endoplasm353endoplasmic350
endoplasm3
309bladder344bladder343
bladders1
310mucus342mucus295
mucous47
311mouse341mouse182
mice159
312juice341juice312
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313connect341connective90
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314boil341boiling178
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315purple339purple329
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316tall337tall315
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317capsule334capsule315
capsules19
318tail333tail208
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319lumen333lumen331
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320placenta332placenta320
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321villus328villi183
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322genome327genome236
genomes49
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323denature327denatured240
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324canal327canal323
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325trap323trap126
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326ovulate322ovulation314
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327germinate320germination157
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germinate58
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328bird319birds202
bird117
329microorganism318microorganisms280
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330helix318helix242
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331bubble318bubbles200
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332accept313acceptor93
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333dead311dead303
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334strip308strip186
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335solute303solute197
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336fungus302fungi185
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fungal30
337accumulate297accumulate110
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338oxygenate296oxygenated288
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339template292template270
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340ovule289ovule239
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341bone289bone191
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342yeast288yeast282
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343sac280sac162
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344trachea279trachea277
tracheal2
345mouth279mouth277
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346turgid278turgid193
turgidity85
347distil274distilled273
distillation1
348iris272iris268
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349pore271pores152
pore119
350hybrid271hybrid142
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351fold269folded127
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352rough267rough234
roughly24
roughage7
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353sister266sister256
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354vitamin265vitamin160
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355therapy265therapy256
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356fetus264fetus263
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357loop262loop198
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358sticky261sticky258
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359coil261coiled139
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360artificial260artificial234
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361pregnant257pregnancy179
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362humid257humidity223
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363petal256petals183
petal73
364grey252grey246
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365peptide251peptide231
peptides20
366stranded248stranded247
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367testes247testes136
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368triplet245triplet170
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369fur244fur231
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370predator242predators116
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371anaemia240anaemia222
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372bundle239bundle134
bundles100
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373grass237grass202
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374diverse237diversity220
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diversely1
375want235want118
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376facilitate235facilitated125
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377exhale233exhaled123
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378coordinate233coordination99
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379inject231injected76
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380inhale231inhaled107
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381bronchus230bronchi123
bronchus98
bronchial9
382lipase228lipase198
lipases30
383asexual227asexual200
asexually27
384toxin226toxins119
toxin92
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385vena224vena210
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386vagina223vagina205
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387relay223relay211
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388flat222flattened86
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389implant221implantation146
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390pea220pea180
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391urethra219urethra218
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392sponge219spongy212
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393nutrition218nutrition180
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394insecticide218insecticides139
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395blind217blind122
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396passive216passive197
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397burst211burst101
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398dilate208dilate97
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399biodiversity208biodiversity206
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400oviduct207oviduct162
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401protease206protease150
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402bath206bath194
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403constrict205constrict85
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404chamber205chamber105
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405toxic203toxic196
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406neurotransmitter202neurotransmitter101
neurotransmitters101
407discontinuous200discontinuous196
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408translocate199translocation177
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409donor198donor173
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410hydrolyse195hydrolysed97
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411repair193repair169
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412gel193gel190
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413protoplasm192protoplasm190
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414slide191slide129
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415abiotic191abiotic102
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416ureter190ureter168
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417strain189strain107
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418messenger186messenger170
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419locus186locus112
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420node185node128
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421albino184albino105
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422rabbit183rabbits123
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423sheath182sheath175
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424rib182ribs123
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425bud182bud80
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426breath182breath107
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427wilt178wilting88
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428wild175wild173
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429herbivore170herbivores109
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430vigorous169vigorous133
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431dwarf166dwarf164
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432deficiency165deficiency132
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434stamen164stamens96
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435swell161swell53
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436disorder161disorder89
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437haemophilia159haemophilia127
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438enclose159enclosed79
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439lactate156lactate150
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440specimen155specimen115
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441cuticle155cuticle150
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442pesticide154pesticides123
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443transplant153transplant59
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444radial153radial147
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445prey153prey141
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446suspend152suspension94
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447pest152pests99
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448mutant150mutant143
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449carnivore150carnivores81
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450abnormal150abnormal113
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451pink149pink148
pinkish1
452peristalsis148peristalsis128
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453oesophagus148oesophagus137
esophagus9
oesophageal2
454gut148gut143
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455parasite147parasite63
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parasitic28
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456nicotine146nicotine140
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457limb145limb107
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458erect145erector100
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460ferment143fermentation128
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461ethical143ethical129
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462cat141cat85
cats56
463leg139leg75
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464caterpillar139caterpillars81
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465chronic135chronic134
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466assorted133assortment131
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467pill132pill96
pills36
468ligament131ligaments101
ligament30
469ligase130ligase128
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470dim130dim116
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471sterile128sterile79
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472defect124defective86
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473breast124breast110
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474probe121probe63
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475extinct121extinction73
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476cow121cows62
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477seal120seal59
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478gall119gall111
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479biochemical119biochemical113
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biochemically1
480multicell118multicellular118
481voluntary117voluntary115
voluntarily2
482moth117moths65
moth52
483fixate116fixation116
484endometrium116endometrium108
endometrial7
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485dorsal116dorsal114
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486feather115feathery68
feathers38
feather9
487cervix115cervix104
cervical11
488onion113onion107
onions6
489dendron110dendron75
dendrons35
490agglutinate110agglutination75
agglutinate27
agglutinating4
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491recipient109recipient101
recipients8
492cloud106cloudy97
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cloud2
493tar103tar101
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494ancestor103ancestor44
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ancestors17
495emulsify102emulsification30
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496tongue100tongue98
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497snake100snake58
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498assimilate99assimilation57
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499wax97waxy75
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500hypotonia97hypotonic97
501hollow97hollow94
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502carpel97carpel71
carpels26
503dendrite90dendrites48
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504bark90bark88
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505homeostatic89homeostatic88
homeostatically1
506rat87rat50
rats36
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507pelvis87pelvis84
pelvic3
508squeeze85squeeze55
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509tuber83tubers50
tuber33
510chest82chest81
chests1
511eutrophic81eutrophication81
512dehydrogenased81dehydrogenase81
513periphery79peripheral72
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514engulf79engulf39
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engulfs14
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engulfment1
515compact78compact70
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compactness3
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516flagellum77flagellum52
flagella25
517fatal77fatal65
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518antagonist76antagonistic59
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519autosome74autosomal60
autosome14
520confer73confer41
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conferring10
conferred5
521transfuse72transfusion47
transfusions20
transfusing2
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transfuse1
522tomato72tomato51
tomatoes21
523dermis67dermis65
dermal2
524chiasm65chiasma64
chiasm1
525nose62nose58
noses3
nosed1
527grasshopper59grasshopper44
grasshoppers15
528ganglion59ganglion48
ganglia11



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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 21 November 2021.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.



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