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Note-taking Making notes from texts

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Note-taking for reading has many areas in common with note-taking when listening, for example the need to identify main ideas, to distinguish main from supporting details, to make your notes clear and concise, and to be sure about your purpose before you begin note-taking. There are, however, some important differences, such as the need to skim for main ideas before reading and to be critical while reading and making notes. This page considers the basics of note-taking while reading.

For another look at the same content, check out the reading and note-taking infographic ».

Basics of note-taking

Below are some tips for making effective notes from reading texts. These include actions to take before making notes (points 1-4), while making notes (points 5-9) and after making notes (point 10).

Before note-taking
  1. Be clear about your purpose. This will affect not only how but how much of the text you read. Reading for an assignment will probably need quite detailed notes, though perhaps for only part of the text; in contrast, reading to prepare for a lecture might result in much briefer notes, with a list of key vocabulary.
  2. Be a critical reader. This starts before you begin reading by making judgements about the author, the intended audience and how trustworthy the source is. This information could potentially reveal that the text is one you should not be reading or making notes for.
  3. Survey or skim through the text first. This will help you to get a general idea of the text, which makes taking notes easier. You may also find that only part of the text relates to your purpose, in which case you can engage in selective note-taking by making notes for only a section of the text.
  4. Read the text actively. This means engaging with the text in order to understand what it contains, for example by highlighting key words and phrases, making annotations in the margin, testing yourself as you read, or reading critically by asking questions about the text.

During note-taking
  1. Make a note of the source. It is best to put this at the top of the first page, with full details of the author, title, year of publication, etc. This is especially important if you plan to use this text in your writing, as you will need to cite it to avoid plagiarism. It is much easier to make a note of source details before you begin note-taking than to try to find the text again later.
  2. Make a note of the main points, using an appropriate style. You will need to decide what style of notes, either linear or pattern notes, best suits the text and your own preferences. Using colour or highlighting can also help to make your notes more memorable.
  3. Keep your notes clear and concise. Pay attention to transition signals as you read in order to understand the connection between ideas, for example a cause/effect relationship, comparison, contrast, etc. Remember also that these are notes, so keep them brief, with enough space so you can add more detail later.
  4. Try to use your own words. This will not only help you understand the meaning, but will also assist you in avoiding plagiarism if you use the information in your own writing later.
  5. Make sure your notes clearly distinguish between ideas in the text and your own ideas. If you have read critically and added annotations, you will probably want to include these in your notes. However, you need to make a clear distinction between the writer's ideas and your own, especially when you are using the information in your writing.

After note-taking
  1. File the notes carefully. You will probably want to be able to access the notes later, so make sure you are able to. If they are hand-written notes, this means filing them in a physical folder or keeping them in a well organised notebook. If they are electronic notes, they should be filed in a logical folder on your computer.


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Below is a checklist for taking notes, based on the ideas above. Use it to help guide you in your note-taking, or to check someone else's notes.

Timing Item OK? Comment
Before note-taking I have a clear purpose for making notes.
I have used critical reading skills such as considering who the author is and how reliable the source is.
I have surveyed the text or skimmed through it to understand the main points.
I have read the text actively, for example by underlining main points or making annotations in the margin.
During note-taking I have made a note of the source at the top of the page (name, title, etc.).
I have used an appropriate style (linear or pattern).
My notes are clear and concise.
I have used my own words.
The ideas of the writer are easily distinguishable from my own ideas.
After note-taking I have filed my notes for easy retrieval later.


Taylor, A., Reid, M., Turner, J. and Shahabudin, K. (n.d.) Making useful notes. Available at: (Access Date 20 December, 2016).

The University of Nottingham (n.d.) Studying Effectively. Available at: (Access Date 20 December, 2016).

Wallace, M.J. (1980) Study Skills in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

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Sheldon Smith

Author: Sheldon Smith    ‖    Last modified: 26 June 2021.

Sheldon Smith is the founder and editor of He has been teaching English for Academic Purposes since 2004. Find out more about him in the about section and connect with him on Twitter, Facebook and LinkedIn.

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