Writing skills Hedging, describing data, etc.


This section covers various skills needed for good academic writing.


Paraphrasing

Paraphrasing

In academic writing, you will need to use other writer's ideas to support your own. The most common way to do this is by using paraphrase.

In academic writing, you will need to use other writer's ideas to support your own. The most common way to do this is by using paraphrase.
Creating cohesion

Creating cohesion

Cohesion is what makes writing cohere or 'stick together', for example via the use of transition signals, references words or repeated words.

Cohesion is what makes writing cohere or 'stick together', for example via the use of transition signals, references words or repeated words.
Hedging

Hedging

Hedging, also called cautious language, is a way of softening the language by making the claims or conclusions less absolute.

Hedging, also called cautious language, is a way of softening the language by making the claims or conclusions less absolute.
Describing data

Describing data

Describing data from graphs, tables or other sources requires certain grammar and vocabulary structures.

Describing data from graphs, tables or other sources requires certain grammar and vocabulary structures.
Writing numbers

Writing numbers

Understand when to use numbers in academic writing and when to use numerals, and some exceptions to the rule.

Understand when to use numbers in academic writing and when to use numerals, and some exceptions to the rule.
Using complex grammar

Using complex grammar

Good writing requires an appropriate mix of different types of sentence, using both simple and complex grammar (e.g. noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverbial clauses).

Good writing requires an appropriate mix of different types of sentence, using both simple and complex grammar (e.g. noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverbial clauses).
Using passive voice

Using passive voice

Academic writing is more objective than ordinary writing, and uses a greater amount of passive voice (e.g. noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverbial clauses).

Academic writing is more objective than ordinary writing, and uses a greater amount of passive voice (e.g. noun clauses, adjective clauses and adverbial clauses).
Writing critically

Writing critically

Critical writing is writing which analyses and evaluates information, usually from multiple sources, in order to develop an argument.

Critical writing is writing which analyses and evaluates information, usually from multiple sources, in order to develop an argument.


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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 27 February 2021.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of EAPFoundation.com. He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.



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