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The Nursing Collocation List (NCL)Common collocations in nursing journal articles

This page describes the Nursing Collocation List (NCL), explaining what it is, how it differs from the Academic Collocation List (ACL), plus a full list of collocations in the NCL.

What is the NCL?

The Nursing Collocation List (NCL) is a list of 488 collocations which occur frequently in nursing journal articles. It was developed in 2020 by Kaja Mandić and Izabela Dankić using the nursing scientific article corpus (NSAC), which consisted of 1.1 million words drawn from 262 nursing articles, from ten prominent nursing journals, all published in 2017 or 2018.

Mandić and Dankić focused only on two word collocations, since these were the most common in the ACL. While originally considering all lexical collocations, they narrowed their search down to noun-adjective and noun-noun collocations, since these were the most common in nursing articles. The 488 collocations identified by their study comprise 254 adjective-noun collocations (52.1% of the total), and 234 noun-noun collocations (47.9%).


Mandić, K. and Dankić, I. (2020). 'Collocations of high frequency words in nursing research articles and The Academic Collocation List: Similarities and differences', ExELL. 8(1):1-13. DOI:10.2478/exell-2020-0011.

The Nursing Collocation List

The 488 collocations in the NCL are listed below. The list is presented alphabetically.

There is another version of the list organised by headword, which may be more useful for study.

1action researchn+n
2acute careadj+n
3adverse effectadj+n
4age groupn+n
5age rangen+n
6alcohol abusen+n
7alcohol consumptionn+n
8annual reviewadj+n
9anxiety levelsn+n
10assessment toolsn+n
11available dataadj+n
12average scoreadj+n
13behavior patternn+n
14bipolar disorderadj+n
15blood pressuren+n
16blood sugarn+n
17body compositionn+n
18body imagen+n
19body languagen+n
20body weightn+n
21BPA concentrationsn+n
22breast cancern+n
23brief reviewadj+n
24broad rangeadj+n
25cancer caren+n
26cancer centersn+n
27cancer diagnosisn+n
28cancer nursen+n
29cancer nursingn+n
30cancer patientsn+n
31cancer screeningn+n
32cancer survivorn+n
33cancer treatmentn+n
34cardiovascular diseaseadj+n
35care activitiesn+n
36care environmentn+n
37care facilityn+n
38care homesn+n
39care managementn+n
40care plansn+n
41care providersn+n
42care provisionn+n
43care recipientn+n
44care servicesn+n
45care staffn+n
46care systemsn+n
47care teamn+n
48care unitsn+n
49case studyn+n
50cervical canceradj+n
51chemotherapy administrationn+n
52chest injuriesn+n
53children's hospicen+n
54chronic conditionadj+n
55chronic diseasesadj+n
56chronic illnessadj+n
57chronic painadj+n
58chronic woundsadj+n
59clinical careadj+n
60clinical communityadj+n
61clinical decision-makingadj+n
62clinical educationadj+n
63clinical experienceadj+n
64clinical nursesadj+n
65clinical nursingadj+n
66clinical outcomesadj+n
67clinical placementadj+n
68clinical practiceadj+n
69clinical reasoningadj+n
70clinical staffadj+n
71clinical trialsadj+n
72cognitive deficitsadj+n
73cognitive functionadj+n
74cognitive impairmentsadj+n
75cognitive performanceadj+n
76collective actionadj+n
77communication strategiesn+n
78community caren+n
79community nursesn+n
80community settingsn+n
81comparative analysisadj+n
82conceptual frameworkadj+n
83consultation modelsn+n
84continence caren+n
85control groupn+n
86coping strategyadj+n
87coworker supportn+n
88critical analysisadj+n
89critical thinkingadj+n
90cultural backgroundadj+n
91cultural differencesadj+n
92current researchadj+n
93daily activitiesadj+n
94data analysisn+n
95data collectionn+n
96data extractionn+n
97data saturationn+n
98dementia caren+n
99demographic characteristicsadj+n
100demographic dataadj+n
101dependent variableadj+n
102depression scalen+n
103descriptive statisticsadj+n
104diabetes patientsn+n
105direct careadj+n
106DNA samplingn+n
107eating disordersn+n
108education leveln+n
109educational programmeadj+n
110educational qualificationadj+n
111elderly canceradj+n
112elderly patientsadj+n
113eligibility criterian+n
114emergency departmentn+n
115emergency roomn+n
116emotional distressadj+n
117emotional exhaustionadj+n
118emotional intelligenceadj+n
119emotional supportadj+n
120empirical researchadj+n
121empirical studyadj+n
122erectile dysfunctionadj+n
123essential roleadj+n
124ethical approvaladj+n
125ethics committeen+n
126ethnic groupadj+n
127exclusion criterian+n
128experimental designadj+n
129expert nurseadj+n
130eye contactn+n
131facial expressionsadj+n
132family caren+n
133family caregiversn+n
134family membersn+n
135family supportn+n
136final analysisadj+n
137focus groupsn+n
138foetal abnormalitiesadj+n
139foot caren+n
140future researchadj+n
141future studyadj+n
142gender differencesn+n
143general healthadj+n
144general hospitaladj+n
145general populationadj+n
146general practitionersadj+n
147graduate nurseadj+n
148great impactadj+n
149gynecological canceradj+n
150health caren+n
151health conditionn+n
152health educationn+n
153health informationn+n
154health insurancen+n
155health issuesn+n
156health organizationn+n
157health outcomesn+n
158health policyn+n
159health problemsn+n
160health promotionn+n
161health researchn+n
162health sciencesn+n
163health servicen+n
164health statusn+n
165health systemsn+n
166health wardsn+n
167healthcare costsn+n
168healthcare encountersn+n
169healthcare environmentn+n
170healthcare organizationsn+n
171healthcare personneln+n
172healthcare professionaln+n
173healthcare providersn+n
174healthcare servicesn+n
175healthcare settingsn+n
176healthcare staffn+n
177healthcare systemn+n
178healthcare teamn+n
179heart diseasen+n
180heart failuren+n
181heart raten+n
182home caren+n
183hospital admissionn+n
184hospital caren+n
185hospital environmentn+n
186hospital nursesn+n
187hospital settingn+n
188hospital staffn+n
189hospital stayn+n
190hot flushesadj+n
191human researchadj+n
192human resourceadj+n
193ICU nursen+n
194ICU patientn+n
195important aspectsadj+n
196inclusion criterian+n
197independent variableadj+n
198individual leveladj+n
199individual needsadj+n
200informal caregiversadj+n
201information sharingn+n
202information sheetn+n
203insertion painn+n
204intellectual disabilityadj+n
205intensive careadj+n
206interdisciplinary collaborationadj+n
207internal conflictadj+n
208international journaladj+n
209international studyadj+n
210joint painn+n
211key conceptadj+n
212key findingsadj+n
213key roleadj+n
214leading causeadj+n
215learning environmentsn+n
216learning strategyn+n
217limited informationadj+n
218literature reviewn+n
219low leveladj+n
220low scoreadj+n
221lower frequencyadj+n
222lower ratesadj+n
223lung cancern+n
224main categoryadj+n
225major causeadj+n
226major changeadj+n
227male caregiversadj+n
228management strategiesn+n
229managerial competenceadj+n
230manual restraintadj+n
231marital statusadj+n
232maternity leaven+n
233mean scoreadj+n
234median ageadj+n
235medical careadj+n
236medical centersadj+n
237medical comorbidityadj+n
238medical conditionadj+n
239medical recordadj+n
240medical researchadj+n
241medical staffadj+n
242medical studentadj+n
243medical treatmentadj+n
244medical unitsadj+n
245medication adherencen+n
246medication preparationn+n
247medication safetyn+n
248mental disorderadj+n
249mental healthadj+n
250mental healthcareadj+n
251mental illnessadj+n
252mortality raten+n
253multidisciplinary teamadj+n
254negative attitudeadj+n
255negative effectadj+n
256negative impactadj+n
257numerous studiesadj+n
258nurse assessmentn+n
259nurse assistantn+n
260nurse associationn+n
261nurse burnoutn+n
262nurse caren+n
263nurse competencen+n
264nurse educatorn+n
265nurse interventionn+n
266nurse leadersn+n
267nurse managersn+n
268nurse practitionern+n
269nurse reportn+n
270nurse researchn+n
271nurse specialistsn+n
272nursing activitiesn+n
273nursing assessmentn+n
274nursing caren+n
275nursing curriculumn+n
276nursing educationn+n
277nursing homesn+n
278nursing interventionsn+n
279nursing journalsn+n
280nursing managementn+n
281nursing practicen+n
282nursing professionn+n
283nursing researchn+n
284nursing rolesn+n
285nursing schoolsn+n
286nursing staffn+n
287nursing studentn+n
288occasional tirednessadj+n
289oncology nursen+n
290oncology nursingn+n
291oncology patientsn+n
292online versionadj+n
293open accessadj+n
294original workadj+n
295outcome measuresn+n
296outpatient servicen+n
297outpatient utilizationn+n
298ovarian canceradj+n
299pain assessmentn+n
300pain managementn+n
301pain rehabilitationn+n
302palliative treatmentadj+n
303pancreatic canceradj+n
304parental canceradj+n
305parental roleadj+n
306patient caren+n
307patient characteristicsn+n
308patient educationn+n
309patient experiencesn+n
310patient needsn+n
311patient outcomesn+n
312patient populationn+n
313patient safetyn+n
314patient satisfactionn+n
315pediatric careadj+n
316peer supportn+n
317personal careadj+n
318pharmacological interventionsadj+n
319phenomenological analysisadj+n
320physical activityadj+n
321physical careadj+n
322physical environmentadj+n
323physical exerciseadj+n
324physical healthadj+n
325physical restraintsadj+n
326physical symptomadj+n
327pilot studyadj+n
328poor communicationadj+n
329positive attitudeadj+n
330positive effectadj+n
331positive experienceadj+n
332positive impactadj+n
333positive outcomeadj+n
334postoperative careadj+n
335postpartum depressionadj+n
336potential riskadj+n
337prenatal careadj+n
338preoperative careadj+n
339preoperative nurseadj+n
340preoperative protocoladj+n
341present studyadj+n
342preterm infantsadj+n
343previous researchadj+n
344previous studyadj+n
345primary careadj+n
346primary dataadj+n
347primary healthcareadj+n
348professional bodyadj+n
349professional careadj+n
350professional developmentadj+n
351professional experienceadj+n
352professional practiceadj+n
353professional statusadj+n
354professional supportadj+n
355professional workadj+n
356prostate cancern+n
357psychological distressadj+n
358psychological empowermentadj+n
359psychological symptomsadj+n
360public healthadj+n
361pulmonary diseaseadj+n
362qualitative analysisadj+n
363qualitative approachadj+n
364qualitative dataadj+n
365qualitative designadj+n
366qualitative methodadj+n
367qualitative methodologiesadj+n
368qualitative researchadj+n
369qualitative studyadj+n
370quality appraisaladj+n
371quality assessmentadj+n
372quality indicatorsadj+n
373quality outcomesadj+n
374quantitative dataadj+n
375random sampleadj+n
376rapid responseadj+n
377rating scalen+n
378recent studyadj+n
379rehabilitation clinicn+n
380relevant factorsadj+n
381report findingsn+n
382research assistantn+n
383research ethicsn+n
384research evidencen+n
385research fellown+n
386research findingsn+n
387research methodn+n
388research methodologyn+n
389research projectn+n
390research topicn+n
391residential careadj+n
392respiratory rateadj+n
393risk assessmentn+n
394risk factorsn+n
395role modelsn+n
396safety vestsn+n
397sampling methodsn+n
398scientific researchadj+n
399secondary careadj+n
400secondary dataadj+n
401sectional studyadj+n
402service deliveryn+n
403service providersn+n
404service usern+n
405sexual activityadj+n
406sexual healthadj+n
407sexual orientationadj+n
408shared decisionadj+n
409shared experienceadj+n
410shift workn+n
411side effectsadj+n
412significant amountadj+n
413significant correlationadj+n
414significant differenceadj+n
415significant effectadj+n
416significant impactadj+n
417significant improvementadj+n
418significant relationshipadj+n
419sleep behaviorsn+n
420sleep conditionsn+n
421sleep disordern+n
422sleep disturbancen+n
423sleep durationn+n
424sleep patternsn+n
425sleep qualityn+n
426small percentageadj+n
427social activityadj+n
428social careadj+n
429social contactadj+n
430social functionadj+n
431social interactionadj+n
432social organizationadj+n
433social statusadj+n
434social welfareadj+n
435social workeradj+n
436socioeconomic statusadj+n
437staff membersn+n
438staff trainingn+n
439standard deviationsadj+n
440statistical analysisadj+n
441statistical significanceadj+n
442stem cellsadj+n
443stress leveln+n
444stroke patientn+n
445student nursen+n
446study designn+n
447study findingsn+n
448study limitationsn+n
449study methodsn+n
450study participantsn+n
451study periodn+n
452study samplen+n
453support programmeadj+n
454surgical patientsadj+n
455systematic studyadj+n
456target audiencen+n
457theoretical frameworkadj+n
458time framen+n
459time periodn+n
460total incomeadj+n
461total numberadj+n
462total scoreadj+n
463training coursen+n
464training programmen+n
465training sessionsn+n
466traumatic stressadj+n
467treatment optionsn+n
468undergraduate nurseadj+n
469university hospitaln+n
470urinary incontinenceadj+n
471urinary tractadj+n
472usual careadj+n
473vaginal deliveryadj+n
474vast numberadj+n
475verbal communicationadj+n
476vital signsadj+n
477weight gainn+n
478weight lossn+n
479wide rangeadj+n
480wide variationadj+n
481work experiencen+n
482work practicen+n
483working conditionsadj+n
484working environmentadj+n
485workplace violencen+n
486younger generationadj+n


Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 29 May 2021.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

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